Journal of Forensic Identification

JFI Article Abstracts from 1998-2016 are available to view here at this time

Articles are in reverse chronological order — the most current year, volume, and issue are on the top of the list.

This page shows all articles from 1998-2016.

IAI members can view the entire articles by logging into the Member Area.

For information on submitting articles for publication in the JFI, please review the instructions for submitting your manuscript.


Re: Comparison of the Reagents SPR-W and Acid Yellow 7 for the Visualization of Blood Marks on a Dark Surface J. For. Ident. 2016, 66 (4) 289-302.

Author(s): Bouwmeester, M.; Leegwater, J.; de Puit, M.
Type: Correction
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Page 497
Abstract: On page 291 of the indicated article, the following erroneous statement appeared: "An article noted that the flammable solvents in lumicyano could interfere with DNA analysis [10]." The cited reference does not support that information and in fact indicates the complete opposite. The author and editor apologize for this error and thank Dr. Farrugia (author of the cited information) for bringing this error to our attention.

Verification

Author(s): Jennifer Ferraro
Type: Commentary
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 498-501
Abstract: Perhaps one of the most important processes in latent print identification, yet not often talked about, is the verification process. Verification is essentially the act of verifying something and can result in either the same conclusion or a different conclusion. In the latent print community, verification, or the "V" in ACE-V, is the act of another latent print examiner repeating the original latent print examiner’s comparison.

The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the different types of verification techniques that are used in the latent print community. Over the years, I have attended several classes that focused mainly on the comparison phase of ACE-V but touched very lightly on the subject of verification. After speaking with several latent print examiners, I realized that there are multiple types of verification techniques that are commonly used in the latent print community. I have often wondered why there is so little focus on something that is a key part of the fingerprint methodology.

Possible Effects of Insect Repellent on Decomposition

Author(s): Fasano, A. D.; Christensen, A. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 502-516
Abstract: Given the importance of time since death estimates in medicolegal investigations, it is critical for investigators to understand the myriad factors that may affect the postmortem changes that are often used to arrive at these estimates. Little is known about how decomposition rates are affected when the otherwise normal decomposition process is disrupted by the addition of chemicals. This report addresses the treatment of remains with the insect repellent DEET and its potential effect on decomposition rate as measured using total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD). Differences were seen in decomposition rate for two specimens treated with DEET compared to two untreated controls, possibly associated with inhibiting insect colonization. These observations suggest that DEET and other insect repellents may have an effect on decomposition rate and should be considered in time since death estimates in cases where the presence of insect repellent is detected or suspected.

CCTV Footage used to Link Suspect to Bloody Footwear Impression

Author(s): Yuk Ki Cheng
Type: Case Report
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 517-525
Abstract: This case report discusses how CCTV footage was used to link a suspect to a murder scene. Forensic video analysis revealed that the person in the CCTV footage wore a pair of sports shoes with an outsole pattern design that appeared to be the same as that of the bloody footwear impressions at the scene. The results of footwear impression and forensic video examination, and other circumstantial evidence, were sufficient to establish a prima facie case for a court hearing.

A Protocol for the Recovery of STR DNA from Fingerprints Developed on the Adhesive Side of Duct Tape

Author(s): Noureddine, M.; Bailey, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 527-535
Abstract: When adhesive tape becomes an item of physical evidence, the adhesive side can be examined for fingerprint impressions, hairs, fibers, paint, soil, and DNA. The use of a powder suspension method is effective in visualizing and documenting fingerprint impressions on the adhesive side of duct tape. Visible fingerprints, identifiable or not, can then be swabbed for recovering DNA evidence for identification purposes. This project demonstrates that fingerprints deposited on the adhesive side of duct tape can be recovered using nucleic acid-compatible solvents such as chloroform or heptane. COPAN 4N6 FLOQSwabs facilitated the solubilization of the adhesive and the absorption of the organic solvent containing the DNA sample. This protocol was effective in recovering the donor’s full STR DNA profile from fingerprints collected on duct tape over a period of 18 months.

Analysis of a Vehicle Serial Number Alteration Technique

Author(s): Tsach, T.; Finkelstein, N.; Volkov, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 536-546
Abstract: This paper describes the appearance and effects of a serial number alteration technique. The technique involves thermal treatment of the imprinted area. By locally melting the metal, a liquid metal pool is created in the imprint area that alters the metal's "memory". Existing chemical approaches (e.g., Fry’s reagent) to number restoration was ineffective in restoring numbers altered or obliterated by this technique.

Experimental Wood Chipper Trauma on Bone

Author(s): Domenick, K.; Christensen, A. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 547-559
Abstract: Wood chippers have been portrayed as a quick and effective method of disposing of a body, destroying features that could lead to identification, and aiding the perpetrator in avoiding detection. Wood chippers are also easily accessible at relatively little cost and have been used in actual cases of human dismemberment. Most of what is known about wood chipper trauma is based on popular media portrayals, a small handful of documented cases, and very few scientific studies. The following study attempts to better understand wood chipper trauma on the skeleton through an experiment in which five domestic pig (Sus scrofa) limbs were inserted into a home model wood chipper. Results suggest that wood chippers create a pattern of skeletal trauma that can be identified and associated with wood chippers in a forensic context. This pattern includes the production of bone fragments with the majority measuring approximately 3–6 mm, two-sided complete cuts creating roughly parallel-sided fragments, and other alterations that may be related to the type of wood chipper used. Combined with the failure to significantly reduce soft tissues and retention of material within the machine, results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, wood chippers are not an effective means of disposing of remains, and the recovery and identification of remains dismembered using a wood chipper is still possible.

New Lumicyano Kit: Comparison Studies with the First Generation and Effectiveness on Nonporous Substrates

Author(s): Bisotti, A.; Allain, C.; Georges, J.; Guichard, F.; Audebert, P.; Barbosa, I.; Galmiche, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 560-575
Abstract: Lumicyano is a fluorescent cyanoacrylate that allows a one-step development of latent fingermarks without changing the fuming chamber settings. To improve the fluorescence intensity of the fingerprint revealed with Lumicyano as well as the stability of its fluorescence over time, the manufacturer of Lumicyano has developed a modified version (Lumicyano Kit), separating the cyanoacrylate (Lumicyano Solution) and the fluorophore (Lumicyano Powder). This study compares the first version of Lumicyano with Lumicyano Kit using a 1% and 4% Lumicyano Powder on nonporous substrates. This study demonstrates that on all of the substrates investigated (glass, aluminum foil, white and black plastic) on fresh or aged (one week, three weeks) fingermarks, the use of Lumicyano Kit improves the quality of the development.

Recovery of Latent Prints from Nonporous Objects Exposed to Snow

Author(s): McCook, S. J.; Tate, D. P.; Eller, J. B.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 577-590
Abstract: This study investigated the effects that weather, particularly snow, could have on the recoverability of latent fingerprints from nonporous items. For all 167 impressions in this study, physical and chemical processing allowed for the development of some amount of ridge detail. These observations suggest that it may indeed be worthwhile for an agency to attempt the recovery of latent prints from evidence that was exposed to snow.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 6, Page 596
Abstract: The first question to ask is whether the ridge structure below the distal joint is a wart or a scar. Warts will push ridges out; they do not form deltas. The delta to the right of the right structure was formed before birth by the meeting of different ridge fields. The scar may be from the removal of an extra finger. Without knowing for sure, this is speculation.

With that being said, the structure is outside the pattern area. The pattern type is a nine count loop with no references.

Casting Bloodstain Patterns: AccuTrans versus Mikrosil

Author(s): Kowalske, Z.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 381-387
Abstract: The use of casting agents is common for molding impressions of tool marks and latent prints on uneven surfaces. This study compares two casting products (AccuTrans and Mikrosil) and their ability to cast bloodstain pattern impressions. The results indicate that AccuTrans provided more detail.

Cyanoacrylate Processing of Tape Following the Use of Un-Du

Author(s): Matthias, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 388-394
Abstract: The procedure of processing both the nonadhesive and adhesive sides of tapes following the application of un-du is tested. Also, the application of excessive amounts of un-du on both the tape and the surface the tape was affixed to is tested. Results indicate that the application of the un-du liquid does not have a negative effect when processed using the cyanoacrylate fuming method or in excessive amounts.

Using Dry Fire Extinguisher to Develop Latent Fingerprints and its Comparison with Other Methods of Fingerprint Development

Author(s): Boateng, J.; Jasra, P.; Cowper, D.; Jasra, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 395-404
Abstract: The effectiveness of dry fire extinguisher powder to develop latent fingerprints on glass, tile, and metal was investigated in this study. This method was then compared with four other fingerprint development methods: cyanoacrylate -> rhodamine, fluorescent powder, granular powder (white or black), and magnetic powder. The results showed that the development of fingerprints with fire extinguisher powder was comparable to other methods on both heated and unheated surfaces.

Communication of Statistically Based Conclusions to Jurors - A Pilot Study

Author(s): Bayer, D.; Neumann, C.; Ranadive, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 405-427
Abstract: During the 20th century, scientists in most forensic sub-disciplines reported categorical opinions on the source of material recovered in connection with a crime. Following the development of DNA evidence, legal and scientific scholars have urged these scientists to determine the probative value of forensic evidence in a more transparent way and to present conclusions in a fair and balanced fashion. Unfortunately, statistical information is not well understood or used rationally by most individuals when reasoning. Most jury studies have focused on jurors' understanding of reporting techniques currently used by the profession; very few studies have attempted to develop novel reporting techniques based on cognitive-psychological findings on efficient communication. This study explores some possible reporting techniques and describes some of the main challenges of the development and testing of novel conclusion presentation methods. Some of our main findings are similar to other jury studies. Study participants did not entirely account for the forensic evidence when updating their belief that the considered source was in fact the true source of the trace, however, participants provided with likelihood ratios showed less variability in their answers compared to participants provided with categorical conclusions. In addition, we observed a systemic bias against the defendant prior to hearing the forensic evidence. Finally, we found that recording participants' beliefs involved solving a circular conundrum: measuring the variability in the participants’ understanding of quantitative information requires the use of quantitative scales that they may not all perceive in the same way.

A Comparison of Conventional Microspectrophotometry and Hyperspectral Imaging for the Analysis of Blue Metallic Paint Samples

Author(s): Pei Lin, I.; Hemmings, J.; Otieno-Alego, V.; Blee, A.; Robertson, J.; Lennard, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 429-453
Abstract: Paint is often encountered as forensic evidence, particularly in cases involving vehicle accidents or property damage. In a forensic context, visual examination and color analysis of paint samples are methods employed early in the analytical sequence. Conventional visible microspectrophotometry, a technique dating back to the 1980s, is a well-documented analytical technique for forensic analysis. Hyperspectral imaging, on the other hand, is a relatively new technique with many potential forensic applications yet to be fully explored.

In this pilot study, hyperspectral imaging using the Prism and Reflector Imaging Spectroscopy System (PARISS) and associated software was applied to a range of metallic blue vehicle paint samples, and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional microspectrophotometry. The results suggest that hyperspectral imaging offers significant advantages, particularly for heterogeneous samples such as metallic paint where conventional microspectrophotometry is problematic. The PARISS generated high-quality spectra and a high level of discrimination, with additional advantages that included individualized spectral libraries, result histograms and false-color images showing the distribution of spectral types across a sample. Although only a preliminary investigation has been conducted on a limited set of blue metallic samples (flat and relatively large in size), the superior discriminating power combined with the rapid generation of spectra across the field of view suggests that hyperspectral imaging using the PARISS may be an efficient and effective alternative to traditional microspectrophotometry for the analysis of vehicle paints. The results justify further research to explore the application of hyperspectral imaging as an alternative to conventional microspectrophotometry.

Age Estimation Through the Study of Dental Crowns: Digital Application of Shiro Ito's Method

Author(s): De Trane, C.; Loty, C.; Loty, S.; Ducrettet, F.; Schuliar, Y.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 455-475
Abstract: This study evaluated a method for age determination that was based on Shiro Ito’s method of using thin cut analysis of permanent dental crowns.

Digital radiographic and photographic images of anterior teeth and posterior teeth were analyzed. Two equations, using multiple linear regression, were calculated and validated. The coronal surfaces of enamel, dentin, and pulp were measured in pixels on these images and incorporated into these equations for age estimation.

The most accurate estimations were observed in the maxilla with canines (MAE = 4.5 years, r = 0.80) and in the mandible with lateral incisors (MAE = 6.2 years, r = 0.77).

Population Frequencies of Skeletal Traits That May Be Used in Radiologic Identification: A Review of the Keats' Atlas

Author(s): Abdalla Ford, J.; Christensen, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Pages 477-492
Abstract: Skeletal traits as observed using various radiologic imaging modalities (such as X-ray and CT) are commonly used in forensic identification comparisons. Such comparisons have traditionally been made using relatively subjective visual approaches, relying on the experience and ability of the examiner. In order to bolster the results of radiologic comparisons with objective, statistically based approaches, more data are needed on the frequencies of these skeletal traits in the relevant population. Population frequencies describe how rare or common a feature is, and form the basis for the validity of any identification approach. The population frequencies of many traits used in forensic radiologic comparisons, however, are not known in many cases or are difficult to access in others. Here we present a review of traits and sources found in Keats and Anderson's Atlas of Normal Roentgen Variants That May Simulate Disease in an effort to document and compile some of the currently available frequency data for a variety of skeletal traits.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 5, Page 496
Abstract: This impression required input and consultation from other examiners. This is what was decided.

There is a sufficient recurve between the two deltas, but no ridges are present that make a complete circut. There are ridges that run out the top of the print. The two pattern types make it an accidental whorl. If the ridges in front of the right delta were spoiled then you would only have the ridges running out the top.

So the initial classification is an accidental whorl with a reference to a tented arch of the cuspal type.

Transfer DNA on Laboratory Gloves: A Potential Complicating Factor in the Interpretation of Forensic DNA Typing Results

Author(s): Vogelsberg, C.C.M.; Latham, K.E.; Cale, C.M.; Bush, G.L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 277-287
Abstract: Minimizing contamination in a forensic DNA laboratory is imperative for accurate results of the highest possible quality. Such measures as implementing strict personal protective equipment protocols in the form of laboratory gloves can decrease rates of contamination and assure the reliability of results being produced. This study investigated the possibility of contaminating unused laboratory gloves throughout prolonged box use in a variety of laboratory settings. The study was conducted in two stages, one to assess whether removal of gloves from both new and previously opened glove boxes by gloved or ungloved researchers affected subsequent glove contamination (n = 15) and another to assess general levels of contamination on open glove boxes found in active academic and research laboratories (n = 30). Samples from both stages of the study were amplified using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit. In the first phase, only one sample originating from a previously opened box of gloves yielded results at three loci when visualized at 100 RPU. In the second phase, three samples obtained from boxes in academic laboratories yielded DNA, however, none were quantified from samples obtained from laboratories with strict contamination precaution procedures in place. The results of this study indicate that, although contamination of laboratory gloves is possible through regular glove obtainment, current procedures in laboratories with restricted access and contamination precautions may be sufficient to reduce this potential source of error.

Comparison of the Reagents SPR-W and Acid Yellow 7 for the Visualization of Blood Marks on a Dark Surface

Author(s): Bouwmeester, M.; Leegwater, J.; de Puit, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 289-302
Abstract: This article is a follow-up of the study "A Comparison of Reagents for the Visualization of Blood Prints on Knives with Black Handles" (Journal of Forensic Identification, 2011, 61 (4), 353–362), which ended with recommendations for further research. This further research was carried out and the results are described here.

In this study, the results for sequential processing of cyanoacrylate or lumicyano with the reagents SPR-W (small particle reagent white)and acid yellow 7 (also known as brilliant sulphof lavine) on blood marks can be found. Furthermore, the DNA recovery rate was measured after these sequential techniques. Treating fingermarks in blood with SPR-W gave the best results, in terms of visibility of the marks, when no pretreatment with cyanoacrylate was carried out. DNA recovery was successful only for the first blood fingermark of the depletion series, for almost all applied treatments. The different treatment methods do not seem to be of influence on the DNA recovery.

Read a correction to this Technical Note here.

Determining Whether Aluminum is a Cyanoacrylate Polymerization Retardant

Author(s): Pires, C.; Springer, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 303-308
Abstract: In the past, several publications regarding cyanoacrylate fuming indicated that the use of an aluminum container will retard the polymerization of cyanoacrylate prior to vaporization and therefore recommended that an aluminum dish should be used during fuming to maximize unpolymerized cyanoacrylate fumes. This study was designed to determine whether aluminum retards polymerization when compared to other substrates. Results suggest that aluminum does not retard polymerization when compared to glass, steel, and ceramic.

The Use of a Liquid Bandage to Prevent the Deposition of Friction Ridge Detail Impressions

Author(s): Perkins, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 309-315
Abstract: Impressions were left by an area of friction ridge skin that was covered in one or more layers of a liquid bandage. Some impressions were deposited directly onto a surface. Others were deposited only after the area of skin had contacted an additional surface likely to have transferable residue on it. A single layer of the product prevented identifiable impressions being left when they were deposited directly onto a surface; many layers were required to prevent identifiable impressions being left in residue transferred from another surface.

XCAT (Capillary Analysis Test) Validation Study: Practical Field Use of Presumptive Gunshot Residue Test

Author(s): Newell, A.M.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 316-325
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of RedXDefense’s XCAT (capillary analysis test) device in the detection of gunshot residue (GSR) on an individual’s hands in the field. During this study, various time frames were introduced between the deposit of the GSR and the collection of the sample, as well as the amount of GSR deposited. Several outside agencies were contacted to create a sufficient background of the current use of the XCAT; however, it was found that little research currently exists outside of the manufacturer’s laboratory tests. Field tests were conducted to verify the use of the device, which raised concern regarding the use of the XCAT as a tool to assist in eliminating or possibly identifying a suspect. In conclusion, on the basis of the performance of this device, the XCAT is not recommended for use in the field at this time.

A Comparison of Thermal Fingerprint Development to Current Recommended Chemical Development Techniques on Porous Surfaces

Author(s): Mostowtt, T.; Ramotowski, R.S.; Morgan Jr., J.P.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 326-348
Abstract: Although heat has been used to develop latent prints in the past, recently published material has renewed interest in this visualization method. The Thermal Fingerprint Developer 2 (TFD-2), an automated device that uses heat to produce fluorescent prints on porous surfaces, was recently introduced to the forensic marketplace. An evaluation of this new thermal method was conducted in three phases. In Phase I, the optimal conditions (scan speed, power setting, and number of scans) for the TFD-2 instrument were determined. In Phase II, a direct comparison using split-depletion prints was conducted between the TFD-2 and several common operational visualization techniques for porous surfaces (1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, and PD). In Phase III, the impact of incorporating the TFD-2 in standard latent print processing sequences was evaluated. Overall, Phase II results indicated that conventional chemical processes outperformed the TFD-2. Phase III results indicated that using the TFD-2 first in a processing sequence could adversely affect the success of subsequent treatments.

The Taphonomic Effects of Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) Gnawing on Bone

Author(s): Pokines, J.T.; Santana, S.A.; Hellar, J.D.; Bian, P.; Downs, A.; Wells, N.; Price, M.D.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 349-375
Abstract: The eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is known to gnaw on bone and thus has the potential to affect terrestrial surface remains in forensic scenes throughout its extensive geographic range in North America and other places in the world where it has been introduced. To determine the timing, extent, and characteristics of gnawing of this rodent species within an urban environment, an initial sample of 305 dry postcranial bones of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were wired to trees for a period of 8 weeks and observed every 2 weeks in multiple sites in Boston, Massachusetts. Squirrel gnawing damage included the typical parallel striations noted for rodents and the loss of epiphyses of long bones, marrow cavity exposure, and sculpting of bone margins, with a cumulative total of 58 out of the original sample of 305 bones (19.0%) having gnawing damage of some kind. When subtracting the bones lost during the experiment without previous gnawing, the cumulative total is 58 out of 271 bones (21.4%). Rodent gnawing can advance rapidly, potentially causing the loss of diagnostic bone features and obscuring previous trauma sites, and researchers should be aware of its effects on exposed skeletal remains.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 4, Page 380
Abstract: This print is a nine count loop. The lower delta is below the distal crease and outside the pattern area. Therefore, it doesn't require any other reference. It does make an interesting pattern.

A Case of Localized Corrosion on Bone Caused by Chemical Contact

Author(s): Pokines, J. T.; Springer, K.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 173-186
Abstract: A case of heavy but highly localized corrosion of bone caused by chemicals mixed to form hydrogen sulfide is presented. This case comes from eastern Massachusetts and was recovered and analyzed by personnel from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in Boston. Multiple bottles of commercial cleaning products, some of which were open, were recovered with skeletonized remains that had decomposed outdoors inside a tent. The corrosive chemicals pooled in water around the remains on top of a waterproof tent bottom, causing corrosion that was most pronounced on the right foot, with almost complete loss of phalanges and severe damage to other elements despite being protected inside footwear. This taphonomic alteration has the potential to be mistaken for animal gnawing, coffin wear, or perimortem trauma and could be formed under similar circumstances in different environments.

Fingerprints: Beyond the Source

Author(s): Girelli, C. M. A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 187-195
Abstract: This work presents a case study in which the experts were able to conclude that fingerprints that were present in different identity documents not only came from the same source, but were copies of the same image. An experiment with fingerprints deposited under controlled conditions was used to explain how minutiae and extrinsic factors can help experts to detect forgeries in documents.

Cobalt Chloride Hexahydrate as an Enhancement Reagent for Two-Dimensional Footwear Impressions Containing Ice-Melt Product Residue

Author(s): Karakkat, K.; Schwartz, T.; Quarino, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 196-207
Abstract: Cobalt is a transition metal that is suitable to form coordination complexes with Lewis bases and is most commonly found as cobalt chloride hexahydrate. Given that ice-melt products typically contain moieties with free electron pairs (and thus can serve as a Lewis base), such as chloride salts or urea, the potential use of cobalt chloride hexahydrate as an enhancement reagent for footwear prints containing ice-melt products was investigated. Footwear impressions were made on nine different substrates from aqueous solutions of seven commercial ice-melt products of different compositions. To dried footwear impressions, an aqueous 20% (weight/volume) cobalt chloride hexahydrate solution was sprayed evenly. In most cases, a heated blow dryer was then applied over the imprint to turn the color of the enhancement from a lighter pink (the color of cobalt chloride hexahydrate) to the darker blue-purple (the color of anhydrous cobalt chloride), which typically yielded better contrast. Enhancements were obtained with all product compositions except one product containing calcium magnesium acetate. In general, diatomic chloride salts yielded better enhancements than those made from products containing monoatomic chloride salts. Products containing urea or proprietary formulations containing amides also produced good enhancements. The quality of the enhancement was likely affected by the porosity and texture of the substrate as well as the low viscosity of water.

Forensic Management of Artifacts in Human Identification: The Experience of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus

Author(s): Myossi, N.; Ktori, M.; Vehit, U.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 209-231
Abstract: The Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) is a bicommunal body established in 1981 that aims to recover, identify, and return remains to the families of 2001 missing persons from events that occurred between 1963 and 1964 and in 1974. At the time of the writing of this article, the remains of 1061 individuals have been exhumed, and 625 have been identified.

This article presents a system for forensic management and artifact collection during the identification of missing persons, the usefulness of the information that is provided by artifacts, and the impact that artifacts have on families when artifacts are released to the families with the remains. The CMP experience indicates that proper forensic management plays an important role in the identification process and contributes to bicommunal stability in Cyprus.

Determining the Effects of Surface, Age, and Depletion on Latent Prints Processed with Aerosolized Powder Puff Fingerprint Powder

Author(s): Moore-Davies, S.; Christophe, D. P.; Morris, T. L.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 233-243
Abstract: In this study, fingerprints were processed on five different substrates with the aerosolized powder, Powder Puff (Lynn Peavey Company). The prints were deposited on each surface and stored where they would be undisturbed for three different periods of time (0 days, 5 days, 10 days) before being processed. Each age contained a depletion series of three successive prints. The prints were then individually photographed and the photographs were used to create survey packets containing 15 prints each. These surveys were distributed to 55 students at the University of Central Oklahoma’s W. Roger Webb Forensic Science Institute. Students were asked to evaluate each print on a scale from 0 to 4 based on the level of detail they could see. A significant interaction was found between the three variables: surface, age, and depletion series. The mean ratings did not consistently increase or decrease with age or depletion. Overall, tile had a tendency to have the highest mean rating whereas painted wood had the lowest.

A Limited Validation and Comparison of 1,2-Indanedione and ThermaNin for Latent Print Development on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Ponschke, M.; Hornickel, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 245-258
Abstract: As part of a validation study conducted for the Illinois State Police, two processing techniques (1,2-indanedione and ThermaNin) for visualizing latent prints on thermal paper underwent performance checks prior to their inclusion in the Illinois State Police Latent Prints Procedures Manual. Five participants deposited fingerprints on six types of thermal papers, which were then cut in half lengthwise. Each half was then processed by one of the two techniques. The ages of the sample latent prints were varied as well as the processing times. Preserved latent print detail was evaluated by 10 experienced latent print examiners, who judged the samples for the presence or absence of latent print detail and the quality of any detail produced. In addition, the examiners judged whether prints were suitable for comparison and were asked which processing method was preferred. Both 1,2-indanedione and ThermaNin were productive on sample latent prints, with ridge detail developed on 99.2% and 95% of the samples, respectively. Additional examination of samples meant to imitate casework also showed success.

Using a 3D Laser Scanner to Determine the Area of Origin of an Impact Pattern

Author(s): Dubyk, M.; Liscio, E.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Pages 259-272
Abstract: The ability of a bloodstain pattern analyst (BPA) to analyze bloodstains at a bloodletting crime scene to determine the area of origin (AO) of an impact pattern is dependent upon the collected data. The collection of data can be labor intensive and time consuming. This experiment demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) laser scanners can greatly assist the BPA with scene examination, provide accurate AO determinations, and decrease time at the crime scene. In this experiment, the accuracy and processing time of the FARO X330 3D laser scanner with FARO SCENE software was compared to traditional manual methods of collecting the data and then downloading the data to the HemoSpat program for analysis. Three typical impact patterns were created for this experiment. There was an acceptable range of accuracy between the results produced by HemoSpat and those produced by FARO. The time to document patterns with HemoSpat ranged from 42 to 59 minutes; FARO documentation times ranged from 15 to 21 minutes. The time to analyze the patterns with HemoSpat ranged from 49 to 69 minutes; FARO consistently took 45 minutes.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 276
Abstract: The first impression may be to classify this print as a cuspal tented arch. However, the ridges do not flow out the top of the print, so it would be classified as a plain arch first and then referenced to a tented arch.

Letter to the Editor re: Critical Incident Trauma and Crime Scene Investigation: A Review of Police Organizational Challenges and Interventions

Author(s): Laskowski, G. E.
Type: Letters
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 081-082
Abstract: See Critical Incident Trauma and Crime Scene Investigation: A Review of Police Organizational Challenges and Interventions in JFI 65 (6), 2015

Naturally Occurring Minutiae

Author(s): Rivera, J. H.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 083-091
Abstract: The field of forensic science has considered fingerprints as the primary representation of ridge patterns and individualized minutiae characteristics. Consideration should also be given to other scientific fields where specimens exhibit similar characteristics. In the studies of botany, entomology, zoology (wildlife forensics), marine biology, and geology, evidence warrants further investigation into the value of examining minutiae characteristics within these scientific fields. There are a variety of animals and botanical specimens, in addition to geological landscapes, that mirror fingerprint minutiae detail and could contribute to a forensic investigation.

The Use of a Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher for the Development of Latent Fingerprints in Marijuana Grow Operations

Author(s): Piekny, J.; Knaap, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 092-105
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify the theory of using a dry chemical (powder) fire extinguisher for developing fresh latent fingerprints from different surfaces commonly found within clandestine marijuana grow labs. Fingerprints (n = 96) were deposited on various substrates. The room was fogged with an ABC-type dry chemical fire xtinguisher, directing the chemical discharge at the surfaces bearing the fresh latent impressions. Sixty-five fingerprints were developed (51 of which could be useful for comparison purposes) in a matter of seconds. This study shows the potential for the use of a dry chemical fire extinguisher to develop high-quality, detailed fingerprints from marijuana grow lab operations in a timely and efficient manner.

Is Diurnal Variation a Factor in Bare Footprint Formation?

Author(s): Burrow, J. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 107-117
Abstract: This limited study considered whether the collection of the exemplar footprints, and the resultant analysis and comparison, could be influenced by the time of day that the exemplar footprints were collected compared to a possible time when the footprints were first made.

Dynamic footprints were collected from individuals on two occasions during the day (four footprints in total for each individual) using a test/re-test design. The Reel method of analysis determined measurements and allowed comparisons between the four sets.

A two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis suggested that diurnal variation was probably not an issue and that exemplar footprints did not show deviations that were due to the time of day when the footprints were collected. This might further suggest that, in this respect, work undertaken on past cases is reliable, and time of day is not a variable that needs consideration and accounting for when working future bare footprint cases. However, caution may be needed where environmental and temperature variables need consideration.

Oil Red O: A Comparative Performance Study

Author(s): Honig, M.; Yoak, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 118-133
Abstract: Recently, Oil Red O (ORO) has been used to stain the fatty or lipid portions of latent print residue on porous items and porous items that have been wet. Currently for porous items, the Virginia Department of Forensic Science uses ninhydrin and physical developer (PD). Ninhydrin is a chemical that reacts with water-soluble amino acids and therefore cannot be used on items that have been wet. PD reacts with the lipid components of latent print residue and is used to process porous items that have been wet. PD generally produces good results, but it is a complex and tedious method. A study was conducted at the Virginia Department of Forensic Science to test the use of ORO in casework as an effective process for developing latent prints on porous items that have been wet. This study illustrates that ORO is efficient as an option for processing porous items that have been wet.

Latent Fingerprints on a Nonporous Surface Exposed to Everyday Liquids

Author(s): Maslanka, D. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 137-154
Abstract: This article investigates how common household liquids (milk, wine, soft drinks, beer, orange juice, and soapy water) may affect a latent fingerprint on a nonporous surface after different amounts of time have passed: 1, 12, and 24 hours. After each interval, the latent fingerprints were processed with either ferromagnetic powder or small particle reagent. All of the latent fingerprints that were exposed to milk, wine, soft drinks, beer, and orange juice after each time interval when averaged, despite the method of processing, were rated as reasonable to excellent quality (except wine at the 24-hour interval when processed with SPR). The latent fingerprints submerged in soapy water displayed a significant decrease in quality after 12 hours; by 24 hours, they were not visible or very few ridges were visible.

Characterization of Printing Characteristics of Color-Photocopied and Laser-Printed Documents

Author(s): Saini, K.; Saroa, J. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 155-170
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze printed documents to determine whether they could be identified to the printers that produced them. Twenty-eight processed color samples were examined for toner deposit patterns and counterfeit protection system (CPS) codes. Twenty-five of the 28 samples were identified on the basis of CPS codes; all 28 samples were differentiated from each other on the basis of toner deposit patterns. Therefore, it is concluded that toner deposit patterns and counterfeit protection system codes can be used as complementary to each other in routine forensic document examination.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 2, Page 172
Abstract: Things to consider:
  The delta and its placement
  The lower type line
  The line of flow
  The obstruction at right angle rule

Questions to ask:
  Where is the appendage attached to the only recurving ridge?
  Are the inner ridges at a right angle to the line of flow?
  Is the delta the short ridge or the attached ridge?
  Is the lower type line the attached ridge?

The attached ridge does not diverge, so it will not be considered as the lower type line; the ridge below it will be. The inner ridges do not obstruct at a right angle to the line of flow. While very close, the short ridge will be the delta because the top end is nearest to the point of divergence. The attached ridge is not in the line of flow.

Letter to the Editor re: Ghosting of Images in Barefoot Exemplar Prints Collection: Issues for Analyses in JFI 65 (5), 2015

Author(s): Reel, Dr. Sarah M.
Type: Letters
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 001
Abstract: See Ghosting of Images in Barefoot Exemplar Prints Collection: Issues for Analyses in JFI 65 (5),2015.

Understanding Digital Enhancement Processes

Author(s): Loll, Allison
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 003-012
Abstract: Digital imaging processes have become widely used in the latent print community. Adobe Photoshop and other imaging programs (e.g., those provided by Mideo Systems Inc.) have built-in enhancement tools that examiners can apply to images. However, information about how these tools work can be elusive because of the developers’ proprietary rights. This paper addresses which of the more common enhancement tools alter the data in the image and which ones do not.

Using Alginate Gel Followed by Chemical Enhancement to Recover Blood-Contaminated Fingermarks from Fabrics

Author(s): Bentolila, A.; Reuveny, S.A.; Attias, D.; Elad, M.L.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 013-021
Abstract: Blood-contaminated fingermarks were placed on different types of fabrics to determine whether alginate gels could be used to lift the fingermarks from the fabric. The lifted gels were processed with amido black to optimize the fingermark detail. The results on the gels were compared to fingermarks processed directly on the fabrics with amido black after the lifting procedure. This gel-lifting technique shows a real advantage in the detection of blood-contaminated fingermarks on dark-patterned synthetic silk.

Evaluating Imaging Techniques for Intraoral Forensic Radiography with the Dental Hygienist as Part of the Forensic Radiology Team

Author(s): Bruhn, A.M.; Newcomb, T.L.; Giles. B.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 022-036
Abstract: Intraoral forensic radiographic images are highly informative for comparative dental identification, postmortem profiling, and age estimations. However, empirical research is needed to determine optimal imaging techniques for postmortem radiographs in dental forensic radiography with the dental hygienist as part of the forensic radiology team. The aim of this study was to provide a clear protocol for forensic dental radiographic imaging that considered both safety and optimal imaging techniques. The study was conducted on simulated human remains using both the paralleling and bisecting techniques in which participants (N = 38) took 10 intraoral dental x-ray exposures. The paralleling technique tended to produce superior images in forensic dental radiography, proving the usefulness of positioning devices when exposing PM images with the paralleling technique (p < 0.001). However, in practice, the bisecting technique may be necessary because of equipment availability and the antemortem technique used. A protocol that combines considerations of technique and safety with the dental hygienist as the radiographer is presented.

A Comparison of Photography and Casting Methods of Footwear Impressions in Different Sandy Soil Substrates

Author(s): Snyder, Christine
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 037-058
Abstract: Seven different sandy soils were utilized to create three-dimensional footwear impressions from two left athletic shoes (Saucony and New Balance). The two shoes had been previously worn and then additional randomly acquired characteristics of various shapes and sizes were added to the outsoles. The footwear impressions were photographed (using examination-quality photographic techniques) and cast with dental stone. The resulting photographs and casts were compared to the shoes, and the randomly acquired characteristics present were noted. The casts retained more randomly acquired characteristics than did the photographs in the footwear impressions in all of the sandy soils and from both shoes. This research concluded that casts should be collected whenever possible in addition to examination-quality photographs to provide the footwear examiner with the best evidence possible.

Taphonomic Alterations to Terrestrial Surface-Deposited Human Osseous Remains in a New England Environment

Author(s): Pokines, James T.
Type: Article
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 059-078
Abstract: The present research examines human bone cases (n = 22) that were recovered from outdoor terrestrial environments in Massachusetts and submitted for analysis to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston. All macroscopic taphonomic changes resulting from the physical and biological effects of terrestrial exposure to the bones were compiled. These traits were compared to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bone cases (n = 26) that were recovered from the same environment. Multiple characteristics are indicators of terrestrial exposure, including a differential pattern of taphonomic alterations reflecting contact and noncontact with the soil surface, subaerial weathering, irregular soil staining, and carnivore and rodent gnawing. These may be used in conjuction with other taphonomic data to distinguish a terrestrial environment as the origin of unknown osseous remains from other common forensic sources, including marine, buried, or cemetery remains.

Back to the Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2016, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 080
Abstract: This print is being presented because of the loop at the extreme tip of the finger. The loop has no bearing on the classification, therefore the pattern type is a whorl with no references. Without the deltas, the tracing cannot be accurately determined.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Page 1018
Abstract: First impression might be that this is a "cuspal" tented arch. However, the ridges do not flow out the top of the print. Because the ridges flow out the side of the print, the primary classification would be a plain arch and then referenced to a tented arch.

Forensic Gerontology: A Podiatrist's Perspective of the Dynamic "Functioning" Foot and the Need for Research to Develop an Interpretive Approach

Author(s): Kagan, B.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 907-912
Abstract: Disclaimer: The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the author and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the New York College of Podiatric Medicine.

The Fingerprint Evidence in the Trial of Dennis Gunn

Author(s): Turner, J. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 913-928
Abstract: This historical case report has been prepared to remember and recognize the excellent work carried out by a few pioneers of the "science of fingerprints" in New Zealand and our specialist role as latent print examiners. The trial for Dennis Gunn, accused of murdering Mr. Augustus Briathwaite, the Ponsonby postmaster, in many ways is similar to a Daubert hearing, except that it occurred in 1920 in New Zealand, nearly 100 years ago. This report summarizes key elements of the fingerprint evidence and the resulting murder trial that led to the conviction and subsequent execution of Dennis Gunn. The trial considered issues such as the permanence and uniqueness of fingerprints, reliability of the evidence, forgery, proficiency testing, peer review, and the minimum number of points needed to individualize. At the conclusion of the trial, the Minister of Justice ensured that an authentic report of the trial was printed so that the evidence was available to the general public.

Critical-Incident Trauma and Crime Scene Investigation: A Review of Police Organizational Challenges and Interventions

Author(s): Clark, R.; Distelrath, C.; Vaquera, G.; Winterich, D.; DeZolt, E.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 929-951
Abstract: It is hypothesized that exposure to critical-incident trauma affects crime scene investigators. Individual and organizational attribution factors are analyzed through the use of self-report data collected from crime scene investigators working in a large Midwestern state. This paper analyzes key variables in the job of a crime scene investigator in an effort to determine the level of stress related to CSI work and the nature of organizational support available to the investigator. Although initial findings suggest a high level of satisfaction with the job, the nature of the job can lead to high levels of both professional and personal stress, with work-related stress often driving personal stress. Policy implications for reducing officer stress as well as future research questions are discussed.

Macroscopic Taphonomic Alterations to Human Bone Recovered from Marine Environments

Author(s): Pokines, J.; Higgs, N.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 953-984
Abstract: The present research examines a sample (n=25) of human bone cases that were recovered from the shoreline or ocean waters near Massachusetts, United States, and submitted for analysis to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston. All macroscopic taphonomic changes resulting from the physical and biological effects of extended marine immersion were compiled and compared to taphonomic alterations from other environments. Multiple taphonomic characteristics were prevalent after extended marine immersion, including battering and rounding (96.0% of cases) and bleaching (88.0%), with adherence by marine species of mollusks (8.0%), barnacles (36.0%), and Bryozoans (4.0%), or, in some cases, surface alterations to bone by these adhering taxa. Other common changes included adipocere formation (20.0%); reddish (24.0%) or dark (12.0%) mineral staining; and adhering sand (52.0%), silt (8.0%), or algae and seaweed (36.0%). Bone condition (disregarding bleaching or staining) included still greasy because of leaching fat (32.0%), retaining an organic sheen (44.0%), or a chalky appearance (24.0%). Multiple traits may be used to distinguish a marine environment as the origin of unknown osseous remains from other common forensic sources, including terrestrial surface decomposition and weathering or buried remains.

Investigating the Sensitivity of Cadaver-Detection Dogs to Decomposition Fluid

Author(s): Buis, R.; Rust, L.; Nizio, K.; Rai, T.; Stuart, B.; Forbes, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 985-997
Abstract: Cadaver-detection dogs are regularly used by police and emergency services to locate human remains. Because of ethical restrictions, the dogs are not trained using cadavers, but instead, on pseudo-scents or human tissues, such as blood, bone, and decomposition fluid. However, the accuracy of these training aids as substitutes for human remains is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the dogs’ sensitivity to human decomposition fluid as a training aid and to determine whether their sensitivity increased with exposure.

Human decomposition fluid was collected and serially diluted to 1 part-per-trillion (10-12). The samples were presented to three cadaver-detection dog teams under standard indoor training conditions. The dogs were capable of detecting the lowest dilution levels and the smallest volumes of decomposition fluid after several exposures to the decomposition fluid samples. Ongoing training was deemed important to maintain this level of sensitivity. These findings support the use of human decomposition fluid as a valid training aid for cadaver-detection dogs.

How Useful is Thematic Analysis as an Elicitation Technique for Analyzing Video of Human Gait in Forensic Podiatry?

Author(s): Browne, T.; Curran, M.; Vernon, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 6, Pages 999-1012
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate how useful thematic analysis is in the elicitation of observations of gait from a video recording. This was undertaken by providing a video recording of human gait to "novice" and "expert" podiatry students. The observations were explored using the qualitative tool of thematic analysis. The exploration of human gait using this technique gave a rich abundance of information and demonstrated that a basic level of experience or knowledge is required to provide a simple description of human gait. With more expertise came a richer description of observation of human gait by the "expert" group compared to basic observations by the "novice" group. Thematic analysis allows the use of language and the depth of the information to be evaluated when observing human gait from a video recording.

Rotating the Anterior View of a Skull into the Frankfort Horizontal Plane for Postmortem Drawings

Author(s): Murry, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 775-792
Abstract: It is commonly accepted that a profile view is needed in order to rotate the skull into the Frankfort horizontal plane, a more natural position in which to view the face. This technical note discusses a method to rotate the skull using only an anterior photograph.

Forensic DNA Analysis from Rocks and Stones in Criminal Cases

Author(s): Avraham, S.; Berlyne, S.; Gafny, R.; Hazan-Eitan, Z.; Cohen, A.; Oz, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 793-801
Abstract: Rocks, although a problematic substrate for retrieval of DNA profiles, occasionally may be the missing link in providing a solution in specific forensic cases. Presented in this article is a developed protocol for approaching and analyzing such crime scene evidence, using moistened swabs for DNA collection. Results from real cases where this procedure was utilized on rocks were examined to determine the protocol’s effectiveness.

Applying Hill's Criteria to Determine the Validity of Cause and Effect Associations in Crime Scene Analysis

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 803-812
Abstract: Crime scene reconstruction involves evaluating causal connections between various actions that occur during a given incident. Analysts use critical thinking, logic, and a variety of techniques to accomplish this evaluation. An underlying concern in this process is contextual bias, which must be controlled to ensure that only valid causal connections are included in the analysis. In 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill introduced a series of evaluative factors to use when evaluating causal connection in medicine. This paper describes Hill’s criteria as they apply to crime scene reconstruction.

Recovering Bloody Fingerprints from Skin

Author(s): Petretei, D.; Angyal, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 813-827
Abstract: Well-known processes for developing blood prints (i.e., amido black, leucocrystal violet, and Hungarian red) were tested to recover bloody fingerprints from cadaver skin. Several tests with varying quantities of blood on a thumb and fingers were tested to determine the most effective process. The process using Hungarian red proved to be the most successful and was then tested on living human skin, resulting in two of the five planted prints being identifiable.

Development of Latent Prints on Tyvek Large Pak and Padded Pak Shipping Envelopes

Author(s): Merritt, D.; Morgan, J. P.; Houlgrave, S.; Ramotowski, R.; Brock, A.; Shelar, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 828-850
Abstract: In the past, attempting to develop latent prints on FedEx Tyvek Large Pak or Padded Pak shipping envelopes with processing techniques currently used for nonporous or semiporous items has yielded inconsistent results. The objective of this research was to determine the optimal technique(s) for the development of sebaceous and eccrine latent prints of various ages on these kinds of shipping envelopes. A comparison of the effectiveness of current processing methods, alone and in sequence, for porous, semiporous, and nonporous items, was conducted. The results indicate that diluted Wetwop was the most effective processing technique for the development of latent prints on Padded Pak envelopes. For Tyvek Large Pak envelopes, the modified Wetwop was found to work best.

Variability and Subjectivity in the Grading Process for Evaluating the Performance of Latent Fingermark Detection Techniques

Author(s): Fritz, P.; Frick, A. A.; van Bronswijk, W.; Lewis, S. W.; Beaudoin, A.; Bleay, S.; Lennard, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 851-867
Abstract: When assessing latent fingermark development methods, forensic researchers commonly evaluate treated samples using a grading scale. However, the subjective nature of these evaluation methods leaves the results of such investigations open to criticism for potential grader bias. Assessment of fingermark development quality is ultimately dependent on an individual’s background and experience.

A pilot study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a large-scale international collaboration. A set of 80 fingermark samples was developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc chloride. Grades for photographic images of the developed fingermarks were assigned independently by 11 fingermark researchers. Sixty-seven percent of the scores given to each individual sample were the same as the median grade, and 99% of the scores were within 1 grade. The researchers were also assessed on their consistency by including 20 duplicate images to be graded. Seventy-eight percent of the grades given were identical to their original scores.

These results indicate that a small group of independent fingermark graders is sufficient to produce reliable and consistent data in projects requiring the assessment of fingermark quality.

Standardizing Shoemark Evidence–An Australian and New Zealand Collaborative Trial

Author(s): Raymond, J.; Sheldon, P.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 868-883
Abstract: Previously, Australian and New Zealand jurisdictions were operating with widely different conclusion scales and terminology in shoe and tire mark comparisons. This study compared the variability in responses to such comparisons through two collaborative trials of six comparison exercises. The first used the status quo in each jurisdiction; the second required respondents to use the conclusion scale recommended by the shoe and tire Scientific Working Group (SWGTREAD) in the United States.

The adoption of the new conclusion scale greatly improved the clarity and comparability of conclusions. Excepting outliers that would likely be negated through technical reviews in casework, the range of conclusions for each comparison was slightly reduced in the second trial. Participants were observed to be conservative in their responses, erring on the side of exclusion rather than inclusion.

A significant observation is that close non-matches may not be detected, even by experienced examiners. It is essential that in conclusions of this type, the examiner makes clear to the court that another shoe of the same pattern and dimensions could have made the mark.

The benefits of a standard conclusion scale and terminology were made clear by this exercise, and therefore the new conclusion scale is recommended for use in Australia and New Zealand.

Ghosting of Images in Barefoot Exemplar Prints Collection: Issues for Analyses

Author(s): Burrow, J. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Pages 884-900
Abstract: This article analyzes a phenomenon that has been reported in only one other footprint collection article: Reel’s thesis. The phenomenon is that of a ghost image that appears at the end of the toe impressions collected in two-dimensional exemplar footprints and found using two different collection methods. The collection methods were those of the Podotrack and the inkless shoe print systems. The footprints were collected in a dynamic phase of gait using a 4th step protocol. The great toe displayed the appearance of a ghost image more often than other toes, but all five toes can display the phenomenon. This phenomenon has implications for the collection and interpretation and thus the comparison made between unknown and known footprints in the criminal justice system. The Podotrack system appears to produce this phenomenon more often than the inkless shoe print system, but the phenomenon does not appear repeatable by participants and there are times where this occurs on only one occasion. There are differences between feet as well as between systems as to the appearance of the ghosting. (See letter to the editor by Dominique Holt in JFI 64 (3).)

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 5, Page 906
Abstract: A split or double right thumb with the corresponding record print showing two separate pattern types. The loop will be used for classification purposes and the outer whorl will be ignored.

Front Matter

Author(s):
Type: Preface
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
Abstract: During the 2014 annual conference, Past President Philip Sanfilippo suggested the possibility of having a special centennial issue. As the idea was pondered and informally discussed, it was quickly recognized as an idea that had to materialize. Immediately after the conference, the various Science and Practices Subcommittees were asked to suggest articles that had been published in I.A.I. publications that were historically significant, notable, or represented progress and change during the last 100 years.

With the exception of the history of the association presented by our historian, Darrell R. Klasey, the following nearly five hundred pages represent a small portion of the information that has been previously published by the I.A.I.

The I.A.I. Through the Ages: A Century of Forensic Identification

Author(s): Klasey, Darrell R.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 293-336

Henry Faulds, Finger-Print Pioneer

Author(s): Cooke, T.G.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 337-344
Abstract: Reprinted from Finger Print Magazine, March 1925, 6 (9), 16–18, 31.
Note: Finger Print Magazine with T. G. Cooke as editor was the official publication of the International Association for Identification for one year.

Fingerprints and Penal Treatment

Author(s): Castellanos, Israel, M.D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 345-348
Abstract: Reprinted from the proceedings of the International Association for Identification Conference in Denver Colorado, September 12–15, 1928, pp 87–89

The Menace of the Pistol!

Author(s): Goddard, Calvin
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 349-364
Abstract: Reprinted from the first issue of Sparks from the Anvil, Jan 1933, 1 (1), 3–7

Civil Identification

Author(s): Hoover, John Edgar
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 365-369
Abstract: Reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, May 1933, 1 (5), 4–5

Ballistics: A Test to Determine Whether or Not a Particular Person Has Recently Fired An Automatic Pistol. (The Test May Also Be Applied, in Some Instances, to Similar Questions Involving the Revolver.)

Author(s): Wunderling, H.P.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 370-372
Abstract: Reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, July 1933, 1 (7), 3

Identification by Blood

Author(s):
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 373-374
Abstract: Reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, July 1933, 1 (7), 4

A Preliminary Test for Blood Stains

Author(s): Donaldson, Edwin R.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 375-378
Abstract: Reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, June 1934, 2 (6), 5–6

Transmit Finger Prints by Telegraph

Author(s):
Type: Advertisement
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Page 379
Abstract: Advertisement reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, July 1934, 2 (7), 8

Saved From Execution By Finger Prints

Author(s): Kuhne, Frederick
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 380-382
Abstract: Reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, May 1936, 4 (5), 6

Single Finger Print File

Author(s):
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 383-384
Abstract: Reprinted from I.A.I. newsletter, February 1943, 3–4

Detecting Fraudulent Alterations on Paper and Documents by Chemical Means

Author(s): Dondero, John A.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 385-388
Abstract: Reprinted from I.A.I. newsletter, February 1944, 1–3

Identification of Kidnaped Infant Accomplished by Means of Foot Impressions

Author(s): Kanz, George A.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 389-391
Abstract: Reprinted from I.A.I. newsletter, January 1945, 1–3

Galton-Henry Pattern Definitions

Author(s): Bridges, B.C.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 392-395
Abstract: Reprinted from I.A.I. newsletter, July 1945, 5–7

Barrel Length vs. Velocity

Author(s): Munhall, B.D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Page 396
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, January 1952, 2 (1), 7

Twins

Author(s): Cummins, Harold, Ph.D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 397-404
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, February 1952, 2 (2), 3–5

The Use of Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Light in Law Enforcement Photgraphy

Author(s): Tuttle, Harris B.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 405-413
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, February 1954, 4 (2), 6–8

Conference Delegates
See "Electronic Fingerprints"
New Process Shown at Houston

Author(s):
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 414-415
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, November 1960, 10 (11), 10

Present Status of the Ninhydrin Process For Developing Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Shulenberger, William A.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 417-422
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, March 1963, 13 (3), 9–10, 14

Tire Tracks and Footwear Identification

Author(s): Hamm, Ernest D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 423-430
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, January 1975, 25 (1), 3–6

Bite Marks On Human Skin

Author(s): Vale,Gerald L., D.D.S., M.D.S., J.D.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 431-440
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, May 1982, 32 (5), 10–13

The Identification of Vehicles from Wheelbase and Tire Stance Measurements

Author(s): Bolhouse, Roger J.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 441-445
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, June 1984, 34 (6), 5–6.

Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Author(s): Lee, Henry C., Ph.D; Gaensslen, R.E., Ph.D
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 446-459
Abstract: Reprinted from Identification News, June 1984, 34 (6), 8–14

20 Years of Excellence: The Administrative Advanced Latent Fingerprint School

Author(s): Hazen, Robert J.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 461-468
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1989, 39 (2), 107–113

Forensic Art: Defining the International Association for Identification’s Ninth Discipline

Author(s): Stewart, Karen Taylor; Richlin, Kevin Ross
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 469-488
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1989, 39 (4), 215–230

Ridgeology

Author(s): Ashbaugh, David R.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 489-538
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1991, 41 (1), 16–64

The Use of Chiropody/Podiatry Records in Forensic and Mass Disaster Identification

Author(s): Vernon, Wesley
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 539-553
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1994, 44 (1), 26–40

Forensic Podiatry–An Emerging New Field

Author(s): DiMaggio, John A., D.P.M.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 554-556
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1995, 45 (5), 495–497

A Review of the Sixteen Points Fingerprint Standard in England and Wales

Author(s): Evett, I.W.; Williams, R.L.
Type: AfterWords Special Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 557-580
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1996, 46 (1), 49–73

Forensic Individualization of Images Using Quality and Quantity of Information

Author(s): Vanderkolk, John R.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 581-591
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1999, 49 (3), 246–256

Direct Sensitivity Comparison of the Fluorescein and Luminol Bloodstain Enhancement Techniques

Author(s): Cheeseman, Rob
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 593-599
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1999, 49 (3), 261–268

People v. Jennings: A Significant Case for Fingerprint Science In America

Author(s): Acree, Mark A.
Type: Historical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 600-602
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 1999, 49 (4), 455–457

Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood–Part 2: Protein Dyes

Author(s): Sears, Vaughn G.; Butcher, Colin P. G.; Prizeman, Tania M.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 603-613
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2001, 51 (1), 28–38

Survey of Tire Tread Design and Tire Size as Mounted on Vehicles in Central Iowa

Author(s): Bessman, Carl W.; Schmeiser, Amy
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 615-623
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2001, 51 (6), 587–596

IAFIS Fingerprint Search Solves 45-Year-Old Double Police Officer Murder

Author(s): Leo, William F.; Tillman, Steven
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 624-629
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2003, 53 (4), 397–403

Integrating DNA Collection into the Latent Print Section

Author(s): Amick, Janeice; Bivins, Dale; Cathcart, Kerrie; Hammer, Lesley; Pippin, Turner
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 630-637
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2004, 54 (2), 170–177

Recovery of Latent Prints from Human Skin

Author(s): Sampson, William C.; Sampson, Karen L.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 638-661
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2005, 55 (3), 362–385

A Modified Method for Purification of Biological Samples Collected on FTA Cards for STR Analysis

Author(s): Barash, Mark; Shpitzen, Moshe; Gafny, Ron; Zamir, Ashira
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 662-670
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2006, 56 (2), 222–231

Footwear Examinations: Mathematical Probabilities of Theoretical Individual Characteristics

Author(s): Stone, Rocky S.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 671-692
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2006, 56 (4), 577–599

STR Analysis Following Latent Blood Detection by Luminol, Fluorescein, and BlueStar

Author(s): Jakovich, Cathy J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 693-698
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2007, 57 (2), 193–198

Effect of Photographic Technology on Quality of Examination of Footwear Impressions

Author(s): Blitzer, Herbert; Hammer, Richard; Jacobia, Jack
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 699-715
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2007, 57 (5), 641–657

Quantification of the Individual Characteristics of the Human Dentition

Author(s): Johnson, L. Thomas; Radmer, Thomas W.; Wirtz, Thomas S.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Cadle, David E.; Brozek, James; Blinka, Daniel D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 716-732
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2009, 59 (6), 609–625

A 37-Year-Old Cold Case Identification Using Novel and Collaborative Methods

Author(s): Wedel, Vicki L.; Found, Garry; Nusse, Gloria
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 733-749
Abstract: Reprinted from Journal of Forensic Identification, 2013, 63 (1), 5–21

An Overview of Forensic Art

Author(s): Birdwell, Suzanne Low
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 750-760
Abstract: Reprinted from IDentification News, 2013, 43 (5), 8–12.

Back to Basics: 1985 to 2015

Author(s):
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 4, Pages 764-774
Abstract: On the pages following the initial Back to Basics print (opposing page) are some of the more amusing QUIPs that have been presented by our past and present coordinators.

The Emerging Paradigm Shift in the Epistemology of Fingerprint Conclusions

Author(s):
Type: Commentary
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 201-213
Abstract: The forensic fingerprint discipline is on the verge of a new paradigm. This paradigm challenges the epistemic rationale of traditional fingerprint conclusions based solely on the intuition of fingerprint practitioners, and instead encourages the integration of empirical measurements and probabilistic reasoning [1–4]. The result is a shift away from categoric conclusions having statements of absolute certainty, zero error rate, and the exclusion of all individuals to a more modest and defensible framework integrating empirical data for the evaluation and articulation of fingerprint evidence. Although the fingerprint discipline should be commended for the progress made to date, this is only the beginning of a much larger journey forward. This commentary will briefly (1) discuss the emergence of this new paradigm, traversing from its extreme rejections to its gradual acceptance, (2) compare the transition that is occurring within the fingerprint community to a similar shift that occurred within the medical community two decades prior, (3) comment on the similarities between the progress of these paradigm shifts and that described by Thomas Kuhn as normal and expected during the course of paradigm shifts in the scientific community, and (4) recommend how the fingerprint community may continue to move forward.

Development of Latent Fingerprints from Stones: Field Work Provides Identifications

Author(s): Hefetz, I.; Pertsev, R.; Bar-sheshet, E.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 214-218
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the use of black magnetic powder for nonporous stones and the use of ninhydrin for porous stones yield fingerprints of good evidentiary value. These techniques were applied by crime scene investigators and resulted in the development of identifiable prints and the identification of several criminals. Three cases of latent fingerprint development from stones are reported.

Dye Staining of Duct Tape: An Overlooked Procedure

Author(s): Olenik, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 219-221
Abstract: By changing the carrier solution of the popular dye basic yellow 40, one is able to develop latent prints on problematic surfaces such as the adhesive side, as well as the smooth side, of duct tape. The tape has to be properly fumed with cyanoacrylate vapors before the dye is applied. After dying, the tape is aggressively rinsed, followed by drying. The developed prints are fluorescent under blue light as well as under a forensic light source in the 415 nm to 485 nm range and viewed with yellow or orange goggles. These prints are easily photographed.

Identification of Nonhuman Remains Received in a Medical Examiner Setting

Author(s): Pokines, J.T.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 223-246
Abstract: Forensic cases of skeletal or partially decomposed remains are frequently identified as nonhuman by forensic anthropologists or pathologists working in medical examiner or similar settings. Knowledge regarding which nonhuman species are turned in at the highest frequencies in a given region therefore will be useful for training forensic practitioners in nonhuman bone identification and lead to faster case resolution. The present research examined n = 355 cases turned over to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, from all jurisdictions in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The majority were received from November 2011 through October 2014, although some older cases were also included. The vertebrate species community in this northeastern United States region reflects the multiple environments throughout the state, including woodland, agricultural, and marine. The introduced domestic species cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) and abundant wild species white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were the top three taxa identified, and in general introduced domestic species dominated the profile. Nonhuman animal remains derived from accidental excavation of archaeological or historical midden deposits were an important source of skeletal remains, as was recent food waste. Although the majority of remains turned in for examination were comparable in size to adult humans, smaller taxa also contributed a significant proportion of the overall case sample. Forensic practitioners in regions with similar species populations may encounter nonhuman taxa at broadly similar rates. Forensic education programs should include a focus on their identification, because nonhuman cases may comprise a significant portion of overall casework.

Chemical Enhancement of Footwear Impressions in Blood Recovered from Cotton using Alginate Casts

Author(s): Jurgens, E.; Hainey, A.; Shaw, L.; Andries, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 247-272
Abstract: Depletion series of footwear impressions in blood were deposited on black cotton fabric after which they were lifted using alginate and subsequently enhanced using protein stains amido black (AB), Crowle’s stain (CS), coomassie blue (CB), and Hungarian red (HR). Other factors that were considered during this study were the age of the impression and the temperature of the environment. A novel score system for the enhancement of footwear impressions was introduced, which used the product of scores for size and detail of the impression.

The study showed that temperatures between 8 °C and 37 °C did not impact chemical enhancement, whereas the age of the impression did. An impression aged for 7 days yielded higher enhancement scores than impressions aged for 1 or 28 days, especially for AB. The results of depletions 1 to 5 were similar to the results of only depletion 5. However, at depletion 5, AB was the best-performing protein stain.

CB and AB yielded the highest level of enhancement of the impressions, whereas CS and HR resulted in poorer quality enhancements. AB was the preferred protein stain of use because AB was the most sensitive protein stain used in this study and there were fewer health risks involved in using water-based AB than in using methanol-based CB.

The Ability of Footwear to Produce Impressions of Good Detail in Sandy Soil Substrates

Author(s): Snyder, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Pages 273-288
Abstract: Seven different sandy soils were utilized to create three-dimensional footwear impressions from two athletic shoes (Saucony and New Balance). The footwear impressions were photographed and cast with dental stone. The impressions made in the fill dirt and the yellow builders sand retained the most randomly acquired characteristics. The impressions made in the Astatula fine sand and the crushed coquina retained the least randomly acquired characteristics. The results indicated that (1) soils with larger particles or very fine sand may retain less randomly acquired characteristics (fine detail) than other sandy soils, thus affecting the ability of the impression to retain good detail; (2) soils with higher clay or organic contents will retain more randomly acquired characteristics; and (3) impressions located in a variety of sandy soil types have the ability to retain a sufficient number of randomly acquired characteristics to effect an identification.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 3, Page 292
Abstract: A cool whorl in the hypothenar area of the palm.

The Efficacy of Blue Star Forensic on Wood Floors Coated with Lacquer and Shellac: A Cold Case in Progress

Author(s): Smith, K.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 097-105
Abstract: Blue Star Forensic is used to locate trace amounts of human blood at crime scenes. This experiment was constructed as the result of research into a cold case from 1963, where the victim was stabbed to death in her home. Primary information indicated that attempts were made by family members to clean areas of pooled and dripped bloodstains four days after the crime. Years later, the floor was refinished. Viewing of crime scene photos, case documents, and access to the remaining physical evidence, including the victim’s clothing, assisted the author in the development of a reconstruction theory and this experiment to test the possibility of finding remaining bloodstains at the original scene. Blue Star Forensic proved valuable in uncovering new forensic possibilities for this case.

The Utility of Baking Bone to Increase Skeletal DNA Yield

Author(s): Madonna, M.E.; Latham, K.E.; Nawrocki, S.P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 107-117
Abstract: It is well established that DNA extracted from both soft and hard tissues can contribute to criminal investigations. In many cases, the skeleton is the only biological material remaining at the crime scene and is therefore a target for genetic analyses aimed at individual identification. However, isolating DNA from osseous tissue can be challenging. Although heat is known to accelerate DNA degradation, recent information suggests that controlled heating of bone may be beneficial in increasing skeletal DNA yields. Heating appears to make the osseous material more brittle and therefore better able to release the DNA, although the quality of the resulting purified skeletal DNA may not be good enough to amplify for subsequent genetic analyses. This study systematically tests the influence of baking on the quantity and quality of extracted skeletal DNA. We conclude that baking bones for up to 72 hours prior to DNA extraction can increase DNA yield with no discernible influence on DNA quality. The increase in yield with heating is especially marked in samples that start out with low (less than 1.0 ug/mL) initial yields.

Single-Metal Deposition for Fingermark Detection—A Simpler and More Efficient Protocol

Author(s): Moret, S.; Bécue, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 118-137
Abstract: This publication presents the latest optimization of the single-metal deposition technique (SMD II) and its comparison with the previous version (SMD I). In this study, endeavors were made to simplify and strengthen both the reagents and the detection procedure to obtain a technique that can be implemented in a standard operational laboratory. As a result, the proposed technique is simpler and faster because the monitoring of both temperature and pH is no longer required. Most importantly, the technique is (1) more efficient, with at least ca. 50% more marks detected with SMD II in comparison with SMD I (% obtained by using split marks) and (2) more robust regarding the processing of porous samples.

Feasibility Studies for Fingermark Visualization on Leather and Artificial Leather

Author(s): Downham, R.P.; Kelly, S.; Sears, V.G.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 138-159
Abstract: A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of 14 fingermark visualization processes on fresh (24 hours old) natural fingermarks deposited on newly purchased leather items. The primary focus of this study was leather, but artificial leather (or faux leather) was also included given that both are considered to be challenging surface materials for fingermark visualization. Superglue fuming and iron oxide powder suspension were the only processes that visualized fingermarks of identifiable quality on leather, although the recovery rates were very low (4.2% and 12.5%, respectively). These processes were further investigated (along with carbon powder suspension) on an extended range of items with natural marks aged for 2 days and 1 week. Fingermarks of identifiable quality were visualized on leather by all three processes after 2 days of aging, but after 1 week, only iron oxide powder suspension was able to visualize marks (although recovery rates continued to be very low). Superglue fuming and the powder suspensions also demonstrated fingermark visualization capability on the artificial leather samples (with better recovery rates), and hence may be worthy of further investigation for use operationally where it can be difficult to distinguish between the genuine leather and artificial leather.

A Procedure for Processing Outdoor Surface Forensic Scenes Yielding Skeletal Remains Among Leaf Litter

Author(s): Pokines, J.T.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 161-172
Abstract: Although the general procedures of surface search for clandestine burials and surface remains and the forensic archaeological procedures for mapping, collecting, and excavating sites are well established, detailed procedures for the initial phase of outdoor forensic surface scene processing are generally lacking. The method described here is for outdoor, surface, skeletonized remains that have a central concentration and surrounding dispersed remains and other evidence with overlying obscuring leaf litter. The method proposed here includes inward clearance of the main concentration first, reversal of course outward to recover scattered items surrounding the main concentration, and safe discard of leaf litter onto a previously cleared area, followed by mapping of exposed items and, if required, excavation. The author refers to this method as the "inside-out" process for surface forensic scene processing. The method should be used as one portion of an integrated forensic archaeological system of outdoor evidence and data collection.

Taphonomic Characteristics of Former Anatomical Teaching Specimens Received at a Medical Examiner's Office

Author(s): Pokines, J.T.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Pages 173-195
Abstract: Human skeletal remains that had originally been prepared and used as anatomical teaching specimens are sometimes mistaken for cases of forensic interest and are turned over for forensic anthropological analysis. The present sample (24 cases) was analyzed for the overall taphonomic patterns that may be useful in establishing their origins. Findings consist of multiple characteristics that, when considered as a pattern, are unique to anatomical teaching specimens and include mounting hardware, drilling, sectioning, plastic reconstruction, and labeling. Other taphonomic changes observed in this sample, but not unique to anatomical specimens, include patina formation, shelf wear, and the repurposing of the bones for decoration or display. The overall taphonomic characteristics should be used in conjunction with ancestry estimation and contextual information to help designate unknown cases as former anatomical teaching specimens.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 2, Page 200
Abstract: This print falls into the unusual and interesting category because the pattern type is not questionable. It is an accidental whorl with an outer tracing. There are three deltas present as well as two separate pattern types. It appears to be rolled beyond a normal width so a reference to a seven count loop should be considered as well as a plain whorl, depending on what side of the finger was recorded.

Laterally Reversed Fingerprints Detected in Fake Documents

Author(s): Girelli, Carlos Magno A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Pages 001-017
Abstract: Cases involving laterally reversed fingerprints have been previously reported in the literature. In general, they are detected only when the expert already has suspects and is able to analyze the latent prints’ substrate. This case is about the analysis of hundreds of copies of supposedly fake identity documents in which reversed fingerprints were detected, not from characteristics of the substrate, but because of the attention paid by experienced experts during all stages of their work. Some difficulties associated with the detection of laterally reversed fingerprints are discussed in terms of visual perception, contextual bias, operational procedures, automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), and accuracy of decision making based on costs and benefits. Possible solutions for avoiding errors when dealing with probable lateral reversals are discussed: (1) applying the ACE-V methodology with blind verification and (2) in specific circumstances, performing comparisons with both direct and reversed prints and storing them in AFIS (if possible) to allow for future comparisons.

Factors Affecting the Near-Infrared Photography of Bloodstains

Author(s): Connor, M.; Mendecki, L.; Cordiner, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Pages 019-033
Abstract: Near-infrared (NIR) photography can be used to detect bloodstains on dark fabrics that are otherwise difficult to view with the naked eye. This technique is often successful, but may fail to detect all bloodstains that are present on a surface. We identify the factors that determine the success of NIR photography, which include the type of fabric, the effect of dyes in the fabric, and the type of bloodstains that are deposited on the fabric.

Developing Latent Fingermarks on Thermal Paper: Comparison of the 1,2-Indanedione-Zinc Chloride Dry Contact Method to the Hot Print System

Author(s): Goel, Tara L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Pages 034-043
Abstract: Developing latent fingermarks on thermal paper has become an issue for forensic investigators, because using organic development methods causes a premature discoloration on the heat-sensitive layer of the thermal paper. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine whether there was a statistical difference in the development of latent fingermarks on thermal paper between the 1,2-indanedione-zinc chloride (IND-Zn) dry contact method and the Hot Print System (HPS). One participant deposited 100 fingermarks on thermal paper 24 hours and 5 days before development. The fingermarks were then cut in half lengthwise for a total of 200 half prints. Of these half prints, 100 from the left side of the paper were developed by the HPS (50 were developed 24 hours after deposition and 50 were developed 5 days after deposition). The same procedure was applied with the IND-Zn method, but using the right side of the paper. Fingermarks were then graded using the CAST scale criteria. Conducting a binary logistic regression showed that the IND-Zn method enabled the development of superior prints (p<0.05) at both time intervals. A binary logistic regression was also used to determine whether time since deposition affected ridge detail development, regardless of method used. It was thus determined that fingermarks developed 24 hours after deposition had more ridge detail visibility (p<0.05) than those developed 5 days after deposition. Once developed, the prints developed by the IND-Zn method had improved ridge detail visibility over time, whereas prints developed using the HPS faded with time.

The Use of Natural Yellow 3 (Curcumin) for the Chemical Enhancement of Latent Friction Ridge Detail on Naturally Weathered Materials

Author(s): Perry, H.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Pages 045-066
Abstract: This study investigating the use of natural yellow 3 (curcumin, CI 75300) for the enhancement of latent friction ridge detail builds on earlier work. An optimized formulation is developed and it is used to visualize both sebaceous groomed and natural fingermarks on examples of metals and rigid plastics that had been naturally weathered for several months outside in the United Kingdom before fingerprint deposition. We also show that natural yellow 3 has the potential to be used as an alternative to solvent black 3 or used after it as part of a processing sequence to maximize fingerprint development.

Evaluation of a Solvent-Free p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde Method for Fingermark Visualization with a Low-Cost Light Source Suitable for Remote Locations

Author(s): Fritz, P.; van Bronswijk, W.; Dorakumbura, B.; Hackshaw, B.; Lewis, S. W.
Type: Article
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Pages 067-090
Abstract: The guidelines set forth by the International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) were used to plan and conduct the evaluation of a dry contact p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) approach to the treatment of latent fingermark deposits on porous substrates. It was found that the IFRG guidelines provided a practicable framework for the implementation of method optimization and comparison studies. Extensive investigations into the development method and its subsequent use across a range of conditions and substrates showed that the dry contact DMAB method is not as sensitive as the recommended ninhydrin techniques. Illumination in the form of an inexpensive LED light source was shown to be a promising alternative to the much more expensive Rofin Polilight, especially in teaching or remote environments.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2015, Volume 65, Issue 1, Page 096
Abstract: This is a very nice example of a double loop whorl. What's interesting is the tracing, because there is no upward trend. To find the tracing, you would still start with the left delta and continue tracing until a point opposite the right delta, or the delta itself, is reached. The tracing for this print would be an inner tracing. It would be referenced to a loop because there is only one good recurve in front of the left delta.

Accidental Characteristics — Not Just for Footwear

Author(s): Dodds, W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Pages 517-522
Abstract: The process of using class and accidental characteristics to identify footwear and other forensic evidence is commonly used by forensic identification specialists throughout the world. This case outlines and discusses the process used to identify a suspect motorcycle in a dangerous operation of a motor vehicle incident. The case involved the review of a video made by the suspect that was subsequently posted on the "You Tube" internet site.

New Forensic Perspective for Fast Blue B: From Cannabinoid Reagent in Toxicology to Latent Fingerprint Developer in Drug Cases

Author(s): Zampa, F.; Furlan, G.; Furlan, G.; Bellizia, M.; Iuliano, G.; Ripani, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Pages 523-535
Abstract: This research investigated using Fast Blue B (FBB) [o-Dianisidine bis (diazotized) zinc double salt] to develop fingerprints contaminated by the active constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis-contaminated fingerprints were placed on various porous and nonporous surfaces and were processed with FBB. Specificity tests (using 50 volunteers) and 100-day aging tests were conducted on white paper. The FBB solution developed the contaminated fingerprints on each surface, as well as on all samples during the aging test. The specificity tests had no false-positive reactions, which suggests the potential use of FBB in cases where an association of the actual drug handling, versus drug container handling, is desired.

Preliminary Investigations into a Commercial Thermal Fingerprint Developer for the Visualization of Latent Fingermarks on Paper Substrates

Author(s): Fritz, P.; van Bronswijk, W.; Fisher, D.; Lewis, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Pages 536-555
Abstract: The Thermal Fingerprint Developer (TFD-2) developed by Foster and Freeman is the first commercially available instrument to solely utilize heat treatment to visualize latent fingermarks. The chemical-free TFD-2 was able to develop latent fingermarks on a variety of substrates. The manufacturer's guidelines with regard to the optimal treatment settings were suitable for the more common substrates such as white copy paper; however, new protocols were required for the treatment of thermal paper. The TFD-2's ability to develop these samples and its use in sequence with traditional chemical reagents, such as 1,2-indanedione and physical developer, were demonstrated. The thermal developer may offer quick and easy heat application options for existing fingermark development reagents. However, the TFD-2-developed samples lacked the detail and contrast afforded by conventional amino acid-sensitive reagents under most conditions.

Pseudo-Operational Trials of Lumicyano Solution and Lumicyano Powder for the Detection of Latent Fingermarks on Various Substrates

Author(s): Farrugia, K.; Fraser, J.; Calder, N.; Deacon, P.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Pages 556-582
Abstract: This study presents pseudo-operational trials comparing a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process with a number of other enhancement techniques on a variety of substrates. This one-step process involves a product, 4% Lumicyano, which is a solution consisting of 4% by weight of a powdered dye (Lumicyano powder) dissolved in a cyanoacrylate-based solution (Lumicyano solution). The cyanoacrylate in the Lumicyano solution may be of a higher quality than that used in the two-step products.

Chemical Enhancement of Soil-Based Marks on Nonporous Surfaces Followed by Gelatin Lifting

Author(s): Hammell, L.; Deacon, P.; Farrugia, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Pages 583-608
Abstract: This study assessed the use of processing techniques (potassium thiocyanate, 2-2-dipyridil, potassium ferrocyanide, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, safranin, magnetic powder) for the enhancement of soil-based marks on nonporous surfaces, followed by gelatin lifting for the recovery of these marks. Other variables in the study included the use of nonporous substrates with varying colors (ceramic tiles, glass, linoleum, plastic bags, leaflets) and different aging periods (1, 7, 14, and 28 days) prior to enhancement and gelatin lifting. A numerical grading system from -1 (deterioration) to 4 (recovery of all fine detail) was adopted to assess the quality of the enhancement achieved.

In this study, the two most effective chemical enhancement techniques for soil-based marks on nonporous surfaces were safranin and potassium thiocyanate, specifically on grey linoleum and white ceramic tiles. One-day aging of soil-based marks provided poor results, whereas 28-day aging periods provided superior enhancement. In general, lifting with gelatin lifts provided further improvement on the initial enhancement, by means of contrast and sharpness. However, the use of gelatin lifting sometimes resulted in the deterioration of the original mark. Marks treated with safranin and lifted with white gelatin lifts provided even further improvement through fluorescence examination.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 6, Page 612
Abstract: This print is a loop first and then referenced to a central pocket whorl because the core is on the only recurving ridge. The fun things about it are the letters "G" and "Y".

Exploring the Potential of a Wet-Vacuum Collection System for DNA Recovery

Author(s): Garrett, A.D.; Patlak, D.J.; Gunn, L.E.; Brodeur, A.N.; Grgicak, C.M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Pages 429-448
Abstract: Traditional biological collection methods are compared to a wet-vacuum system through the collection of different volumes of blood on tile, denim, and carpet. The wet-vacuum technique was able to recover sufficient amounts of blood for Kastle-Meyer presumptive testing. Although it was possible to detect blood after wet-vacuum collection, swabbing resulted in the highest rate of positive results for the presumptive test.

The DNA yields and detection limits that were obtained when collecting from tile were similar between methods, suggesting they are equivalent in their ability to collect DNA from nonporous surfaces. When the techniques were tested on mock case surfaces, wet-vacuum collection resulted in higher DNA yields than either the double swab or taping methods. However, STR profiles that were obtained from these mock surfaces exhibited extraneous alleles at many loci, suggesting that these higher yields were the result of collecting DNA already present on the substrate.

The wet-vacuum collection efficacy was further tested by examining yields that were obtained when semen and blood were collected from tile, denim, carpet, and brick. Results show that the technique was successful in collecting DNA from all surfaces, although the yield from brick varied widely and was low compared to the other substrates. Of the 16 low-volume samples collected from brick, 8 resulted in no detectable DNA.

Tests that examined the wet-vacuum technique's propensity to spread sample were also performed and demonstrated that DNA was detected up to 4 inches from the collection site, suggesting caution must be taken if collecting biological evidence that is in the vicinity of another probative sample.

Sex Determination through Cephalofacial Measurements

Author(s): Agnihotri, A.K.; Jowaheer, V.; Kachhwaha, S.; Allock, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Pages 449-458
Abstract: This study aimed at using cephalofacial measurements to determine sex in the Indo-Mauritian population. Several indices were created using these measurements and were analyzed to identify the indices that would be useful statistically to differentiate males from females. A binary logit model was developed and used to evaluate the importance of the indices. The results indicated that three indices — cephalic, nasal, and facial — contribute significantly to the determination of sex in the population that was investigated.

Enhancement of Three-Dimensional Fabric Marks on Paint-Coated Surface of a Car

Author(s): Cohen, A.; Grafit, A.; Cohen, Y.; Shor, Y.; Wiesner, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Pages 459-474
Abstract: It was assumed that the high impact involved in car versus pedestrian accidents creates a microtexture imprint of the victim’s clothing on the car. This texture was detected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then small particle reagent (SPR) was successfully used to enhance fabric impressions. It is suggested that SPR fills in the three-dimensional imprint because of the physical characteristics and particle shape of MoS2, which is the active component of SPR, thereby enhancing the appearance of the impression.

Influence of BlueStar Reagent on Blood Spatter Stains on Different Fabrics

Author(s): Grafit, A.; Gronspan, A.; Rosenberg, T.; Eitan, Z.H.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Pages 475-488
Abstract: Often crime scene investigators must discover blood spatter that is not obvious to the human eye to obtain DNA and to analyze spatter patterns. Experiments show that the spraying of Bluestar on fabrics visually enhances blood spatter and that appropriate use of Bluestar does not alter the shape, size, directionality, or appearance of bloodstains on fabric, and thus the stains can be analyzed properly.

Detection of Cadaveric Remains by Thermal Imaging Cameras

Author(s): DesMarais, A.M.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Pages 489-510
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine whether thermal imaging (TI) could be useful in locating human remains. Cadavers of seven Sus scrofa domesticus were used during the autumn season in a wooded area of southern New England. Temperatures of the cadavers (core and external), insect larval mass, and ambient air were taken twice daily; TI was performed once weekly. The control subject was saturated with insect repellant to differentiate decompositional temperature fluctuations from insect larval temperature fluctuations. A significant temperature difference was found between larval masses and environmental temperatures. TI was successful in detecting thermal emissions from all insect larval masses and differentiating the remains from the surrounding environment.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 5, Page 516
Abstract: This pattern appears to be a birth defect so it would follow the rules for scarred, amputation, and missing at birth.

Fingermark Detection on Thermal Papers: Proposition of an Updated Processing Sequence

Author(s): Fitzi, T.; Fischer, R.; Moret, S.; Bécue, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 4, Pages 329-350
Abstract: The detection of latent fingermarks on thermal papers proves to be particularly challenging because the application of conventional detection techniques may turn the sample dark grey or black, thus preventing the observation of fingermarks. Various approaches aiming at avoiding or solving this problem have been suggested. However, in view of the many propositions available in the literature, it gets difficult to choose the most advantageous method and to decide which processing sequence should be followed when dealing with a thermal paper.

In this study, 19 detection techniques adapted to the processing of thermal papers were assessed individually and then were compared to each other. An updated processing sequence, assessed through a pseudo-operational test, is suggested.

Sulfosalicylic Acid and Rhodamine 6G as a Fixing and Development Solution for the Enhancement of Blood Impressions

Author(s): McCarthy, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 4, Pages 351-374
Abstract: The use of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) in blood enhancement reagents acts as a stabilizer to the proteins in blood impressions so that they may be further developed. In an attempt to provide an improved method to achieve luminescence from blood impressions, zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) were evaluated in different SSA formulations. R6G proved to be a more effective addition to the SSA fixing solution. This stain produced consistent luminescence on blood impressions, with luminescence achieved by both conventional forensic light sources and a TracER laser. The SSA + R6G solution was tested in sequence with both amido black and leucocrystal violet (LCV) reagents and did not inhibit the reaction of either blood reagent with blood impressions. Further, the SSA + R6G solution, when used as a fixative prior to LCV application, also improved the ability to generate and capture the luminescence of LCV.

Recommended Protocols for Fingerprint Detection on Canadian Polymer Banknotes—Part I: Chemical Development

Author(s): Lam, R.; Wilkinson, D.; Tse, T.; Pynn, B.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 4, Pages 375-401
Abstract: Polymer banknotes were first introduced in Canada, with the $100 denomination banknote, in 2011. Part I of this research compares split depletion latent prints, stored under ambient conditions for up to 14 days prior to development, from multiple donors on handled and unhandled $50 a-trial notes, to determine the most effective fingerprint development technique sequence currently available in Canada. The recommended protocols involve sequential processing with cyanoacrylate fuming, vacuum metal deposition, and fluorescent dye staining. It is important to process the banknotes with cyanoacrylate fuming as soon as possible to minimize print degradation. Optimal lighting and photography conditions, as well as some digital enhancement techniques are discussed in Part II. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is monitoring the treatment of seized polymer banknotes to validate the recommended protocols.

Recommended Protocols for Fingerprint Detection on Canadian Polymer Banknotes—Part II: Photography, Lighting, and Digital Enhancement Techniques

Author(s): Lam, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 4, Pages 402-422
Abstract: Polymer banknotes have been in circulation within Canada since 2011. The objective of this research was to determine optimal lighting conditions while examining and photographing impressions, including the use of infrared photography, detected by the following development sequence: cyanoacrylate fuming, vacuum metal deposition, and f luorescent dye staining. Some useful digital enhancement techniques using Adobe Photoshop CS5 were also explored, such as channel selection, image subtraction, and perspective crop.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 4, Page 428
Abstract: This impression has two equally good looping formations but only one delta. It would not be classified as a double whorl because it would be difficult to make a preferential choice between the two looping ridges.

Re: The Use of Various Chemical Blood Reagents to Develop Blood Fingerprint or Footwear Impressions. J. For.Ident. 2014, 64 (1), 43-70.

Author(s): Pereira, P.
Type: Correction
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Page 209
Abstract: The editor is retracting this article because of serious technical errors in the article that could mislead the reader. Some of the background information is faulty and there are concerns about some of the research information and results. The information and data should not be relied on or cited in future research. Although the article was reviewed and prepared for publication, it is now obvious that the rigor of the editorial process in this instance failed to discover the concerns brought to the editor's attention immediately after publication. The article has been removed from the online IAI database of published materials and replaced with this notice. The author and editor apologize to the readers for these problems.

Re: Redundant Publishing of “Determining the Quality and Sustainability of Friction Ridge Deposits on Envelopes Sent Through the Postal System”

Author(s): Holt, D.
Type: Letters
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 210-211

Liquid Latex as a Cleanup Step to Visualize Bloody Shoeprint Evidence at Fire Scenes

Author(s): Clutter, S.W.; Battiest, T.; McGill, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 212-222
Abstract: Arson is a frequently used method to conceal other violent crimes, but conviction rates for arsons are low because of fire's destructive nature, water suppression, and the assumption that forensic evidence has been destroyed.

This research was conducted to assess whether liquid latex is a suitable cleanup step to remove soot and debris from bloody shoeprints left on a variety of flooring substrates. Bloody imprints were placed onto eight common flooring surfaces, which were then exposed to heat and soot from burning furniture. The sooted shoeprints were photographed, and the surfaces were sprayed with liquid latex, allowed to dry, peeled, and re-photographed. The photographs were analyzed by a shoe examiner, who rated each pre- and post-latex-treated imprint for overall quality and ability to identify individual characteristics. The results showed that six of the eight flooring surfaces that were examined had higher quality ratings on the photographs taken post-latex versus pre-latex, suggesting that liquid latex is a reliable cleanup step to remove soot and debris that covers bloody transfer patterns.

Clues in Friction Ridge Comparisons: Tonal Reversals

Author(s): Castellon, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 223-237
Abstract: In this study, tonally reversed prints were created, collected, examined, and compared to their known counterparts to document and observe any differences between the two images. Certain visual clues were observed: a dark background, the width of dark lines becoming thinner, split ridges appearing in what is assumed to be the ridges, the ridge count between ridges being off by one, the appearance of black dots in the light ridges, and creases appearing as darker areas. Not all of these clues were observed in every print, but each print contained at least three clues that indicated that the print, or a portion of the print, was tonally reversed. The observed clues appeared consistently enough to be confidently used as an aid when comparing friction ridge impressions.

Nonporous Fluorescent Dye Stains: A Comparative Analysis

Author(s): Richards, D.A.; Thomas, J.R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 239-254
Abstract: A comparative study was performed with the objective of determining whether Ardrox, MBD, and RAM fluorescent dye stains are equal to or better than the current fluorescent dye stains that are commonly used on fingerprint evidence: MRM-10, rhodamine 6G, and basic yellow. Seven different substrates were used for comparisons: glossy paper, plastic bags, aluminum cans, glass, metal gun magazines, unfinished wood, and finished wood. It was determined that numerous types of fluorescent dye stains are necessary in a forensic laboratory. The dye stains that performed better overall and received higher ratings were basic yellow 2-propanol, MRM-10, and MBD.

Characterization of Latent Print "Lights-Out" Modes for Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems

Author(s): Meagher, S.; Dvornychenko, V.; Garris, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 255-284
Abstract: The term "lights-out" for automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) tenprint operations has been around for many years and is generally understood to mean "no human intervention is involved". But is this appropriate for AFIS latent print operations? Is it truly possible to conduct AFIS latent print searches without human intervention? The short answer is, not entirely, but the amount of human expert assistance can be greatly reduced. This paper introduces seven lights-out scenarios for supporting latent print examinations, defined herein as Tiers 1 through 7. Some of the salient pros and cons of each tier are briefly discussed. It is suggested that a more definitive analysis of the seven tiers requires a good cost–benefit model. These are not the only seven scenarios one could envision, and those presented could certainly be modified or even eliminated once a thorough examination is performed, but we propose these as a starting point for future discussion, exploration, and development. Part of the benefit of this discussion is to create a common understanding and standard terminology for the scenarios proposed and for future discussions.

Backspatter Simulation: Comparison of a Basic Sponge and a Complex Model

Author(s): Rubio, A.; Esperanca, P.; Martrille, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 285-303
Abstract: To present a better understanding of the backspatter phenomenon, we conducted experiments using sponges and complex models. We were able to (1) demonstrate that a basic sponge is unsuitable for use as a reference material (as opposed to a complex model comprising a screen, blood container, skin substitute, and so on) and (2) present a better understanding of the phenomenon through the observation and definition of three distinctive kinds of backspatters.

Selected Characteristics of MP3 Files Re-encoded With Audio Editing Software

Author(s): Koenig, B.E.; Lacey, D.S.; Reimond, C.E.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 304-321
Abstract: Detailed data analyses were conducted of the header metadata of 20 MP3-encoded files produced on 6 small digital audio recorders and then re-encoded with 4 commonly used audio editing programs. The purpose of this research was to identify specific changes made as a result of the re-encoding processes as they relate to forensic audio authenticity examinations. The re-encoding processes by the 4 audio editing programs always produced changes in the header sections that were different from the original recording format; additionally, 19 of the 80 re-encoded files had audio missing at the very end of the recorded data. The header format structure, the procedures followed, the numerous changes identified in the headers and the audio information of the re-encoded files, and a discussion of the authenticity implications are presented.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 3, Page 328
Abstract: This pattern (Figure A) would be classified as a loop first and then referenced to a whorl. It fits the rules for reverse interpretation because the extra re-curves do not show up under a normal recording (Figure B). The print needed to be rolled beyond a normal width for the whorl to appear.

Articulating Aspects of Common Sense Explanation in Crime Scene Reconstruction: The Role of Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Constraint

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 093-103

Case Study: The Enhancement, Comparison, and Matching of a Skin Texture Mark from the Back of a Hand

Author(s): Harrison, A.; Smith, K.; Bleay, S. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 105-121
Abstract: This case study describes the enhancement and examination of a skin texture mark on one of a pair of gloves processed with vacuum metal deposition with the objective of determining who made the skin texture mark found on a glove left behind at a murder scene. The use of aluminum powder and a black gel lifter was tested and found to give the best reference prints. This case continues to support the sparse empirical evidence to support the use of skin textures as a means to associate a particular individual as having been in physical contact with a particular object or surface.

The Physical Principles of the Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging Systems

Author(s): Cantú, A.
Type: Review Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 123-141
Abstract: This work discusses two principles from optical physics that explain how and why using short wavelength ultraviolet radiation to illuminate and view smooth, nonporous surfaces reveals latent fingerprints on them. The first principle involves the reflectivity of the latent fingerprint residue, which is known to contain components that have high absorbance in the ultraviolet radiation region. As the wavelength of the illuminant decreases toward the ultraviolet region, the residue becomes more reflective due to it becoming less transparent. The second principle involves the fact that optical surface roughness (and therefore its ability to scatter) becomes more prevalent as the wavelength of the illuminating radiation decreases. For a surface to be considered optically rough, the average height of its irregularities must be greater than the wavelength of the radiation illuminating the surface divided by four times the cosine of the incident angle of illumination. Because the average height of latent fingerprint residue has been experimentally found to be about 250 nm, the roughness criterion predicts that it can be visualized best when the incident angle of short wavelength ultraviolet illumination is between 10 and 30 degrees, which agrees with what is experimentally observed.

A Comparison on the Longevity of Submerged Marks in Field and Laboratory Conditions

Author(s): Sutton, R.; Grenci, C.; Hrubesova, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 143-156
Abstract: This study compares (1) the rate of degradation of submerged fingermarks (latent fingerprints) in field and laboratory conditions and (2) several development methods. Sebaceous-rich and eccrine-rich marks were deposited on metal, plastic, and glass surfaces before being submerged in both laboratory and field conditions of sea, river, and lake water environments. Samples were removed at various time intervals of up to 14 weeks and were developed using one of three reagents: Oil Red O (solvent red 27), Sudan black (solvent black 3), and gentian violet (basic violet 3). The quality of the marks was assessed using a minutia counting method. Results showed that eccrine-rich marks did not survive even for short times whereas sebaceous-rich marks had extended survival. Marks that were submerged in field conditions survived longer than those that were submerged in laboratory conditions. The three visualization methods showed that gentian violet and Sudan black performed equally well in developing sebaceous secretions and were superior to Oil Red O at submersion intervals of longer than 10 days. Of the substrates that were tested, glass produced superior results, but all surfaces yielded high-quality marks during the times used in this investigation. It is recommended that future work use field conditions to examine longevity of submerged marks and that fingermark visualization should be attempted for submerged items even if they are recovered after some months of being underwater.

Water-Soaked Porous Evidence: A Comparison of Processing Methods

Author(s): Simmons, R. K.; Deacon, P.; Farrugia, K. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 157-173
Abstract: This study compared the U.K. Home Office formulation for physical developer (PD) against Oil Red O (ORO) and a modified formulation of physical developer (MPD) that uses Tween 20 instead of Synperonic-N for enhancing fingermarks. Three different donors deposited fingermarks on porous surfaces (white paper, leaflets, and cardboard), with aging periods varying from 7 to 28 days. None of the techniques that were tested provided enhancement of latent fingermarks on leaflets, whereas poor-quality enhancement was observed on cardboard. In contrast, all techniques were more successful on white paper surfaces. The results obtained on white paper suggested that PD and MPD performed similarly, with PD detecting 82.3% of the deposited fingermarks and MPD detecting 86.5% of the deposited fingermarks. PD yielded a higher percentage (38.5%) of fingermarks with fine ridge detail (i.e., those with grade 2 or above) than MPD (35.4%). ORO, however, yielded poor results, enhancing only 4.5% of latent fingermarks, but showed no ridge detail in any of the enhancements (i.e., only showed grade 1 enhancements.)

Guidelines for the Assessment of Fingermark Detection Techniques

Author(s): International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG)
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 174-200
Abstract: The purpose of this document is to provide "best practice" guidelines for the evaluation of new or modified fingermark detection methods, from initial concept through to final casework implementation. These guidelines are not meant to be prescriptive; however, where research is conducted that is relevant to the scope of these guidelines, it is expected that significant deviations will be clearly indicated and justified in any associated presentations and publications.

This document has been prepared in consultation with members of the International Fingerprint Research Group (IFRG) and has been endorsed by the IFRG Steering Committee.

Delayed Justice: Inside Stories from America’s Best Cold Case Investigators

Author(s): Smith, M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 201-202
Abstract: Reference: Branson, J.; Branson, M. Delayed Justic – Inside Stories from America's Best Cold Case Investigators. Prometheus Books: Amherst, N.Y., 2011; 301 pages. ISBN: 978-1-61614-393-0.

Bone Remains - Cold Cases in Forensic Anthropology

Author(s): DesMarais, A. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 203-204
Abstract: Reference: Manhein, Mary H. Bone Remains – Cold Cases in Forensic Anthropology. Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge, USA, 2013; 123 pages. ISBN 978-0-8071-5323-9.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 2, Page 208
Abstract: This fingerprint is classified as a plain arch with no references.All ridges are following the same line of flow with the surrounding ridges. There is no up thrust, change of direction, or 45 degree angles. Several ridges are ending at about the same place in the center of the print.

Scientific Validation of Friction Ridge Analysis: A Case for Empiricism

Author(s): Rimmasch, P.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 001-012

Relaxation of Clenched Digits in Cadaveric Hands to Facilitate the Recovery of Postmortem Friction Ridge Impressions

Author(s): Siwek, D.; Reinecke, G.W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 013-017
Abstract: This paper will demonstrate a simple technique for relaxing digits in cadaveric hands. An incision placed at the crease of the wrist to sever the flexor tendons allows for effortless access to the palmar surface of the hands in order to record postmortem fingerprint or palmprint impressions for identification purposes.

Prediction of Stature from Hand Length and Foot Length

Author(s): Kuppast, N.; Iddalgave, S.; Suma, M.P.; Gupta, N.; Dileep, K.R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 018-027
Abstract: Identifying the remains of an unknown individual is an important part of forensic investigation, however, identification can become difficult when a complete body is not available. The present study was carried out to investigate the determination of an individual’s stature using hand length and foot length. In this study, 100 students from the J. J. M. Medical College in Davangere, Karnataka, were randomly selected. The height of each student, the length of each hand (right and left), and the length of each foot (right and left) of each student were measured. These data were subjected to statistical analysis. Correlation coefficients were derived and regression equations were developed that led to the conclusion that hands and feet can be used in the population under study for the estimation of stature. In females, the hand length gave a better prediction of stature when compared to foot length.

Analyses of Blue Gel Pen Inks Using Thin-Layer Chromatography and Visible Spectrophotometry

Author(s): Saini, K.; Kaur, H.; Gupta, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 028-042
Abstract: The examination of gel pen inks and their differentiation is extremely important because these inks have gained tremendous popularity in recent years. In the present study, an attempt was made to differentiate 27 gel pen inks using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and visible spectrophotometry. The inks were differentiated into nine groups using only visible spectrophotometry, but all inks were differentiated successfully by TLC using three different solvent systems. A statistical analysis was done for the TLC data using one-way ANOVA that concluded that the three solvent systems have discriminating power for the separation of the components of ink samples and that the discrimination power of the solvent systems was statistically significant. Therefore, thin-layer chromatography has proved to be a useful technique for differentiating gel pen inks and visible spectrophotometry is a complementary technique to TLC.

The Use of Various Chemical Blood Reagents to Develop Blood Fingerprint or Footwear Impressions

Author(s): Pereira, P.
Type: Correction
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 043
Abstract: The editor is retracting this article because of serious technical errors in the article that could mislead the reader. Some of the background information is faulty and there are concerns about some of the research information and results. The information and data should not be relied on or cited in future research. Although the article was reviewed and prepared for publication, it is now obvious that the rigor of the editorial process in this instance failed to discover the concerns brought to the editor's attention immediately after publication. The article has been removed from the online IAI database of published materials and replaced with this notice. The author and editor apologize to the readers for these problems.

Focus Stacking in Photoshop — Depth of Field Optimization in Macrophotography

Author(s): Dalrymple, B.E.; Smith, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 071-083
Abstract: Much of forensic photography involves close-up photography of impression evidence (e.g., fingerprints, footwear, tool marks) with minimal depth of field. This can be accomplished easily when the subject is on one flat plane, but the challenge increases when the subject occupies multiple planes (e.g., fingerprints on a curved surface, a bruise or tatoo that wraps around an arm or a leg). Focus stacking in Photoshop offers another option for extending the depth of field to record evidence on curved or irregular objects, while retaining sharp focus. This method may be completed with virtually any digital SLR camera, a macro lens, and a copystand.

From Crime Scene to Courtroom

Author(s): Conner, H.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 084-086
Abstract: Reference: Wecht, C. H.; Kaufmann, D. From Crime Scene to Courtroom. Prometheus Books: Amherst, NY, 2011, 315 pages, ISBN: 978-1-61614-447-0.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2014, Volume 64, Issue 1, Page 092
Abstract: These palms are interesting for several reasons: The top crease in the left hand runs straight across the palm. This is called a simian crease.

Individualizing Unidentified Skeletal Remains: A Differential Diagnosis Combining Pathological Changes and Biomolecular Testing

Author(s): Mundorff, A.Z.; Kiley, S.; Latham, K.E.; Haak, W.; Gilson, T.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 617-632
Abstract: Collaborative work among anthropologists, pathologists, and biomolecular analysts can maximize information included in a biological profile of skeletal remains. This case study demonstrates the benefits of a multidisciplinary approach to help diagnose disease processes from skeletal remains. In this case, skeletal pathologies on unidentified human remains appeared to be a result of both ankylosing spondylitis and spinal tuberculosis. This tentative diagnosis provided a starting point for biomolecular testing to help confirm these putative findings. The extraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from bone samples indicated the disease’s presence in this skeleton. Molecular screening for HLA-B27 to assess ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was, however, inconclusive. This case study demonstrates how macroscopic and biomolecular analyses can be useful in assisting in the identification of disease processes of an unknown individual in a forensic context.

An Identification Based on Palmar Flexion Creases

Author(s): Hays, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 633-641
Abstract: Identifications based on palmar flexion creases are not very common. Known case examples and known examples presented in court are likewise rare. Because of their rarity, many examiners may not be aware of their existence or they may be reluctant to effect a similar identification themselves. This case study is an excellent example of how palmar flexion creases can be used to effect an identification, particularly when the exemplars are lacking in ridge detail.

Recovering Dirt Fingerprints from Cadavers

Author(s): Ojena, S.M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 642-651
Abstract: In a test situation, fingerprints that had a light coat of dirt were placed on the thigh, neck, wrist, and ankle of a cadaver. Electrostatic lifts from those areas resulted in the recovery of identifiable latent fingerprints. This paper discusses under what conditions it may be possible to lift latent electrostatic dust or dirt prints from the skin of deceased persons and the results of preliminary experiments. Fine, dry dirt was used in these experiments.

Resting Gelatin Lifters Prior to Use

Author(s): McConaghey, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 653-659
Abstract: This paper discusses the importance of using proper lifting techniques when using gelatin lifters. Improper lifting techniques used at crime scenes can affect the physical size of an impression. Testing in the laboratory demonstrated how improper application techniques caused the footwear impression to have a smaller overall physical size.

Identifying a False Positive Reaction from Bluestar on Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): Sorum, E.D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 660-673
Abstract: Bluestar has gained popularity over traditional luminol formulas for bloodstain enhancement since it first became available in 2000. Most literature about Bluestar states that the difference between a false positive and a true reaction is very distinct and impossible to confuse. The reaction times, color, and intensity are stated to be different and easy to visualize, with the trained technician being able to see the difference. However, this difference is almost never defined in the literature. This paper examines those specific differences in closer detail, defining the colors, times, and intensity levels observed, showing that they are not as easily visualized as previously suggested. The differences are extremely subtle and may not be as distinct and easily detected as the literature suggests.

Sufficiency and Standards for Exclusion Decisions

Author(s): Ray, E.; Dechant, P.J.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 675-697
Abstract: Current research into latent fingerprint examiner decisions shows that erroneous exclusions are common and inevitable. These errors may be dramatically reduced by establishing clear standards for exclusion decisions and providing comprehensive training on exclusions to all latent print examiners. The first step in this process is to standardize verification for all exclusion decisions. Second, examiners must be able to use the inconclusive decision when it is appropriate. The inconclusive decision should be reached whenever there is insufficient detail in agreement to identify and when there is insufficient detail in disagreement to exclude. This decision gives the examiner an option that reduces the chance of erroneously excluding a print that was not located. The latent print unit at the Arizona Department of Public Safety has set its standard for exclusion to be Level 1 and Level 2 detail in disagreement. In other words, two or more target groups of minutiae near an anchor point such as a delta or core must be in disagreement for an exclusion. When these features are used in conjunction, examiners can be confident that they found sufficient disagreement to warrant an exclusion decision and reduce the chance of an erroneous exclusion. The latent print community should continue the discussion on a standard for exclusion to reduce the unacceptably high error rate on this decision and to clarify the appropriate use of the exclusion decision.

Variability in Visualization of Latent Fingermarks Developed with 1,2-Indanedione--Zinc Chloride

Author(s): Fritz, P.; van Bronswijk, W.; Patton, E.; Lewis, S.W.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 698-713
Abstract: Amino acid variability in sweat may affect the ability of amino acid-sensitive fingermark reagents to successfully develop all latent fingermarks within a large population. There has been some speculation that age, gender, or prior activity may be the cause for differences in the amino acid profile within a population.

Latent fingermarks from 120 donors were collected and treated with 1,2-indanedione–zinc chloride. Grades were given to treated samples based upon their initial color and resultant luminescent properties. Degradation of developed prints over three years was also assessed by regrading all samples and comparing the results to the initial grade.

Statistical analyses, such as the Mann-Whitney U test, revealed that there was a correlation between the grade and the age of the developed print, age of the donor, and the washing of hands. However, no link was found between the food consumption or gender of the donor and the grade.

Re: Determining the Signif icance of Outsole Wear Characteristics During the Forensic Examination of Footwear Impression Evidence. J. For. Ident. 2013, 62 (3).

Author(s): Bodziak, W.; Hammer, L.; Johnson, M.; Schenck, R.
Type: Letters
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 493-502

The Effects of Ninhydrin Processing on Common a-Amylase Tests

Author(s): Bitner, S.; Clark, J.; Priestley, M.; Ziencik, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 503-513
Abstract: Casework management is becoming an essential part to improving laboratory efficiency and meeting the needs of police agencies and the courts. To better handle casework management, it is useful to know the impact of certain processing methods on tests performed in other disciplines in forensic science. In this study, three types of envelopes were processed for latent prints using ninhydrin and were later sampled and tested for the presence of salivary a-amylase. The ninhydrin processing, whether it was performed with heat-enhanced development or developed at room temperature, did not have an impact on the results of the serological testing of the envelopes with any of the three tests that were performed.

Using DFO with Molecular Sieve: Preliminary Results

Author(s): Schwarz, L.; Heinrich, M.; Pfannkuch, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 515-524
Abstract: This paper discusses tests that were conducted using molecular sieve during the application of 1,8-diazaf luoren-9-one. Molecular sieve pellets suppress the formation of small watery globules that often emerge over a period of time. Moreover, if the stock solution is stored with molecular sieve, the shelf life is extended. The tests also show that molecular sieve has no negative effect on the quality of DFO treatment.

Accidental Characteristics in a Footwear Outsole Caused by Incomplete Blending of Fillers in the Outsole Rubber

Author(s): LeMay, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 525-530
Abstract: Fillers in the elastomer matrix of a shoe outsole may not be completely blended into the matrix and may be more resistant to wear than the remainder of the matrix. These fillers will wear down differently from the rest of the outsole matrix, thereby creating characteristics than can individualize the footwear.

The Bayesian Approach of Forensic Evidence Evaluation: A Necessary Form of "Survival" of the Ultimate Issue Rule in Criminal Trials

Author(s): Sallavaci, O.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 531-552
Abstract: The ultimate issue rule has been widely criticized and has been abandoned in most common law jurisdictions. Although its continuance is questioned in English criminal proceedings, this paper argues that there is scope for its survival in the context of forensic identification evidence. This paper refers to the standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic expert opinions referred to as the Bayesian approach. The founding principles of this paradigm, initially associated with the successful use of DNA evidence in criminal trials, today are widely applied in many forensic identification disciplines. This paper highlights the major contribution this model makes by shaping up the role of the expert in a criminal trial to pronouncing on the weight of evidence and not to addressing the ultimate issue. By requiring the expert to evaluate the evidence and report on the probability of the findings under a set of propositions and leaving the determination of the probability of those propositions to the trier of fact, the Bayesian approach conforms not only to logic and reason but to the legal principles too.

Inter- and Intra-Examiner Variation in the Detection of Friction Ridge Skin Minutiae

Author(s): Swofford, H.; Steffan, S.; Warner, G.; Bridge, C.; Salyards, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 553-570
Abstract: Friction ridge skin minutiae (bifurcations, ridge endings, dots) and their unique arrangements are the primary information detected and evaluated by tenprint and latent print examiners when comparing unknown friction ridge skin impressions to known (record) impressions. During the analysis of friction ridge skin impressions, examiners visually detect and interpret the minutiae available for comparison to the known impression. Because this is a subjective process, the detection and interpretation of minutiae is prone to variation. Whereas earlier studies have demonstrated inter-examiner variation using impressions having a wide range of quality, this study focuses on high-quality impressions to evaluate a base-line level of variation that can be expected when detecting and interpreting friction ridge skin minutiae under optimal conditions. The standard deviation (SD) of total minutiae detected f luctuated depending on the image, whereas it was much higher for those impressions bearing breaks in the ridges as a result of creases. When comparing various examiner demographics, many of the observed inter-and intra-examiner variations in the detection of minutiae were to a statistically significant degree (95% confidence level). Although the analysis of friction ridge skin minutiae is inherently subjective, variation in the detection of minutiae may not necessarily translate into variation of examiners' conclusions nor should be necessarily considered a limitation of the discipline. Nevertheless, efforts should be made by the discipline to reduce as much variation as possible. Accordingly, these findings suggest that attention should be given towards the creation of standards and guidelines related to defining and selecting minutiae and further emphasize the importance of documenting the specific minutiae and related information detected by examiners during the analysis of friction ridge skin impressions to facilitate greater transparency of the information relied upon to reach a suitability determination or conclusion (identification, exclusion, or inconclusive).

Impact of Minutiae Quantity on the Behavior and Performance of Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): Swofford, H.; Steffan, S.; Warner, G.; Bridge, C.; Salyards, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 571-591
Abstract: Although friction ridge skin is widely accepted to be unique, impressions of the friction ridge skin are not perfect reproductions of the skin and therefore will vary in their discriminating strength, depending on the quantity and quality of the minutiae and other features reproduced. Forensic examiners routinely analyze impressions and make determinations, based on their training and experience, of whether the discriminating strength of the features in an impression is such that a decision of identification or exclusion is warranted (e.g., whether the print is of value). Although minutiae quantity is not the sole factor for basing value determinations, it has been found through previous studies to play a major role. Because examiners' training and experience will vary, this study seeks to understand, in general, how examiners' decision-making behavior changes when faced with comparisons of friction ridge skin when minutiae quantity varies, but quality remains very high. The results indicate the decision-making behavior is impacted in a predictable manner between inconclusive and identification decisions (for mated sources) based on the number of minutiae present. Eighty percent (80%) or more of examiners' decisions were identification for mated sources when seven or more minutiae were present. No further increase in the relationship between examiner decision and minutiae quantity was observed for impressions with more than seven minutiae. These findings correspond well to the sufficiency chart published by the Scientific Working Group for Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST) in the area pertaining to high-quality impressions. Additionally, there appears to be no relationship between minutiae quantity and erroneous exclusion decisions. When presented with the same comparison twice, nine examiners (17%) changed their decision between inconclusive and the correct decision or vice versa. This study provides greater understanding of how minutiae quantity may impact examiners' decision-making behavior when faced with high-quality impressions. Although further research is needed with lower quality impressions, the results from this study suggest minutiae quantity may be a factor that forensic laboratories may consider when triaging which impressions should undergo enhanced measures of quality assurance.

Fingermark Simulants and Their Inherent Problems: A Comparison with Latent Fingermark Deposits

Author(s): Zadnik, S.; van Bronswijk, W.; Frick, A.; Fritz, P.; Lewis, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 593-608
Abstract: Commercially available fingermark simulants were compared to latent fingermark deposits to assess their efficacy as standards for a quality control assessment of fingermark development reagents. Deposits of the simulants and latent fingermarks were made on paper substrates and were developed using reagents that target amino acids (ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione) and sebaceous secretions (Oil Red O, physical developer). The resulting marks were compared for visibility and color. Significant differences were observed between the simulants and latent fingermarks in response to the fingermark development reagents. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the simulants compared to untreated latent fingermarks revealed differences in chemical composition. These results indicate that these simulants are not well suited as quality control standards in forensic laboratories and should be used with extreme caution in any form of research into latent fingermark detection.

The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice

Author(s): Zercie, K.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 609-610
Abstract: Reference: Mozayani,A.; Noziglia, C., Eds. The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice, 2nd ed.; Humana Press: New York, 2011, 600 pages, ISBN: 978-1-606761-871-3.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 5, Page 616
Abstract: A gallery of fingerprint finds.

Re: When Science and the Law Collide: The Legal Implications of Changed Expert Opinions.

Author(s): Chamberlain, M.
Type: Letters
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages 357-358

Development of Latent Fingerprints on Fired Brass Cartridge Cases: Impact of Latent Print Development Using Acidified Hydrogen Peroxide on Forensic Firearm and Toolmark Examinations

Author(s): Swofford, H.J.; Paul, L.S.; Steffan, S.M.; Bonar, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages 359-368
Abstract: Latent fingerprints developed on fired cartridge cases may serve as key pieces of evidence during forensic investigations. The success of developing latent fingerprints on fired cartridge cases, however, has been a challenge for investigators because of the nature of the firing process. Fingerprints that are deposited on cartridges prior to or while loading a weapon are likely to be destroyed by the extreme temperatures and abrasive forces caused by the firing process. Despite these odds, research has demonstrated that fingerprints, on occasion, do survive the firing process. The majority of previous research has focused on identifying various techniques to develop latent fingerprints; very little research has evaluated the down-range effects of the development techniques to forensic firearm examinations. This is of particular interest with acidified hydrogen peroxide (AHP) because it is an irreversible reaction having the potential to corrode the brass and negatively interfere with the various toolmarks linking that cartridge case back to the weapon from which it was fired. The present study evaluates the efficacy of AHP as a processing technique for developing latent prints on brass cartridge cases after they have been subjected to the firing process, the time required for development, and whether AHP processing negatively interferes with firearms examinations. These results suggest the following recommendations: (1) AHP is an effective processing technique, but should be applied after cyanoacrylate ester fuming followed by dye staining with rhodamine 6G. (2) Ridge detail, if present, can be expected to develop within 75 seconds of processing. (3) AHP processing appears to have a noticeable effect to firearms examinations in as little as 20 seconds. Therefore, coordination should be made between latent print examiners, firearms examiners, and investigators to determine the best course of action on a case by case basis.

Sequencing of a Modified Oil Red O Development Technique for the Detection of Latent Fingermarks on Paper Surfaces

Author(s): Frick, A.A.; Fritz, P.; Lewis, S.W.; van Bronswijk, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages 369-385
Abstract: A modified detection sequence is presented for the recovery of latent fingermarks on porous substrates. 1,2-Indanedione, Oil Red O (ORO) in propylene glycol, and physical developer (PD) were successfully used to develop recently deposited latent fingermarks when applied in the order given. The incorporation of ORO into the detection sequence increased the number of latent fingermarks that were detected compared to using the standard sequence of 1,2-indanedione followed by PD only.

Application of Oil Red O Following DFO and Ninhydrin Sequential Treatment: Enhancing Latent Fingerprints on Dry, Porous Surfaces

Author(s): McMullen, L.; Beaudoin, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages 387-423
Abstract: The recovery of fingerprints from porous surfaces is often problematic, because fingerprints cannot usually be directly lifted from such objects. As well, the fingerprints are often not visible to the naked eye. 1,8 Diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) and ninhydrin (NIN) are amino acid-specific chemicals and are widely used to visualize latent prints on such surfaces. When these two fingerprint reagents are used consecutively, more fingerprints are able to be identified. Because Oil Red O (ORO) targets lipids, the strategy is to add this reagent to the sequence DFO —» NIN to enhance previously undetected latent prints on dry, porous surfaces (e.g., paper). Targeting lipids can be a valuable asset to enhance prints that contain fewer amino acids or prints that have been exposed to a humid environment. In this study, an assessment of the usefulness of ORO in the DFO —» NIN sequence for dry, porous surface was conducted. The usefulness of the addition of ORO in the sequence was assessed based on its sensitivity as well as the contrast, the quality of the recovered fingerprints, and the ability of ORO to produce additional fingerprints on various paper matrices. This research demonstrated that (1) the pretreatment of evidence with DFO —» NIN did influence the ORO result, but did not prevent development of useful fingerprints with the sequential process, (2) the ORO sequential treatment did present lower contrast than ORO alone, but this lower contrast did not limit the ability of the fingerprint examiner to use the print, and finally, (3) the addition of ORO following the DFO —» NIN sequence enhanced fingerprints already developed with those two amino acid reagents and even developed previously undetected fingerprints. This research supports using ORO in laboratories to visualize or even locate previously undetected prints on dry, porous surfaces.

Presenting Probabilities in the Courtroom: A Moot Court Exercise

Author(s): Langenburg, G.; Neumann, C.; Meagher, S.B.; Funk, C.; Avila, J.P.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages 424-488
Abstract: At the 96th Annual Educational Conference for the International Association for Identification (IAI), held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a moot court exercise was conducted. In front of a live audience of approximately 300 attendees, two witnesses for the State presented a case to a mock jury. The case included the presentation of latent print evidence that, under current reporting conventions, would likely be considered as being of no value for individualization purposes. In this mock case, we explored the presentation of latent print evidence, which strength was quantified using a fingerprint statistical model. The mock jury, which consisted of 11 local laypersons with no professional knowledge of fingerprint science, heard direct examinations and cross-examinations of the witnesses. After each witness, and after closing arguments, the mock jurors answered surveys regarding their understanding of the weight of the evidence in the case. The mock jury results were tabulated live and presented to the audience. In addition, prior to surveying the mock jury, the audience was surveyed. The present paper reports the mock jury and audience survey results. It also provides commentaries by the authors regarding their respective views on the subject and interpretations of the results.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 4, Page 492
Abstract: This print is an accidental whorl, but two questions need to be answered before determining the tracing and what references would be needed: Is this print fully rolled from nail to nail? What is the pattern type of the opposite finger?

Forensic Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging

Author(s): Richards, A.; Leintz, R.
Type: Correction
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page 225
Abstract: On page 65 of the January/February 2013 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 63, issue 1), Figure 13 and its caption were not included. The figure and caption are shown below. The author and editor apologize for this oversight.

An Investigation of the Effects of Laminated Glass on Bullet Deflection

Author(s): Wilgus, G.; White, J.B.; Berry, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 226-232
Abstract: This study finds that, because of the gun and ammunition used, bullet deflection varies when penetrating a laminated windshield, but not enough to significantly alter the calculated location of a shooter. All of the rounds, with the exception of two, fell within the generally accepted range of negative five degrees to positive five degrees used in shooting reconstruction.

Angle of Impact Determination from Bullet Holes

Author(s): Wong, K.S.; Jacobson, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 233-246
Abstract: This paper discusses using the shape of a bullet hole to determine the angle of impact of the bullet.

Determining the Quality and Sustainability of Friction Ridge Deposits on Envelopes Sent Through the Postal System

Author(s): Holt, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 247-253
Abstract: This study explored the quality and sustainability of test friction ridge deposits on standard envelopes that were sent through the postal system. The test envelopes were collected and chemically treated using 1,2-indanedione with ZnCl2 (IND-Zn) to develop latent fingerprint impressions. The test envelopes were assessed to determine the extent to which the deposit was present, the level of friction ridge detail, and whether any foreign superimposed fingerprints deposited during the distribution process had affected the quality of the deposit. The research provided a statistical overview whereby the greater number of deposits were strongly present (sustainable), and the majority of these deposits exhibited friction ridge detail that was suitable for comparison and identification purposes (quality). Only a relatively small number of deposits were affected by the physical handling of the test envelopes. (See letter to the editor by Dominique Holt in JFI 64 (3).)

A Comparison Between Canine Detection of Blood Residue and Some Blood Presumptive Tests

Author(s): Schoon, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 255-262
Abstract: Because of their superior olfactory sense, trained dogs are often used in the investigation of crimes. We conducted a comparison of the sensitivity of two dogs versus three common blood presumptive tests (luminol, tetrabase, and Kastle-Meyer). The results revealed that the surface area that contained the blood contamination was an important factor. A smooth, nonporous surface (vinyl) was more difficult for dogs; some blood presumptive tests outperformed dogs on this surface. However, on a rough, porous surface (carpet), the dogs were superior. The findings cannot be directly extrapolated to field situations, but can be used in support of training dogs to enhance their sensitivity and to improve the application of blood presumptive tests.

A Comparison of Usable Latent Fingerprints in Dust: Electrostatic Dust Print Lifter Versus Magna Powder

Author(s): Loewenhagen, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 263-273
Abstract: The use of electrostatic dust print lifters (EDPL) on several forensically relevant substrates was explored and compared against magna powder processing. The substrates were characterized in two conditions: dusty fingers pressed onto a clean surface and clean fingers pressed onto a dusty surface. The EDPL was able to collect latent dust fingerprints with usable comparable detail some of the time when magna powder processing did not.

Natural Yellow 3: A Novel Fluorescent Reagent for Use on Grease-Contaminated Fingermarks on Nonporous Dark Surfaces

Author(s): Gaskell, C.; Bleay, S.M.; Ramadani, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 274-285
Abstract: Natural yellow 3 (curcumin) is a naturally occurring dye that is used as a food coloring. In this technical note, we show that natural yellow 3 can be incorporated into a formulation closely equivalent to that used for the blue-black fat stain solvent black 3. When this formulation is applied to surfaces, fingermarks contaminated with many types of greasy contaminant materials and sebaceous sweat become strongly fluorescent. This has potential for use on dark surfaces where greasy marks enhanced with the solvent black 3 reagent would not be readily visible.

The Enhancement of Fingermarks on Grease-Contaminated, Nonporous Surfaces: A Comparative Assessment of Processes for Light and Dark Surfaces

Author(s): Gaskell, C.; Bleay, S.M.; Willson, H.; Park, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 286-319
Abstract: An evaluation of several processes for the enhancement of fingermarks in scenarios where greasy contamination may be present is reported. In Part 1 of this study, we found that there are differences between the classes of contaminant enhanced by individual processes and that if the type of contaminant is known, it may be possible to identify the most appropriate enhancement process. In Part 2, the optimum enhancement process for three different scenarios (contaminated mark on clean surface, natural mark on layer of contaminant, natural mark under layer of contaminant) was investigated. In some cases, processes that were highly sensitive to contaminants were most effective. In other cases, processes that did not stain the contaminant but targeted natural fingermarks gave the best results. The results indicate that there may be benefits in conducting sequential processing using one or more of the processes studied to maximize the recovery of fingermarks from grease-contaminated evidence.

Comparison of the Quantitative Models for Predicting Gender Using Fingerprint Ridge Counts

Author(s): Jowaheer, V.; Pardassee, D.; Agnihotri, A.K.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 320-331
Abstract: In this study, three binary response predictive models (i.e., discriminant, logistic, and classification tree) were developed and evaluated for identifying gender using ridge counts of the fingers pertaining to the Indo-Mauritian population. The fingerprints of only three indicator fingers (i.e., index, middle, and thumb) were used. The correct prediction probability of the classification tree model was 0.94. Those of the discriminant model and the logistic model were 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. Thus, the classification tree model was ranked best and can be readily used by practitioners.

The Variability and Significance of Class Characteristics in Footwear Impressions

Author(s): Gross, S.; Jeppesen, D.; Neumann, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 332-351
Abstract: Crime scenes often contain footwear evidence. This evidence has been used by the forensic and legal communities for many years. This project was an effort to better demonstrate the variability and measure the weight of evidence carried by class associations in footwear examinations. The trace section of the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) has collected 402 known footwear impressions from the past 20 years of casework. These impressions originated from footwear from 127 different manufacturers. All impressions were compared to each other for a total of 80,601 pairs that were evaluated. The class characteristics used in these comparisons included general design element types, general outsole design, design element size-relationship, and wear. The goal of this study was to determine the variability of class associations in footwear impression evidence and to demonstrate that class characteristics alone carry high evidentiary value. Using the class characteristics present at the time of manufacture (general design element type, outsole design, and design element size-relationship), 99% of the impressions could easily be distinguished. When the class characteristic of wear was added, all 402 BCA footwear impressions were easily differentiated.

Forensic Podiatry Principles and Methods

Author(s): Massey, S.L.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 353-354
Abstract: Reference: DiMaggion, J. A.; Vernon, W. Forensic Podiatry Principles and Methods; Humana Press, Springer, New York, 2011; 186 pages. ISBN: 978-1-61737-976-5.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 3, Page 356
Abstract: As you look at this print, it is looking back at you.

When Science and the Law Collide: The Legal Implications of Changed Expert Opinions

Author(s): Chamberlain, M.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 133-141
Abstract: In a criminal trial, scientific evidence often provides crucial information about the identity of the perpetrator, or answers other kinds of questions having grave implications about a person's culpability. The law needs science. Juries need expert options. As United States Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer noted, we live in an "age of science", and "science should expect to find a warm welcome, perhaps a permanent home, in our courtrooms" [1]. But an undercurrent of tension exists between the goals and methods of science, and those of the law. This commentary will give an overview of how the law, while depending on scientific expert testimony to adjudicate criminal cases, struggles to accommodate the reality that scientific theories, methods, and technology continue to evolve after a trial ends. When that evolution implicates a convicted defendant's guilt or innocence, the law must reconcile principles of fairness with its interest in the finality of convictions.

Forensic Botany in the Resolution of an Agricultural Vandalism Case

Author(s): Hardy, C. R.; Steinhart, C. D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 142-152
Abstract: Vehicular crop destruction is a frequent yet rarely prosecuted form of agricultural vandalism and criminal mischief in rural areas. This case illustrates the importance of the less obvious but ever-present weed flora in the forensic investigation of vehicular crop destruction. The availability and use of a trained botanist is also emphasized.

Comparing Nearly Identical Images Using "Beyond Compare"

Author(s): Maloney, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 153-164
Abstract: A recent article outlined methods for the comparison of nearly identical images. These included a byte-by-byte comparison using specialized software as well as a visual comparison by highlighting differences in pixels between the two images based on a threshold using Photoshop. This article presents an example of image comparison and proposes another, simpler solution, using software named Beyond Compare, that may be of interest to investigators.

Pretreatment Processing for Nonporous Items Coated with Gasoline

Author(s): Daniel, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 165-173
Abstract: Although methods exist for the processing of oil or grease prints on items of evidence, it has proven problematic and most often ill-fated to develop fingerprints on items of evidence that have been completely coated with petroleum-based products. Attempts to safely remove the contaminant, while preserving and developing the underlying fingerprints, have had little or no success. Experimentation demonstrated that heptane can effectively remove a petroleum product, such as gasoline, from nonporous surfaces, thus preparing the surface for subsequent successful latent print processing with currently accepted methods for the development of oil and grease prints.

Exploring the Potential of Phosphorescent Fingerprint Powder

Author(s): Scott, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 175-187
Abstract: Comparisons were made between photographs of latent prints developed with phosphorescent (glow-in-the-dark) powder and photographs of latent prints developed with more traditional fluorescent techniques. In most instances, the photographs of latent prints that were developed with phosphorescent powder exhibited greater contrast. The effectiveness of tape lifting and re-processing phosphorescent prints, and using Adobe Photoshop's digital subtraction tool on photographs of phosphorescent prints, were also examined.

Evaluation of the Impact of Different Visualization Techniques on DNA in Fingerprints

Author(s): Norlin, S.; Nilsson, M.; Heden, P.; Allen, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 189-204
Abstract: More than 200 latent fingerprints were deposited on various surfaces under controlled conditions and then developed using nine different visualization techniques. DNA was extracted from the fingerprints and the samples were subsequently quantified for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA content, using real-time PCR. The results show that several of the evaluated visualization techniques (e.g., Wet Powder and black fingerprint powder) do not damage DNA and allow DNA analysis to a large extent. However, some of the visualization techniques (e.g., physical developer and silver nitrate) seem to eliminate DNA completely, highly degrade DNA, or introduce inhibitors, preventing subsequent analysis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate great variation in DNA amounts detected in samples developed with the same method.

A Study of the Variability in Footwear Impression Comparison Conclusions

Author(s): Hammer, L.; Duffy, K.; Fraser, J.; Daéid, N.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 205-218
Abstract: The 2009 National Academy of Science report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, cited a 1996 European study of footwear examiner conclusions and used it to illustrate that there were "considerable differences" found between conclusions of footwear examiners. The basic methodology of that study was repeated in 2009 in North America. Six footwear case studies were created and sent to participating certified footwear examiners. The examiners were asked to independently assess each case based on features that were clearly marked on each impression, and they were directed to use a specific scale of conclusions to report their findings. The results of this study, in contrast to the 1996 study, were that when experienced examiners used the same conclusion scale and compared the same features, there was little variability within their stated findings.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 2, Page 224
Abstract: A previous issue featured several examples of double or split thumbs. As a follow-up, here are the thumbs and full palms from one individual.

Photography of Faded or Concealed Bruises on Human Skin

Author(s): Baker, H. C.; Marsh, N.; Quinones, I.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 103-125
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare four photographic techniques [visible white light, cross-polarized white light, reflected infrared (IR) light, and reflected ultraviolet (UV) light] and to evaluate their use in photographing bruises of varying visibility. In total, 75 bruises were photographed. Of these 75 bruises, 32 were a result of paintballing and were photographed 3 times over 10 days. The remaining 43 bruises were acquired through accidental trauma to the skin and were photographed on one occasion. The results from this study show that white light and cross-polarized light displayed the highest contrast significantly (p<0.05), regardless of skin color, age of bruise, or visibility of bruise. A subjective study revealed that cross-polarized light was more efficient for visualizing bruises; the area of bruising and color of the bruise was more defined. Reflected UV photography was relatively ineffective at documenting bruises. Reflected IR photography successfully documented some bruises. On dark skin, reflected IR photography showed a greater potential to enhance bruises compared to light skin. However, white light and cross-polarized white light still achieved better results for contrast on all skin tones.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 132
Abstract: The pattern type would be a loop with a ridge count of 14 and then referenced to a central pocket whorl with an inner tracing. Depending on which finger it is, it might be necessary to reference the ridge count because of the unusual ridge structure.

Re: Forced Condensation of Cyanoacrylate with Temperature Control of the Evidence Surface to Modify Polymer Formation and Improve Visualization.

Author(s): Kent, T.
Type: Letters
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 2-4

Improved Multiple Exposure and Panoramic Photography of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Gabbay, Y.; Chaikovsky, A.; Chattah, N.; Cohen, Y.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 22-28
Abstract: In this report, we describe the improvement of the multiple exposure technique to eliminate a distracting background on a document on which a latent fingerprint was developed by DFO. We also discuss creating a composite panoramic view of a latent fingerprint developed by cyanoacrylate fuming on the curved surface of a rifle cartridge. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate two simple, accurate, and readily available techniques for photographing latent fingerprints on complex surfaces.

Foot–Hand Dominance and Foot Morphology: A Comparison of the Dominant Foot with Foot Morphology and Relationship to Handedness

Author(s): Kagan, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 29-40
Abstract: This study compares the relationship of the dominant foot with the dominant hand and compares the morphological length and width of the dominant and nondominant foot. The study disputes the assumption that there is a relationship for identification using foot dominance with hand dominance.

The Identification of Cell Phone Users from Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Lodhi, K.; Davis, S.; Grier, R.; Saxon, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 41-45
Abstract: In this study, the usefulness of cell phones as a source of latent fingerprints was investigated. Latent fingerprints were lifted from cell phones and compared to fingerprints of the owners of the phones. Identification of the cell phone user was possible in 11% of the latent fingerprints lifted from the cell phones (N = 121).

Forensic Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging

Author(s): Richards, A.; Leintz, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 46-69
Abstract: The use of reflected ultraviolet (UV) imaging has long been documented in the forensic literature, but little has been written about the "how" and "why" elements of using this technique in the field. This paper examines the different types of UV light and explains how and when to use different imaging techniques to visualize hidden evidence. The authors explain, in detail, the wavelength of light required, the image capturing equipment, and the type of evidence that can be examined using these techniques. (See correction in JFI 63(3))

A 37-Year-Old Cold Case Identification Using Novel and Collaborative Methods

Author(s): Wedel, V.; Foiund, G.; Nusse, G.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 5-21
Abstract: Cold cases are like time capsules for law enforcement. We try to open them using the methods that have been developed since any previous attempt. In this case, a young woman, Jane Doe #48, went unidentified between her death in 1971 and her exhumation and analysis in 2008. This paper details the specialties and forensic techniques used to achieve this identification. A new method using teeth to determine age and season at death is highlighted, for this was one of the first applications of the method to a real case.

Investigation into the Performance of Physical Developer Formulations for Visualizing Latent Fingerprints on Paper

Author(s): Sauzier, G.; Frick, A.; Lewis, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 70-89
Abstract: Latent fingerprints deposited on commercial photocopy paper were treated using various preparations of silver-based physical developer and the results from each were compared to those obtained with the standard formulation used by the Australian Federal Police. Five redox stock solutions were prepared with altered orders of reagent addition, and a further solution prepared with exchanged iron concentrations, to test the robustness of the method. Three redox solutions were prepared with specific reagents omitted to determine the significance of the role played by each in development. One redox solution was prepared using Tween 20 as the non-ionic surfactant to assess its suitability as a replacement for Synperonic N. An acid prewash was also prepared using malic acid as an alternative to maleic acid. Results showed the method to be robust to alterations in reagent addition, but not to significant concentration changes. The presence of all components was found to be desirable for distinguishable development of fingerprint detail. It was additionally found that Tween 20 gave at least equal performance to Synperonic N on recently deposited fingerprints. Finally, the use of malic acid gave equivalent fingerprint development but higher background in comparison to maleic acid.

Sequential Raman Chemical Imaging and Biometric Analysis on Fingerprints for Rapid Identification of Threat Materials and Individuals

Author(s): Guicheteau, J.; Swofford, H.; Tripathi, A.; Wilcox, P.; Emmons, E.; Christesen, S.; Wood, J.; Fountain, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 90-101
Abstract: Through a collaborative effort between the United States Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) and the United States Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory (USACIL), the ability to perform sequential Raman chemical imaging (RCI) and biometric analysis on fingerprints for rapid identification of threat materials and individuals was demonstrated. The chemical analysis and imaging of the fingerprints are achieved simultaneously through RCI. The fingerprint image, which bears the location and identity of the threat materials embedded within the fingerprint residue, is also suitable for subsequent biometric analysis through an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS). In our tests, AFIS consistently generated a candidate list containing the source of the fingerprint in the top ranking position. These results mark the first step towards the practical application and implementation of RCI for chemical and biometric analyses on fingerprints routinely obtained at security checkpoints or developed during forensic counter-terrorism and drug investigations.

Comparison of the Cotton Wool Powdering Technique to Conventional Powdering with a Squirrel-Hair Brush

Author(s): Soars, D.
Type: Correction
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Page 549
Abstract: Correction to an article on page 434 of the September/October 2012 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 62, issue 5).

Computer Fingerprint Enhancement: The Joy of Lab Color

Author(s): Smith, J.
Type: Correction
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Page 550
Abstract: Correction to an article on page 473 of the September/October 2012 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 62, issue 5)

Detection and Processing of Pilot Pen Thermo-Sensitive Ink When Rendered Visible or Colorless

Author(s): Brunetti, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 551-567
Abstract: Pilot Pen Corporation recently released the friction line of erasable gel pens. When the writer wishes to erase a mark, the friction caused by the rubbing of the eraser end of the pen generates heat at or above 140°F [1]. This chemically alters the composition of the ink, making it colorless to the naked eye. The colorless writing can be restored by subjecting it to temperatures of 14°F or cooler [1]. This article examines the effects of latent print processing and DNA swabbing on Pilot's thermo-sensitive gel ink, the utilization of liquid nitrogen to restore the ink's color, and suggested screening methods for detecting intentionally concealed writing.

Frequency of Patterns in Palms

Author(s): Ray, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 568-587
Abstract: The left and right palms of 499 individuals were classified for Level 1 pattern frequency in the interdigital, thenar, and hypothenar areas to establish a basic system for classifying palmprint patterns. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of patterns between right and left palms in the interdigital and thenar areas (p < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the frequency of patterns between right and left hypothenar areas (p > 0.05). Symmetry between the right and left palms of an individual was noted in each area of the palm. The established palm classification system could be adapted to improve searches in the next generation of automated palmprint identification systems (APIS). To fully realize the capabilities of an APIS, many agencies will need additional training in how to record more complete palmprints.

Comparison of Ortho-Tolidine and Amido Black for Development of Blood-Based Fingerprints on Skin

Author(s): Beaudoin, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 588-601
Abstract: After comparing the results obtained with ortho-tolidine and amido black for the visualization of blood-based fingerprints on pig skin, we determined that ortho-tolidine, despite its highly toxic nature, remains the best technique to use.

After testing various solutions, we determined that the solution containing sodium perborate and the remainder of a luminol solution were successful at cleaning blood stained by amido black on nonporous surfaces. These two solutions were then tested on the pig skin. Some cleaning could be achieved on pig skin after a maximum of one to two minutes after treatment, leaving a faint, bruiselike stain on the skin.

Preliminary Study of the Comparison of Inked Barefoot Impressions with Impressions from Shoe Insoles Using a Controlled Population

Author(s): Hammer, L.; Nic Daéid, N.; Kennedy, R. B.; Yamashita, A. B.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 603-622
Abstract: Barefoot morphology comparison examines the shapes the weight-bearing areas of a foot make in its impression to try to determine whether a suspect can be excluded as the person who made a crime scene impression or included as someone who could have made the impression. In some cases, an examiner is asked to compare a suspect's barefoot impression with an impression left by a foot on the insole of a shoe. Because of the constriction of the foot caused by the shoe, the comparison is not as straightforward, and the approach to the comparison must be suitably conservative. In this paper, we provide the results of a series of experiments designed to provide some validation for this type of examination. Inked impressions were compared to inked impressions, shoe insoles were compared to shoe insoles, and, most importantly, inked impressions were compared to shoe insoles. The "like versus like" comparison results (undertaken with known inked impressions or known shoe insole impressions) were evaluated against comparisons of inked impressions with corresponding insole impressions. The like versus like comparisons demonstrated better correspondences, and the comparison of inked impressions with shoe insoles demonstrated that the closest correspondence was for impressions made by the same person as opposed to impressions made by different people.

A Modified Oil Red O Formulation for the Detection of Latent Fingermarks on Porous Substrates

Author(s): Frick, A. A.; Fritz, P.; Lewis, S. W.; van Bronswijk. W.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 623-641
Abstract: A simplified procedure for the recently introduced fingermark development reagent Oil Red O (ORO) is presented. This lipid-sensitive reagent offers the potential to detect latent fingermarks on porous substrates that have been exposed to water, which is not possible using the more commonly employed amino acid-sensitive reagents. Using this modified procedure, recently deposited (less than one week since deposition) latent fingermarks were readily developed on a variety of paper types. The ability to detect fingermarks on paper surfaces that had been wetted was also demonstrated. The performance of the modified ORO procedure was found to be variable in its ability to detect fingermarks that had been left exposed to the laboratory environment for periods of time greater than one week. Comparisons with the previously reported procedure for ORO found that the proposed modified procedure produced a similar degree of fingermark development. Additionally, comparisons with physical developer (PD) found that both ORO approaches performed similarly to, or better than, PD on fresh (less than one week since deposition), charged fingermarks. However, PD was the superior method for detecting both older and uncharged fingermarks.

Latent Print Development Using Low Pressure Sublimation Vapor Deposition: Evaluation of a Prototype System

Author(s): Swofford, H.; Ballard, J.; Beegle, C.; Harbin, S.; Knaggs, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 642-659
Abstract: Numerous processing methods for the development of latent fingerprints have been introduced over the years, but many require hazardous and destructive chemical solvents to yield successful results. A novel technology involving a sublimation gas injection delivery system in a low pressure chamber has been developed in a prototype form that eliminates the use of chemical solvents for many of the most common processing techniques. In this evaluation, 231 latent prints were deposited and cut in half. One half was processed using the prototype system and the other half was processed using traditional methods of 7 common latent print processing techniques on 11 different substrates. The method of developing latent prints using common latent print processing techniques in the low pressure sublimation vapor deposition system developed latent prints of comparable quality to traditional processing methods. The most noteworthy improvements include safety of developing latent fingerprints on multiple forms of evidence (porous, nonporous, semiporous), no known interference with drug chemistry and DNA examinations, elimination of hazardous and destructive chemical solvents, standardization of processing regimens (controlled material or chemical concentrations and processing times) programmed into the system computer, and the convenience of using a single system for many common processing techniques used for the development of latent prints.

A Pseudo-Operational Investigation into the Development of Latent Fingerprints on Flexible Plastic Packaging Films

Author(s): Downham, R. P.; Mehmet, S.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 661-682
Abstract: A pseudo-operational trial using realistically handled articles was conducted at the Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST) to investigate fingerprint development approaches for treating flexible plastic packaging films. Vacuum metal deposition (VMD), superglue fuming followed by basic yellow 40 dye (SG/BY40), and powder suspensions were compared as primary chemical treatments. In contrast to the results of a similar trial carried out in 1986, we found that the effectiveness of VMD has diminished relative to that of SG/BY40. This is thought to be due to changes in the chemistry of the plastic material. Furthermore, the use of iron- or titanium-based powder suspension (a more modern fingerprint development process) was equivalent in effectiveness to SG/BY40. The application of different chemical and physical techniques in sequence to maximize the number of fingerprints developed was also investigated, resulting in a number of effective options including one for articles known to have been wetted.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 6, Page 688
Abstract: Split thumbs (two nail joints) are treated as if the outside print was not present. Prints A and B are right thumbs and prints C and D are left thumbs.

DNA versus Fingerprints

Author(s): Ferraro, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 405-408
Abstract: Many investigators are faced with a common question: Should I swab for touch DNA or process for fingerprints? DNA processing is on the rise and is quickly taking over the forensic world. But, is one method really better than the other? Will one be more effective in court? The purpose of this commentary is to explore the advantages and disadvantages for both fingerprints and DNA. First, let me begin with a little bit of history.

Assessment of the Possibility of DNA Accumulation and Transfer in a Superglue Chamber

Author(s): Gibb, C.; Gutowski, S.; van Oorschot, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 409-424
Abstract: Fingerprints may contain DNA, albeit generally at low levels. It is therefore a possibility that DNA may be transferred from a print or other biological material on an exhibit being fingerprinted to an unrelated article during the application of fingerprint techniques where multiple items are processed together or after each other. One such technique is superglue fuming. This study shows that DNA can accumulate both outside and inside of a superglue fuming chamber and that DNA can transfer from one exhibit to another.

Although the level of cross contamination may be considered too low to be of great concern in most cases, any transfer has the potential to interfere with further investigation and justice outcomes. In the future, the use of more sensitive DNA profiling technologies will further increase the detectability of trace DNA contaminants. Recommendations on how the risk of contamination may be reduced are provided for consideration.

Study on Developing Latent Fingerprints on Firearm Evidence

Author(s): Maldonado, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 425-429
Abstract: Firearms, live ammunition, and spent cartridge casings are often submitted to crime laboratories to be processed for latent fingerprints. The probability of successfully developing friction ridge detail of evidentiary value on live and spent cartridge casings is still questionable. This study focuses on the frequency and percentage of latent print recovery on firearm evidence over a two-year period at the Denver Police Department.

Comparison of the Cotton Wool Powdering Technique to Conventional Powdering with a Squirrel-Hair Brush

Author(s): Soars, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 430-463
Abstract: The powdering of latent fingerprints with the cotton wool powdering technique was evaluated on surfaces commonly encountered by fingerprint examiners at crime scenes. In addition, a large donor study was conducted using loaded and nonloaded samples from 20 donors. Results showed the technique to be an efficient and easy-to-use method that developed prints of comparable quality to those powdered with a squirrel-hair brush. (See correction in JFI 62(6))

Computer Fingerprint Enhancement: The Joy of Lab Color

Author(s): Smith, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 464-475
Abstract: Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended has a selection of color modes that can help maximize the signal-to-noise ratio when digitally enhancing color images of fingerprints. This article discusses the Lab color mode in Adobe Photoshop and explains some of the benefits this dynamic mode can provide. (See correction in JFI 62(6))

A Novel Method for the Consistent and Reproducible Deposition of Earprints: A Preliminary Study

Author(s): Fieldhouse, S.; Birch, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 476-487
Abstract: There is evidence to suggest that no two human ears are identical. They have therefore been used for human identification purposes. The quantity of force applied to an ear during the deposition of a mark is known to affect the appearance of the mark and the detail available for identification. When earmarks are recovered from crime scenes, they are commonly compared to control earprints that have been recovered using a variety of techniques that deposit earprints at multiple force quantities. A device called an earprint sampler has been developed to deposit earprints under controlled force quantities. Earprints were deposited using the earprint sampler at force quantities between 1 to 10 newtons (N). The results suggested that the quantity of force applied did affect the appearance of the prints, but the earprint sampler offered a means of controlling the deposition process. There was no statistically significant difference in the measurements taken from multiple earprints deposited at a 10 N force (p?0.05), which provided evidence of repeatability.

Latent Fingerprint Recovery from Simulated Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices

Author(s): McCarthy, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 488-516
Abstract: Following the detonation of explosives to simulate two vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), the effects of blast damage to latent fingerprints deposited on items within the vehicles and on vehicle surfaces were developed and recorded. Metallic-based fingerprint powders were selected and small particle reagent (SPR) formulations were prepared by the author and evaluated as suitable development techniques in recovering the test latent impressions during these experiments. A reflected ultraviolet imaging system (RUVIS) and superglue fuming (and subsequent dye staining) were also used to develop test latent impressions. Latent fingerprints with clear friction ridge detail were developed on both VBIED experimental vehicles. Although some test latent impressions where obliterated, a large number of test impressions remained unaffected by these blast effects. The results achieved with the use of the RUVIS imager, the author's silver-grey SPR formulation, and the use of gold and copper metallic powders demonstrate the suitability of these development techniques in post-blast latent fingerprint recovery.

Pretreatment Strategies for the Improved Cyanoacrylate Development of Dry Latent Fingerprints on Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): Montgomery, L.; Spindler, X.; Maynard, P.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Pages 517-542
Abstract: Cyanoacrylate fuming is a popular technique commonly used by evidence examiners for the development of latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. The process involves the preferential formation of hard, white polycyanoacrylate along the ridgelines of the fingerprint as opposed to the substrate background. This preferential deposition results in contrast between the fingerprint and substrate. This contrast may be further enhanced through the use of staining techniques such as rhodamine 6G. Because the cyanoacrylate mechanism is believed to be initiated by fingerprint constituents and catalyzed by moisture, it follows that fingerprints subjected to harsh conditions (e.g., heat, low humidity, or UV light) often produce poorly developed results. This study aimed to further investigate and validate the use of 10% w/v methylamine as a pretreatment strategy to overcome the limitations associated with the cyanoacrylate development of dry fingerprints and to compare the results with those obtained using previously proposed pretreatment solutions. The effectiveness of this treatment was demonstrated on samples similar to those encountered in casework, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated fingerprints confirmed the rejuvenation of the dry latent deposits through a qualitative assessment of the polymer morphology.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 5, Page 548
Abstract: This print would be classified as a cuspal tented arch. The root word would be cusp, which means: a pointed end, apex, peak.

Estimation of Original Volume of Dry Bloodstains Using Spectrophotometric Method

Author(s): Grafit, A.; Cohen, A.; Coen, Y.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 305-314
Abstract: Crime scene investigators are sometimes asked to estimate the blood volume spattered at the scene to assess the fatality of the incident for the victim or to assess the bloodstains' dynamics. Today, the recommended methods for the assessment of blood volume are based on empirical assumptions that may make them inaccurate or even erroneous. In this report, we offer another method of estimating the volume of blood that is based on Beer-Lambert's law, the physical law that correlates the absorption of light passing through liquid to the concentration of the absorbing substance in the liquid (at the wavelength where the absorption is maximal). This method is suited to a wide variety of surfaces and is accurate and specific for blood and might be an efficient method of solving the problem.

Fingerprint Staining Technique on Dark and Wetted Porous Surfaces: Oil Red O and Rhodamine 6G

Author(s): Beaudoin, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 315-329
Abstract: The Oil Red O and rhodamine 6G (ORO-R6G) staining techniques can be used to reveal latent fingerprints on dark, porous surfaces that have been previously wet. Tests were carried out on five previously wet porous surfaces that were aged 0, 1, 5, and 10 days to evaluate the feasibility of this sequential treatment with ORO and then R6G. The technique is simple, inexpensive, and the results are good.

Using Acetone to Increase Visualization of Ninhydrin-Developed Fingerprints Obscured by Common Pen Ink

Author(s): Coughlan, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 330-333
Abstract: Laboratory-grade acetone was used to remove or fade common pen ink that was obscuring details in latent fingerprints on paper developed with ninhydrin.

Forced Condensation of Cyanoacrylate with Temperature Control of the Evidence Surface to Modify Polymer Formation and Improve Fingerprint Visualization

Author(s): Steele, C.; Hines, M.; Rutherford, L.; Wheeler, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 335-348
Abstract: Tests involving temperature control of both the cyanoacrylate fuming environment and the evidence surface performed at Mountain State University Forensics Program, Beckley, West Virginia, have identified conditions to improve the visualization of fingerprints. Proper temperature controls resulted in increased cyanoacrylate deposition, modification of the pseudo-crystalline structure, and increased contrast. This research program has identified a controlled micro-crystalline structure modification of the polymer formation specific to latent fingerprints. The poly-ethylcyanoacrylate polymer structure can be controlled to yield a much more visible form due to the crystalline structure under these temperature controlled environments. This research also empirically suggests that the forced condensation of the cyanoacrylate deposition follows a specific heat capacity linear curve based on the evidence material type. Different material types have demonstrated this phenomenon in controlled temperature tests and we forecast that the polymer deposition could be forced to behave in certain ways based on the type of evidence material with temperature control of the evidence surface.

The use of these forced condensation techniques via temperature control add visual detection sensitivity to evidence processing protocols. (See letter to the editor by Terry Kent in JFI 63 (1).)

A Comparison of Three Ultraviolet Searching and Imaging Systems for the Recovery of Fingerprints

Author(s): Gibson, A.; Bannister, M.; Bleay, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 349-367
Abstract: Since the early part of the 20th century, ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been used to search and image forensic evidence. In particular, UV-C radiation (100-280 nm wavelength) was first noted to recover untreated fingerprints from porous and nonporous substrates in the 1970s, with commercial systems being developed to exploit this in the late 1990s. Advances in digital imaging technology have since revolutionized this technique, making it much more practical. This study compares the effectiveness of three imaging systems with UV-C light sources to recover fingerprints. The three systems evaluated were:

The number and quality of fingerprints recovered by the three systems were compared. Fingerprints were deposited on porous and nonporous surfaces and then were examined using the systems above, however, it was not possible to use the scanner to recover fingerprints from the nonporous surface.

The results show that the camera system with a back-thinned CCD detected the most high-quality fingerprints from the surfaces considered.

A Crime Scene Investigator's Method for Documenting Impact Patterns for Subsequent Off-Scene Area-of-Origin Analysis

Author(s): Gardner, R.; Maloney, M.; Rossi, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 368-388
Abstract: Impact bloodstain patterns occur across a variety of violent crime scenes. In the hands of a trained bloodstain pattern analyst, these patterns can provide a wealth of information that may be probative to the court. Unfortunately, trained bloodstain pattern analysts are not always on scene to capture the required information or guide the crime scene investigator in deciding what stains and measurements to document. This creates a data disconnect that will eliminate the possibility for any future area-of-origin (AO) analysis effort. This article describes a documentation method for crime scene investigators to bridge this disconnect and capture sufficient information for subsequent off-scene AO analysis.

A Pilot Study Assessing PCR Amplified Epithelial Cells Deposited on Drinking Vessels With and Without the Application of Chapstick to the Lips

Author(s): Latham, K.; Crescimanno, A.; Madaj, S.; Goldman, S.; Bush, G.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 389-400
Abstract: Although several studies have demonstrated that epithelial cells from both saliva and the skin will transfer to a touched object [1-7], no studies have systematically assessed the influence of common skin and lip protection, such as ChapStick, on the recovery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable DNA from inert surfaces, such as aluminum cans and ceramic mugs. This pilot study suggests that it is possible to successfully generate DNA profiles from transferred epithelial cell DNA in the presence of ChapStick residue. However, DNA quantity as detected using quantitative PCR was significantly greater from aluminum cans than from ceramic mugs. Furthermore, the effect of using lip protection varied depending on the type of drinking vessel used: the residue appears to impede DNA recovery from aluminum cans but enhance DNA recovery from ceramic mugs.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 4, Page 404
Abstract: This first print was submitted by Darrell Linville (Charles County Sheriff's Office, Maryland). I was not sure what caused the appearance of the ridge detail, so I sent it to some people for help.

Video Frame Comparisons in Digital Video Authenticity Analyses

Author(s): Koenig, B.; Lacey, D.; Richards, G.
Type: Correction
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Page 189
Abstract: Correction to an article on page 172 of the March/April 2012 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 62, issue 2)

Metamorphosis of Friction Ridge Skin

Author(s): Gibbs, P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 191-193
Abstract: A fingerprint technician discovered an unusual metamorphosis of friction ridge patterns thought to be caused by an unknown chemical compound.

Comparison of the Individual Characteristics in the Outsoles of Thirty-Nine Pairs of Adidas Supernova Classic Shoes

Author(s): Wilson, H. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 194-203
Abstract: This study was conducted on 39 pairs of running shoes (Adidas Supernova Classic, men's size 12) that were worn by one individual over approximately an 8-year time period, on similar surfaces for a similar number of miles. These shoes were examined for the presence of individual characteristics to determine whether they were able to be individualized. The results of this study support the premise that all individual or accidental characteristics are random and happen by chance, and that by using these characteristics, footwear impressions are able to be identified to a single source.

Determining the Sensitivity and Reliability of Hemascein

Author(s): Lowis, T.; Leslie, K.; Barksdale, L.; Carter, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 204-214
Abstract: Some of the most common tests for the detection of latent bloodstains include luminol, Bluestar, and fluorescein. Hemascein is a relatively new fluorescein-based method that uses the chemiluminescent reaction between fluorescein and the heme to detect latent blood. At present, few studies have assessed the sensitivity and reliability of Hemascein. The current experiment attempted to address this issue. Human blood concentrations (neat, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1,000, 1:10,000, 1:100,000, 1:1,000,000) were deposited on a variety of surfaces (linoleum, wood paneling, whiteboard, porcelain tile, and carpet) and then tested with Hemascein. We observed Hemascein to react with the greatest reliability on blood dilution ranges of 1:1,000 to 1:100,000. Hemascein was found to be most sensitive and reliable on light-colored, smooth, flat surfaces. It was also reliable and sensitive to neat (1:1) and 1:10 dilutions of blood on dark carpet. A benefit of Hemascein is the relatively few chemical safety issues associated with its use. A drawback is a high degree of background staining if sprayed improperly. Experimental work to assess the effect of Hemascein on subsequent DNA analysis is recommended.

Methods for Separating Duct Tape

Author(s): Kapila, T.; Hutches, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 215-226
Abstract: An experiment was designed to evaluate two things: (1) the different methods of separating duct tape from itself and (2) what effect, if any, the separating method had on the capability to recover latent prints from the adhesive side of the tape. The results showed that although several products assisted in the separation of the tape, the best overall results for obtaining latent prints were achieved with manual separation.

The Effect of Humidity on Long-Term Storage of Evidence Prior to Using Cyanoacrylate Fuming for the Detection of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Schwarz, L.; Hermanowski, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 227-233
Abstract: In Germany, cyanoacrylate fuming is the most popular method used for detecting latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces. Many articles have been written about cyanoacrylate and fingerprint detection, but it is difficult to find information about the influence of relative humidity on the quality of developed prints while storing items until fuming. The influence of humidity (30%, 54%, and 80%) while storing items at room temperature for a period of up to six months before fuming was tested. The results indicate that the influence measured is negligible.

Fingerprints and Firearms

Author(s): Pratt, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 234-242
Abstract: Data referencing the number of identifiable latent prints developed on firearms evidence over a three-year period was collected. The results showed a recovery rate of 13% on firearms and 7.6% on ammunition magazines. Factors that play a role in the recovery of identifiable latent prints are discussed.

Adapting Narrow Bandpass Filters to Photography

Author(s): Dalrymple, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 243-253
Abstract: Narrow bandpass filters used in luminescence photography have often significantly increased both the amount and the clarity of fingerprint detail when a background exhibits obstructive fluorescence. An assembly of the narrow bandpass filter in combination with an orange barrier filter is described. This affords the user greater speed and convenience.

Determining the Significance of Outsole Wear Characteristics During the Forensic Examination of Footwear Impression Evidence

Author(s): Bodziak, W.; Hammer, L.; Johnson, G.; Schenck, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 254-276
Abstract: This paper will define terms used in the forensic footwear examination and comparison of outsole wear, summarize past research in the area of wear, and discuss the various considerations that should be taken into account when evaluating general wear in casework comparisons. Considerations include factors that limit clarity of the impression, manufactured characteristics, and time intervals between when the impression was deposited and when the shoes were seized. A variety of general wear is encountered in footwear casework and can be used to limit the population of shoes that could have made the impression. However, general wear may appear similar on shoes of the same person and between shoes belonging to different people and therefore general wear alone should not be used to identify a shoe as the particular source of an impression. A survey conducted as part of this project indicates that general wear is not used to individualize footwear impressions by the international community of footwear examiners. (See letter to the editor in JFI 63 (5).)

Evaluation of a Novel One-Step Fluorescent Cyanoacrylate Fuming Process for Latent Print Visualization

Author(s): Hahn, W.; Ramotowski, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 279-298
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate fuming process to develop latent fingerprints in comparison with the conventional two-step processes that are currently utilized worldwide. Such two-step methods involve the use of dye stains that contain organic solvents, which have a potential to damage the developed cyanoacrylate polymer as well as an item's substrate. The method described here involves the use of a prototype modified Foster and Freeman MVC 1000 cyanoacrylate fuming cabinet and a special powder that co-fumes along with the cyanoacrylate monomer. Latent prints aged up to three weeks were placed on a number of different substrates (e.g., sandwich bags, trash bags, bubble wrap, sheet protectors, and textured plastic substrates). Preliminary results indicate that this one-step process was effective at producing quality fluorescent prints on a number of the nonporous substrates. Although there were some substrates that did not work well with this new process, for the most part, the overall quality of the development was comparable to that achieved using the current two-step fuming and dye stain procedure.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 3, Page 304
Abstract: These thumbprints are from two people on opposite sides of the country. The first print was submitted by Sara Pocekay, Buena Park Police Department, CA and the second print was submitted by Ioan Truta, Boston Police Department, MA.

The classification would be a plain whorl and then referenced to an accidental whorl.

Using a Forensic Light Source to Visualize Permanent Marker Ink After the Ink Has Been Removed

Author(s): Pelletier, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 105-108
Abstract: A forensic light source (FLS) was used to visually detect permanent marker ink that had been removed.

Fingerprint Powders: Aerosolized Application Revisited

Author(s): Swofford, H.; Kovalchick, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 109-128
Abstract: Investigators are frequently faced with the task of processing crime scenes where the evidence cannot be readily shipped to the laboratory for analysis. In such cases, the investigator typically relies on fingerprint powders to develop latent print impressions. Conventional methods of fingerprint powder application can increase the possibility of damaging or destroying latent print impressions primarily by the application of too much powder. An alternative method of applying fingerprint powder to the surface using an aerosol spray has been introduced in the past, but yielded unsatisfactory results. Modifications in formulation and aerosol technology have rendered this technique a viable alternative, making it a less challenging and a more convenient method of applying fingerprint powder. Aerosol spray helps to control the amount of powder released while maintaining an even distribution onto the surface and decreases the amount of brush contact with the substrate surface needed to fully develop the impression thereby lessening the chance of damaging the impression. Furthermore, this method exhibits no adverse effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Development of Fingerprints using Electrolysis: A Technical Report into the Development of Fingerprints on Fired Brass Cartridge Cases

Author(s): Nizam, F.; Knaap, W.; Stewart, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 129-142
Abstract: This paper examines whether electrolysis could be a useful method in the development of latent fingerprints on fired brass cartridge cases. The influence of electrolysis on galvanic metal corrosion was explored. We found that the clarity of the fingerprints was time sensitive and improved as acid concentration increased with lower duration of electrolysis.

Bromophenol Blue as a Chemical Enhancement Technique for Latent Shoeprints

Author(s): McNeil, K.; Knaap, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 143-153
Abstract: The enhancement of two-dimensional shoe impressions, where the matrix is soil, may best be approached using chemistry. Potassium thiocyanate, which reacts with iron particles in soil, is a generally accepted development medium used by forensic investigators. Bromophenol blue, a pH indicator that reacts with carbonates in soil, is used, but with less frequency, particularly in North America. This study compared both chemistries and their ability to enhance two-dimensional shoe impressions deposited from a variety of soil samples on varying substrates. Bromophenol blue, although determined to be an inappropriate enhancement technique for brown paper samples, provided significantly more detailed enhancement than potassium thiocyanate with other tested substrates, including plastic and linoleum.

The Development of a Wireless Electrostatic Mark Lifting Method and its use at Crime Scenes

Author(s): Milne, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 154-164
Abstract: This paper outlines the basic principles and practices involved in the technique of electrostatic dust mark lifting (ESL). Details are included about the development of a three-electrode wireless method used in some currently available commercial devices.

Video Frame Comparisons in Digital Video Authenticity Analyses

Author(s): Koenig, B.; Lacey, D.; Richards, G.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Pages 165-182
Abstract: The scientific authentication of digital video-audio recordings involves the examination of both the visual and acoustic information through a number of analysis steps. One step in this protocol is determining whether any of the individual images are identical to any other images within the same digital recording. Additionally, in some examinations, it is necessary to identify nonmatching pixels from nearly identical images. These duplicate, or nearly duplicate images, could be indicative of editing, an irregularity of a specific recording device, or just identically captured and processed images. In this paper, three questions involving video frame comparisons are addressed:

  1. Does a specific, commonly available, consumer-quality camcorder produce any identical images with a static visual view in standard and high definition modes?
  2. Are there accurate methodologies for determining whether two recorded digital images are identical?
  3. What digital analysis procedures are available for comparing two nearly identical images?

These questions are answered with the analysis of more than 147,100 frames from a consumer camcorder using digital data analyses and Photoshop routines. (See correction in JFI 62 (3))

Finger Print The Universal Religion of God

Author(s): Hutchens, L
Type: Book Review
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Page 183

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 2, Page 188
Abstract: The first print is an accidental whorl. It has two deltas, but doesn't conform to the rules for the other types of whorls. It would be referenced to a loop.

The second print could be classified as an accidental whorl if it is thought it does not conform to the rules of the other patterns. But, it has the three essentials of a loop: a delta; ridge count across a looping ridge; and the ridges enter on one side, re-curve, and exit the same side of the print. Is it considered an accidental whorl because the ridges enter from the top rather than lower on the side of the print? There is nothing in the Science of Fingerprints that says where they have to enter, only that they must exit the same side.

You be the judge: loop or whorl first??? The only time you would be wrong is if you did not reference it.

Fingerprint Visualization and Spectroscopic Properties of 1,2-Indanedione-alanine Followed by Zinc Chloride or Europium Chloride

Author(s): Alaoui, I. M.; Troxler, T.; Joullié
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
Abstract: We investigated the reaction product of 1,2-indanedione with alanine in methanol at room temperature using absorption, excitation, and emission spectroscopy. We observed that the pale pink color of 1,2-indanedione-developed fingerprints on papers is also present in the 1,2-indanedione-alanine methanol solution at an appropriate concentration. The addition of zinc and europium salts to the solution and to 1,2-indanedione-treated fingerprints was presented and discussed. We confirmed the laser-induced fluorescence enhancement when adding zinc to the 1,2-indanedione-alanine solution and also on 1,2-indanedione-treated fingerprints after post-treatment with zinc. However, no emission enhancement was observed with the addition of europium, even though we observed the formation of a 1,2-indanedione-alanine-Eu complex.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Page 104
Abstract: The classification for this print is a tented arch. The right re-curve has an appendage at the line of flow. Even if the appendage is a dot and not showing direction, the delta would be located on the only re-curve ridge. This print would not need any references.

Comparison of Latent Print Detection using Semiconductor Laser and LED Light Sources with Three Chemical Reagents

Author(s): Dalrymple, B.; Almog, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 14-27
Abstract: A variety of light sources and reagents are available for the detection and identification of latent prints. This study was undertaken to explore the optimum light and filter combinations of laser and light-emitting diode (LED) light for use with indanedione and two new reagents, genipin and lawsone. The light sources utilized were Coherent TracER lasers operating at 460 nm, 532 nm, and 577 nm and the Rofin Polilight Flare Plus LED operating at 505 nm.

Deliberate and randomly created latent prints were first examined utilizing the light sources alone and then again following treatment with the chemical reagents. Results indicated that treatment with indanedione-zinc chloride was the most effective at the excitation of latent prints. With the exception of the 577 nm laser and genipin, the two new reagents, genipin and lawsone, did not provide useful results under test conditions. Although the LED light source revealed a significant number of untreated impressions, the laser light source proved to be more sensitive at detecting untreated impressions, and the ridge clarity was frequently higher on the samples examined. Monochromatic sources (lasers) and broadband sources such as LEDs each exhibited the potential to detect evidence missed by the other.

Applying Anti-Stokes Phosphors in Development of Fingerprints on Surfaces Characterized by Strong Luminescence

Author(s): Drabarek, B.; Siejca, A.; Moszczynski, J.; Konior, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 28-35
Abstract: Using traditional luminescence methods to develop latent prints becomes problematic when dealing with backgrounds that demonstrate strong luminescence. In such instances, the application of time-resolved luminescence is considered a good solution. However, this technique requires the use of complicated devices that allow short-lived background fluorescence to be chopped off from a longer-lived fingerprint luminescence. This paper discusses a new and straightforward technique for the development of latent prints that involves using pigments with upconversion properties (anti-Stokes phosphors). The method requires an illumination source that emits infrared radiation.

Identification of Identical and Nearly Identical Frames from a Lawmate PV-500 Digital Video-Audio Recorder

Author(s): Lacey, D.; Koenig, B.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 36-46
Abstract: This case report sets forth the preliminary examinations plus the procedures and results of a specialized data analysis to identify identical and nearly identical video frames produced in recordings from a miniature Lawmate PV-500 digital video-audio recorder. A review of five investigative recordings and test recordings from two recorders, using the native DivX MPEG-4 encoding at the recorded rate of 24 frames per second, revealed a video stream containing identical and nearly identical frames that could be identified solely by their chunk sizes within the resulting AVI files. Based upon this research, data analysis procedures can be used with Lawmate PV-500 recordings and similarly configured formats to identify consecutive identical and nearly identical frames during forensic authenticity examinations of video-audio recordings.

Survivability of Latent Fingerprints Part I: Adhesion of Latent Fingerprints to Smooth Surfaces

Author(s): Cohen, Y.; Rozen, E.; Azoury, M.; Attias, D.; Gavrielli, B.; Elad, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 47-53
Abstract: A latent print was developed on an aluminum window frame more than two years after it had been deposited. The ability to develop a fingerprint after such a long time is probably due to a "fixation" phenomenon to the metal frame. To understand this unusual case, we simulated the event in the laboratory.

Survivability of Latent Fingerprints Part II: The Effect of Cleaning Agents on the Survivability of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Cohen, Y.; Azoury, M.; Elad, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 54-61
Abstract: The present work reports the results of experiments carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of some common commercial cleaning products on the survivability of latent fingerprints on smooth surfaces. This work disputes the assumption that latent fingerprints do not survive cleaning agents.

Individualization Using Friction Skin Impressions: Scientifically Reliable, Legally Valid

Author(s): Swofford, H. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 62-79
Abstract: The adversarial structure of the American judicial system encourages critical reviews and challenges of forensic evidence. As a result, the discriminatory power of friction ridge skin impression evidence has been a prime target of debate among critics of the latent print discipline for years, the primary argument being friction ridge skin examination is neither scientifically reliable nor legally valid. Therefore, these critics advocate the exclusion of expert testimony to identifications from the legal system. This article reviews some long-held challenges to the science of friction ridge examination, which include challenges to the premise of friction ridge skin uniqueness, testimonial claims of individualization, reliability of comparative interpretations, errors and error rate data, and the legal admissibility according to Daubert standards. The flawed logic on which these challenges are based is presented along with evidence in response to the challenges regarding the scientific reliability and legal validity of the science of the examination of friction ridge skin examination.

Is There a Need for 100% Verification (Review) of Latent Print Examination Conclusions?

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Article
Published: 2012, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 80-100
Abstract: This research attempts to provide insight on the extent of verification as currently practiced within the latent fingerprint community. Ten questions were posed to this community regarding various aspects of verification; 56 agencies responded. The study results indicate that nearly every agency is performing verifications on 100% of reported fingerprint identifications. The study results also indicate that exclusion, inconclusive, and "no value" decisions are not being verified to the same extent. Interestingly, erroneous identifications constitute the minority of technical fingerprint errors, whereas erroneous exclusions, missed identifications, and inappropriate "inconclusive" and "no value" decisions are far more numerous.

Computer-Aided Courtroom Presentation of Shoeprint Comparison

Author(s): Izraeil, E; Wiesner, S.; Shor, Y.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 549-559
Abstract: A simple, yet powerful method is described to aid the presentation of shoeprint comparisons in court. This method uses Adobe Photoshop Elements or other similar software for image processing and Microsoft PowerPoint for the presentation in court. The PowerPoint presentation will enable the expert to show the test impressions overlapping the prints, gradually change the opacity of the test impression on the print, and slightly move the test impression to imitate in great accuracy the comparison and evaluation process done in the laboratory.

Differentiation of Color Photocopy Toners using TLC, UV, and FTIR Techniques

Author(s): Saini, K.; Saroa, J. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 561-580
Abstract: In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate 28 processed color toners and 10 raw samples using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. When all of these methods were used, most of the toners were able to be differentiated.

The Gelatin Lifting Process: An Evaluation of its Effectiveness in the Recovery of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Bleay, S. M.; Bandey, H. L.; Black, M.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 581-606
Abstract: A study has been conducted into the effectiveness of the gelatin lifting process for the recovery of latent prints. The theory of the process is presented, followed by a series of experiments to investigate different aspects of its performance. These include a direct comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin lifting versus powdering and gelatin lifting, an investigation of the effectiveness of the process on different surfaces, experiments to establish the effect of the age of the print and the storage method on latent print quality, and tests to establish the potential position of gelatin lifting within sequential treatment regimes. It is concluded that gelatin lifting does have potential applications for latent print recovery, in particular on heavily contaminated surfaces or as a nondestructive process on surfaces that cannot easily be chemically treated, such as electrical equipment. Gelatin lifting without powdering is not as effective as powdering, but it works well on a range of nonporous surfaces, especially on smooth surfaces. The effectiveness of the technique reduces as the age of the latent print increases, and it was found that storage of the lift without a cover is best for preserving the lifted impression. Gelatin lifting may have a detrimental effect on some subsequent development processes, so its use in sequential processing should be considered carefully.

Forensic Light Source and Environmental Effects on the Performance of 1,2-Indanedione–Zinc Chloride and 1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one for the Recovery of Latent Prints on Porous Substrates

Author(s): Lam, R.; Wilkinson, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 607-620
Abstract: This study compared split depletion latent prints, aged up to 12 weeks, from multiple donors on a variety of substrates to determine whether 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one should be replaced with 1,2-indanedione–zinc chloride as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s standard chemical latent print development technique for porous exhibits. It was found that 1,2-indanedione–zinc chloride developed more latent prints, which also appeared to be more brightly fluorescent than those of 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one. The performance of 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one was reduced in high relative humidity, whereas 1,2-indanedione–zinc chloride did not seem to be affected by changes in relative humidity. The solid state laser revealed the most latent prints, however the MiniCrimeScope and the Polilight were both comparable to the laser. The RCMP is conducting a nationwide field trial to validate this method for casework.

Comparison of Different Physical Developer Working Solutions – Part I: Longevity Studies

Author(s): Houlgrave, S.; Andress, M.; Ramotowski, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 621-639
Abstract: Physical developer (PD) is a widely used chemical processing technique for the development of latent prints on dry or wetted porous surfaces. The objective of Part I of this research was to verify that the United States Secret Service (USSS) formulation for PD will outlast the 7- to 10-day shelf life that is mentioned by some practitioners. The USSS recently changed the nonionic surfactant from Synperonic N to Tween 20, which appears to have improved the longevity of the working solution. This research compared fresh and aged batches of working solutions using both nonionic surfactants and determined that PD working solutions incorporating Synperonic N had a shelf-life ranging from 10 to 15 days, whereas PD working solutions incorporating Tween 20 had a shelf life of approximately 2 ½ months. In addition, Part II of this research will discuss the importance of reliability testing to determine the stability of the reagent and comparisons conducted between two different reliability test solutions, gold chloride (AuCl3) and EDTA tetra sodium salt.

Comparison of Different Physical Developer Working Solutions – Part II: Reliability Studies

Author(s): Houlgrave, S.; Ramotowski, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 640-651
Abstract: Physical developer (PD) is a widely used chemical processing technique for the development of latent prints on dry or wetted porous surfaces. Part I of this research compared fresh and aged batches of PD working solutions using two nonionic surfactants, Synperonic N and Tween 20, and determined that PD working solutions incorporating Synperonic N had a shelf life ranging from 10 to 15 days, whereas PD working solutions incorporating Tween 20 had a shelf life of approximately 2 ½ months. The objective of Part II of this research was to discuss the importance of reliability testing to determine the stability of a reagent and comparisons conducted between two different test solutions, gold chloride (AuCl3) and EDTA tetra sodium salt. This study determined that gold chloride test solutions degrade on Whatman #2 filter paper as well as in solution, whereas EDTA tetra sodium salt test solutions degrade much slower on Whatman #2 filter paper and appear to remain stable in solution.

Identification of Wax Esters in Latent Print Residues by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectromertry and Their Potential Use as Aging Parameters

Author(s): Koenig, A.; Girod, A.; Weyermann, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 652-676
Abstract: Recent studies show that the composition of fingerprint residue varies significantly from the same donor as well as between donors. This variability is a major drawback in latent print dating issues. This study aimed, therefore, at the definition of a parameter that is less variable from print to print, using a ratio of peak area of a target compound degrading over time divided by the summed area of peaks of more stable compounds also found in latent print residues.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the initial lipid composition of latent prints identifies four main classes of compounds that can be used in the definition of an aging parameter: fatty acids, sterols, sterol precursors, and wax esters (WEs). Although the entities composing the first three groups are quite well known, those composing WEs are poorly reported. Therefore, the first step of the present work was to identify WE compounds present in latent print residues deposited by different donors. Of 29 WEs recorded in the chromatograms, seven were observed in the majority of samples.

The identified WE compounds were subsequently used in the definition of ratios in combination with squalene and cholesterol to reduce the variability of the initial composition between latent print residues from different persons and more particularly from the same person. Finally, the influence of a latent print enhancement process on the initial composition was studied by analyzing traces after treatment with magnetic powder, 1,2-indanedione, and cyanoacrylate.

Position of the European Fingerprint Working Group (EFPWG) of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) Regarding the NRC report

Author(s): Meuwly, Dr. D.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 677-679

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 6, Page 688
Abstract: There is ridge detail at the very tip of this thumb. Be aware if you are searching a print, deltas can be found on any part of the friction ridge surface.

Purported Drug Cartel Use of Vultures as a Method for Body Disposal

Author(s): Hamilton, M. D.; Spradley, M. K.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 425-429
Abstract: A series of photographs, purported to show Colombian drug operatives disposing of a rival by using flocks of vultures to consume the entire body, was disseminated within law enforcement, border control, and intelligence communities. The images were examined for contextual information, and an analysis shows the sequence is not indicative of drug cartel activities, but reflects a culturally accepted Tibetan funerary practice. The findings are discussed to better enable members of the law enforcement and forensic communities to recognize this document as a depiction of a religious mortuary tradition and not of body disposal activities currently in use by drug operatives.

Meeting the Fingerprint Admissibility Challenge in a Post-NAS Environment

Author(s): Eldridge, H.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 430-446
Abstract: Since the release of the 2009 NAS report, the fingerprint community has been trying to come to terms with a new paradigm for presenting conclusions in court. Commonly used phrases have been deemed inappropriate and fingerprint examiners have been left unsure of what they should say. In June of 2010, I testified in a Daubert-style motion to exclude fingerprint evidence, in which NAS report concerns figured prominently. Following the hearing, my testimony was ruled admissible without limitations. This article discusses the issues that were raised and describes the ways in which I addressed them. It is hoped that this article will serve as a primer and reference for those who find themselves faced with similar challenges.

Personalization and Calibration of the Control Question in the Control Question Test

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 447-467
Abstract: This article discusses the control question test (CQT) that is used in polygraph examination. The author proposes an additional test to select control questions that have emotional significance to approximate those of the relevant questions in a CQT. The concept is based on a set of questions concerned with various morally reprehensible actions, including one that is concerned with the current event. The test’s questions that cause the greatest changes in physiological parameters would be introduced as control questions in the prepared CQT. This would enable a selection of control questions that are best suited to the subject’s age, his or her legal and emotional situation, as well as criminal record (personalization). Additionally, this would enable a mathematical comparison between the extent of the reaction to the question about the current event and the reactions following the questions about morally reprehensible behavior. The determined proportions could be taken into account during the analysis of the results of the CQT proper. The author discusses several cases when such a test was applied and presents their records.

Using Bluestar Forensic to Detect Shoe Movement Transfer of Cleaned Up Blood

Author(s): Leintz, R. C. B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 468-476
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine whether investigative personnel walking on a surface that had been contaminated with blood and then cleaned would transfer the deposited heme onto a nonbloody surface, thus causing a chemiluminescence on the nonbloody surface. No transference of deposited heme was visualized using Bluestar Forensic, regardless of the number of re-entries created by researchers.

Trough Pattern Frequency in Blue and Black Gel Ink Pens

Author(s): White, K. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 477-485
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to visually examine the frequency and individuality of trough patterns when writing with blue and black gel ink pens. This research examines the trough pattern in conjunction with various substrates and how they may influence the frequency. This research also seeks to determine the reliability of trough patterns as a distinguishable feature for the differentiation of gel inks from others.

Using and Articulating the Scientific Method in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Author(s): Latham, H. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 487-494
Abstract: A discussion of the scientific method, as it is applied in bloodstain pattern analysis, is presented to assist the analyst in recognizing and communicating the various steps and the significance of his or her conclusion.

Using Reflected Infrared Photography to Enhance the Visibility of Tattoos

Author(s): Duncan, C. D.; Klingle, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 495-519
Abstract: The identification of deceased persons is an important responsibility of both crime scene and death investigators. Frequently, investigators must comb through missing persons reports to match up common features (e.g., scars, marks, and tattoos) or pathologists may have to rely on such distinctions to identify a body. However, environmental and time factors often make the identification of bodies difficult at best. As the body begins to putrefy and decompose, unique identifiers such as tattoos may go completely unnoticed. As the body passes through the various stages of decomposition, tattoos may become less and less visible. Fortunately, investigators can photograph these hidden or latent tattoos using infrared lighting techniques to create sharply focused photographic images of tattoos that may assist in identifying an unknown person.

The Recoverability of Fingerprints on Nonporous Surfaces Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; NicDaeid, N.; Bleay, S. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 520-536
Abstract: Previous work by the authors compared the effectiveness of ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), and physical developer (PD) as enhancement reagents for fingerprints deposited on paper that had been exposed to elevated temperatures. This research extends the previous study and investigates the recoverability of fingerprints deposited onto glass and ceramic surfaces in order to mimic the environment these surfaces may be exposed to within a fire scene.

This research has shown that ridge detail is still retrievable from ceramic after exposure to 800 °C (1472 °F) for 20 minutes, although, at temperatures in excess of 350 °C (662 °F), ridge detail would only survive if the fingerprints had been protected from direct exposure to radiant heat and direct air flow across the surface. This investigation has shown that the most effective enhancement technique overall was found to be superglue followed by BY40 at all temperatures except 200 °C (392 °F) in which case, iron powder suspension was superior. However, superglue followed by BY40 may have to be excluded as a prospective enhancement technique for many situations because the nonporous surface may become wet during firefighting activity. The use of silver vacuum metal deposition has been demonstrated to develop fingerprints after exposure to higher temperatures and may have future potential for this application.

Black Robes, White Coats: The Puzzle of Judicial Policymaking and Scientific Evidence by R. C. Harris

Author(s): Harmon, R. P.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 537-538

Age Estimation of the Human Skeleton by K. E. Latham; M. Finnegan

Author(s): Anderson, B. E.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 539-540

The Last Place You'd Look: True Stories of Missing Persons and the People Who Search for Them by Carole Moore

Author(s): Craig, E.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Pages 541-542

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 5, Page 548

Validation of Vinyl Static Cling Film for the Collection and Preservation of Dust Impressions

Author(s): Lemay, J.; Adams, S.; Stephen, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 317-332
Abstract: The use of vinyl static cling film (VSCF) to collect dust impressions on a variety of surfaces is compared to the use of an electrostatic dust lifter (ESDL). The VSCF produces slightly better results and provides a more economical method of collecting dust prints.

Reasoning, the Scientific Method, and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – Assuring that the Questions are being Answered Correctly

Author(s): Latham, H. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 333-340
Abstract: A bloodstain pattern analyst uses reasoning and the scientific method to reach reliable and unbiased conclusions. The scientific method is applied by making observations, collecting data, analyzing the data, forming hypotheses or theories, testing the hypotheses and theories, and drawing conclusions. While applying the scientific method, the analyst will employ logic and reasoning to answer questions that the data and observations will generate along the way. Understanding logic and reasoning will aid the analyst in making reliable and defendable conclusions when using the scientific method.

Search Results of Heat-Distorted Fingerprints using Sagem Metamorpho AFIS

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; NicDaeid, N.; Gibson, A. P.; Bleay, S. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 341-352
Abstract: This research investigated the results of searching fingerprints that had been distorted by heating the recipient surface. Fingerprints were deposited on uPVC, which was then exposed to sufficient heat to cause distortion of the substrate. The fingerprints were distorted vertically and horizontally as a consequence of the flow of uPVC resulting from the exposure to heat. Photographic images were taken of the fingerprints before and after distortion, and both sets of images where loaded into the Sagem Metamorpho AFIS. Successful matches were obtained in a number of cases. The results indicated that the quality of the fingerprint before heating influenced the matches of the distorted fingerprint. The results also showed that the fingerprints on vertically distorted substrates had more accurate search results than the horizontally distorted substrates. This research has shown that successful searches can be achieved from fingerprints recovered from substrates distorted by heat, providing the initial fingerprint is of good quality.

A Comparison of Reagents for the Visualization of Blood Prints on Knives with Black Handles

Author(s): Bouwmeester, M.; Gorré, S.; Rodriguez, C.; de Puit, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 352-362
Abstract: In this study, three reagents (amido black 10b, SPR-W, and acid yellow 7) were compared to visualize blood prints on black-handled knives. The blood prints were developed with these reagents one day and three weeks after the blood prints were deposited on the knives. The SPR-W showed the best results on the three different black surfaces.

Development of Aged Latent Prints on Envelopes

Author(s): Smith, S.; Sebetan, I. M.; Stein, P. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 363-372
Abstract: Envelopes (aged less than 1 year to 21 years) were processed using 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), ninhydrin, and 1,2-indanedione. The latent prints that developed were scored according to ridge detail. The DFO produced prints on 35% of the 20 envelopes processed and 10% had latent prints that were considered identifiable. The ninhydrin produced prints on 40% of the 20 envelopes processed and 15% had latent prints that were considered identifiable. The 1,2-indanedione produced prints on 95% of the 20 envelopes processed and 50% were considered identifiable. These differences were statistically significant (P value < .05, chi-square test). Interestingly, there was no difference (P value >.05) in the ability to detect identifiable latent prints on the aged envelopes (16 to 19 years old, N=19; 11 to 14 years old, N=58) compared to the newer envelopes (< 5 years old, N=22). The 1,2-indanedione method was shown to be the best process to use for developing aged latent prints on envelopes.

The GYRO System — A Recommended Approach to More Transparent Documentation

Author(s): Langenburg, G. M.; Champod, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 373-384
Abstract: The GYRO documentation system offers a simple and efficient method for a friction ridge examiner to document the analysis and comparison stages of the ACE-V process. GYRO uses a color-coding system to convey the analyst's degree of confidence in the existence of a feature and the degree of variation to which that feature may appear in a corresponding exemplar print. We also explore the benefits and utility of the PiAnoS software, which bears some similarity to GYRO, but with added tools.

Latent Fingerprint Quality: A Survey of Examiners

Author(s): Hicklin, R. A.; Buscaglia, J.; Roberts, M. A.; Meagher, S. B.; Fellner, W.; Burge, M. J.; Monaco, M.; Vera, D.; Pantzer, L. R.; Yeung, C. C.; Unnikumaran, T. N.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 385-418
Abstract: A survey of latent print examiners was conducted to determine how they assess fingerprint quality. Participating examiners performed detailed anonymous assessments of both the local and overall quality characteristics of latent and exemplar fingerprint images, using a custom-designed software application. Eighty-six latent print examiners from federal, state, local, international, and private sector laboratories each spent 8 to 12 hours assessing the quality of approximately 70 fingerprint images. The fingerprints were overlapping subsets of 1,090 latent and exemplar fingerprint images derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Database 27 and a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory dataset of images. An analysis of the results shows the extent of consistency between examiners in value determinations; the relationships between the overall perceived quality of a print and the size of clear ridge detail; and the relationships between quality, size, and correct pattern classification. An analysis of the examiners' subjective assessments of fingerprint quality revealed information useful for the development of guidelines, metrics, and software tools for assessing fingerprint quality.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 4, Page 424
Abstract: This print is a seven-count loop. The loop is not over the tented arch. It can be referenced to a whorl with an outer tracing.

Can ACE-V Be Validated?

Author(s): Speckels, C.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 201-209

Credit Where It's Due

Author(s): MacDonell, H. L.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 210-221

Agave americana: A Prickly Prospect for CSIs

Author(s): Burroughs, A. K.; Vincent, M. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 222-225
Abstract: Foliage is often used to both beautify and protect businesses and residences from unwanted trespassers, but the forensic value of the plants is often overlooked. Here, we examine the prospect of obtaining latent fingerprint information from the native cactus Agave americana.

Documenting and Reporting Inconclusive Results

Author(s): Maceo, A. V.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 226-231
Abstract: In a latent print unit, documenting and reporting identifications and exclusions is relatively straightforward. Inconclusive results, however, tend to be a bit more challenging because the meaning of and reason for the inconclusive result can be so varied. It has been the author's experience that many agencies and latent print analysts struggle with the documentation and reporting of inconclusive results. The purpose of this paper is to share one method of defining, documenting, and reporting inconclusive results that the author has found successful in a latent print unit. The author also recommends some quality assurance procedures associated with inconclusive results.

Design of a Control Slide for Cyanoacrylate Polymerization: Application to the CA–Bluestar Sequence

Author(s): Thiburce, N.; Becue, A.; Champod, C.; Crispino, F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 232-249
Abstract: Casework experience has shown that, in some cases, long exposures of surfaces subjected to cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming had detrimental effects on the subsequent application of Bluestar. This study aimed to develop a control mechanism to monitor the amount of CA deposited prior to the subsequent treatment. A control slide bearing spots of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of known concentrations and volume was designed and validated against both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and latent print examiners' assessments of the quality of the developed marks. The control slide allows one to define three levels of development that were used to monitor the Bluestar reaction on depleting footwear marks left in diluted blood. The appropriate conditions for a successful application of both CA and Bluestar were determined.

Development of Bloody Prints on the Adhesive Side of Duct Tape

Author(s): Aronson, C. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 250-259
Abstract: Bloody prints were observed on the adhesive side of a roll of duct tape in a homicide case. We were unsure how the methods for blood enhancement processes for the development of prints in blood would react with the adhesive surface. A test was conducted to determine the most effective technique to develop these prints. This test compared several different methods used in latent processing for adhesive surfaces versus methods generally employed for blood enhancement. Amido black proved to be the best method for developing bloody prints on the sticky side of duct tape.

A Fluorogenic Method for Lifting, Enhancing, and Preserving Bloody Impression Evidence

Author(s): Zarate, J.; Morden, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 260-280
Abstract: This paper describes the use of Zar-Pro fluorogenic lifting strips that can be used on bloody impression evidence. These easy-to-use strips successfully lift and enhance bloody impressions from a variety of substrates, regardless of porosity or background color. The lifting strips are highly sensitive and fluoresce when coupled with proteins and excited with an alternate light source.

Recovery of Fingerprint Evidence from Post-Blast Device Materials

Author(s): Sanders, N.; Waltenbaugh, D. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 281-295
Abstract: This paper examines and discusses some factors associated with the recovery of fingerprint evidence from post-blast device materials. The work describes some of the materials used in the construction of explosive devices, the explosive effect as it relates to the recovery of latent fingerprints, and tests conducted during a post-blast investigations training course. The tests included the initiation or explosion of a variety of devices containing different explosive charges and methods of initiation. Forty-two patent and latent fingerprints were placed into the devices to determine the possibility of recovering fingerprints. The post-blast recovered items were then processed with cyanoacrylate fuming and powders, Wetwop, or leucocrystal violet. Five of the 42 control prints were developed.

A Methodology for Three-Dimensional Quantification of Anterior Tooth Width

Author(s): Johnson, L. T.; Radmer, T. W.; Visotcky, A. D.; Ahn, K. W.; Blinka, D. D.; Wirtz, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Pages 296-310
Abstract: The use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology has been shown to be more accurate in measuring individual incisor tooth widths than the use of wax exemplars. There were fewer differences by investigators using CBCT than others using an F-test in a mixed model of the measurement differences of investigators, wax type, and which tooth was measured. In addition, the frequency of outliers was less in the CBCT method (a total of 5) as compared to the two-dimensional measurements in ether Aluwax (a total of 8) or Coprwax (a total of 12). Both results indicate that CBCT measurements accounted more precisely for tooth width and level of eruption.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 3, Page 316
Abstract: This print is an accidental whorl with an outer tracing. What makes it interesting is the placement of the third delta.

AFIS Searching of Impressions from Charred Friction Ridge Skin

Author(s): Nursall, J.
Type: Letters
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 109-111

Using Projective Geometry to Estimate Body Height from Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Recordings: A New Method

Author(s): Brolund, P.; Bergstrom, P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 112-122
Abstract: In this paper, a new method for estimating the body height of persons recorded on closed-circuit televisions (CCTV) is introduced. The method is based on the earlier work of Criminisi [1], but instead of estimating the vanishing line from parallel lines, the vanishing line is estimated from vertical distances of known height. Furthermore, additional information is provided by performing a reference recording of a standard reference tool using the same CCTV system that was used to record the original sequence. This approach increases the accuracy of the estimations. The method was tested in typical CCTV conditions with an average deviation of 0.18 cm and a standard deviation of 0.49 cm. For all estimated heights, the actual height fell within the estimated confidence interval.

One-Sided Impact Spatter and Area-of-Origin Calculations

Author(s): Maloney, A.; Nicloux, C.; Maloney, K.; Heron, F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 123-135
Abstract: It is common practice when calculating area of origin from impact spatter to use stains from both "sides" of the pattern – stains to the left and to the right of the blood source. Impact spatter at crime scenes, however, often provides the analyst with bloodstain patterns that are not as pristine as those created in a controlled environment. One situation that may arise is impact spatter consisting of stains from only one side of the pattern because of the removal of an object after the impact, such as a door or a person, or because the stains from one side are not on a planar surface. This study looks at a method of calculating the area of origin using stains from only one side of the pattern and shows that these partial patterns may still provide usable calculations to determine the area of origin.

Comparison of Smears of Wax-BasedProducts using Thin-Layer Chromatography and Microspectrophotometric Detection

Author(s): Ismail, D.; NicDaeid, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 136-146
Abstract: This work introduces a rapid and effective technique for the discrimination of smears of colored wax-based products (e.g., lipstick and shoe polish) on fabrics. Forty-two samples of commonly available wax-based products were analyzed. The analytical technique used was a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and direct microspectrophotometry (MSP) of the subsequent TLC plate. The resultant data was analyzed using self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM), an artificial neural network system. The combination of TLC and MSP facilitated the discrimination of all samples, and the SOFM system provided an easy-to-understand visual representation of the sample discrimination by type.

Analysis of Fingerprints Using a Color-Coding Protocol

Author(s): Laird, A.; Lindgren, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 147-154
Abstract: The National Bureau of Investigation Forensic Laboratory (NBI) developed a color-coding system to simplify and standardize fingerprint analysis and comparison reports. The system has also proven useful as a training aid, because trainees are now able to more accurately demonstrate to a training officer their understanding of what they see.

A Comparison of Six Fingerprint Enhancement Techniques for the Recovery of Latent Fingerprints from Unfired Cartridge Cases

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; Laing, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 155-165
Abstract: This work compared the effectiveness of six different enhancement methods on six different sizes of brass cartridges. One sebaceous fingerprint was deposited onto 25 of each size of cartridge to enable a statistical evaluation of the enhancement methods for each cartridge size to be undertaken.

The enhancement methods compared were cyanoacrylate fuming (CA) followed by brilliant yellow dye staining (BY40), CA followed by gun blue (GB) followed by BY40, GB only, CA followed by palladium deposition, palladium deposition only, and powder suspension. The six sizes of cartridges used in this study were .22 cal, .32 cal, 9 mm,.38 cal, 12 gauge ribbed shotgun, and 12 gauge smooth shotgun.

Two techniques provided the best results: (1) CA followed by GB followed by BY40 and (2) CA followed by palladium deposition. These two enhancement techniques were also compared statistically and no statistical difference in their effectiveness was found, suggesting that both techniques are equally as effective at enhancing fingerprints on brass cartridge cases.

Use of Physical Developer for the Visualization of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): de Puit, M.; Koomen, L.; Bouwmeester, M.; de Gijt, M.; Rodriguez, C.; van Wouw, J.; de Haan, F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 166-170
Abstract: We monitored the performance of the physical developer technique as an addition to the DFO–ninhydrin sequence for the development of latent fingerprints. The results described in this article contribute to our belief that the physical developer technique is a valuable addition to the sequence in our laboratory.

Investigation of the Reproducibility of Third-Level Characteristics

Author(s): Anthonioz, A.; Egli, N.; Champod, C.; Neumann, C.; Puch-Solis, R.; Bromage-Griffiths, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 171-192
Abstract: The process of comparing a fingermark recovered from a crime scene with the fingerprint taken from a known individual involves the characterization and comparison of different ridge details on both the mark and the print. Fingerprint examiners commonly classify these characteristics into three different groups, depending on their level of discriminating power. It is commonly considered that the general pattern of the ridge flow constitutes first-level detail, specific ridge flow and minutiae (e.g., ending ridges, bifurcations) constitutes second-level detail, and fine ridge details (e.g., pore positions and shapes) are described as third-level detail. In this study, the reproducibility of a selection of third-level chacteristics is investigated. The reproducibility of these features is examined on several recordings of a same finger, first acquired using only optical visualization techniques and second on impressions developed using common fingermark development techniques. Prior to the evaluation of the reproducibility of the considered characteristics, digital images of the fingerprints were recorded at two different resolutions (1000 and 2000 ppi). This allowed the study to also examine the influence of higher resolution on the considered characteristics. It was observed that the increase in the resolution did not result in better feature detection or comparison between images. The examination of the reproducibility of a selection of third-level characteristics showed that the most reproducible features observed were minutiae shapes and pore positions along the ridges.

Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials of Forensic Science

Author(s): Fisher, B. A. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 193-194

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 2, Page 200
Abstract: This pattern has a third delta. The first impression might be accidental whorl. The classification would be central pocket whorl with an inner tracing, because the delta on top does not have a re-curve.

PKU Card: A New Tool in the Search for Missing and Unidentified Individuals

Author(s): Parmelee, K. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 1-3
Abstract: PKU cards can be a source of DNA and may provide an accurate reference for comparison to unidentified remains.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Page 108
Abstract: The primary classification would be a plain arch referenced to a tented arch. It depends on what is going on at point "A". The ridge at point "A" bifurcates and flows from the left to the right; it does not form an angle or recurve. There is no recurve or obstruction at right angels in front of delta "B". The dot does not show any direction so there is no upthrust. You could reference it to a whorl or a loop, but it would not be necessary.

Studies Toward the Development of a Positive Control Test for the Cyanoacrylate Fuming Technique Using Artificial Sweat

Author(s): Velthuis, S.; de Puit, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 16-29
Abstract: In our studies toward the development of a positive control test for the cyanoacrylate fuming technique, we carried out experiments with artificial sweat. The sweat was produced by dissolving several organic compounds that represented natural sweat. We found that amino acids, in general, react well with the fumes of cyanoacrylate, and fatty acids react rather poorly. We also found that the hydroxyl moiety of lactic acid reacts better with the fumes of cyanoacrylate than with the acid functionality.

Using Indanedione-Zinc, Heat, and G3 Solution Sequentially to Detect Latent Fingerprints on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Schwarz, L.; Hermanowski, M. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 30-37
Abstract: The detection of latent fingerprints on thermal paper is difficult because the active layers turn dark as a result of having come into contact with heat or some common chemical solutions that are used for fingerprint detection. This article shows that the dark staining resulting from the use of indanedione-zinc or heat can be successfully reversed by the application of the discoloration solution "G3".

The Effects of Bluestar on the Kastle-Meyer Presumptive Test for Blood

Author(s): Vaughan, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 38-49
Abstract: Bluestar Forensic is an effective latent blood reagent used by forensic investigators in the field. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using Bluestar could affect the results of the Kastle-Meyer test used in forensic laboratories as a presumptive test. The Kastle-Meyer test is applied to samples that have been subjected to chemical blood reagents in the field. In this study, blood dilution sets were created with concentrations from neat to 1:1,000,000 on clean, white, 100% cotton cloth. Each dilution set was subjected to Bluestar and to the Kastle-Meyer test consecutively. After the initial applications of Bluestar to the sample sets, the Kastle-Meyer reagents produced positive results for blood. The sets were then kept for approximately two months at varying conditions. The sample sets were then tested again with both Bluestar and the Kastle-Meyer test. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that Bluestar does not affect the results of the Kastle-Meyer test when controlling for time and environment of samples stored.

Fingerprinting a 2,500-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy

Author(s): Knaap, W.; Turner, J. M.; Gallant, A.; Knaap, L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 4-15
Abstract: The authors were permitted to examine and record friction ridge detail from a 2500-year-old mummy. Reprorubber and Accutrans casting materials were used to record the ridge detail from the thumbs and a finger. This was completed without damage to the fragile mummy.

Oil Red O: Fingerprint Development on a 21-Year-Old Cold Case

Author(s): Beaudoin, A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 50-59
Abstract: Background information about Oil Red O (ORO) and a brief case description involving evidence being processed after 21 years and recovering two good-quality latent impressions are presented.

Consistency and Variability Among Latent Print Examiners as Revealed by Eye Tracking Methodologies

Author(s): Busey, T.; Yu, C.; Wyatte, D.; Vanderkolk, J.; Parada, F.; Akavipat, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 60-91
Abstract: We recorded the eye positions of 18 expert latent print examiners and 18 novice participants across two separate experiments that were designed to represent abbreviated latent print examinations. In the first experiment, participants completed self-paced latent and inked comparisons presented on a computer monitor while their eyes were tracked with a commercial eye tracker. The similarity of eye fixation patterns was computed for each group of subjects. We found greater variability under some conditions among the experts than the novices in terms of the locations visited. However, experts spent approximately 50% longer than novices inspecting the images, which may have led to differences in strategies adopted by the two groups. A second experiment used trials that always lasted 20 seconds and found that under these time-controlled circumstances, experts were more consistent as a group than novices. Experts also had higher accuracy, spent a greater proportion of time inspecting the latent prints, and had shorter saccades than novices. However, the two groups spent an equal time looking at regions that contained minutiae. The results are generally consistent with experts relying on a common set of features that they choose to move their gaze to under time-limited conditions.

The Efficacy of Submitting Fingerprints of Unidentified Human Remains to Federal Agencies

Author(s): Mulawka, M. H.; Craig, J. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2011, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 92-101
Abstract: Fingerprints from 109 unidentified human remains (UHR) cases at the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office were submitted to two fingerprint agencies to determine whether a significant number of additional identifications would occur from this effort. Fifty-one persons (47%) were identified as a direct result of this study, including several cold cases dating back as far as 1979.

Re: Wertheim, K.; Maceo, A. The Critical Stage of Friction Ridge and Pattern Formation. J. For. Ident. 2002, 52 (1)

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Letters
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 601-602

Improved Methods of Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Provide Enhanced Visualization of Untreated Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Plese, C. A.; Exline, D. L.; Stewart, S. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 603-618
Abstract: Improvements in hyperspectral imaging data collection and processing of latent fingerprints have been found to yield superior results to those previously obtained with a similar method. Hyperspectral imaging was used as a method of visualizing untreated latent fingerprints on both porous and nonporous substrates. A percent contrast calculation was applied to the unprocessed and processed hyperspectral images as a way to quantify the increased contrast between the fingerprint ridges and the background after the processing steps had been applied as compared to the unprocessed images. Hyperspectral imaging was successful with the visualization of various levels of ridge detail of latent fingerprints on paper, aluminum foil, and black tape subtrates, yielding resultant processed images that portrayed an average of 42.8% improved image contrast between the fingerprint ridges and the substrate background. This work is valuable in cases where fingerprints need to be visualized without development techniques for the purpose of preserving the substrate or the integrity of the print itself.

Steam Development of Latent Fingerprints on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Bissonnette, M.; Knaap, W.; Forkiotis, C. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 619-638
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use a novel steam technique to develop latent fingerprints on thermal paper. Several factors were investigated including the mechanism of reaction, the effect of time since fingerprint deposition, and the ability to develop fingerprints on thermal paper obtained from a variety of sources. The mechanism of the reaction was found to be a reaction with unsaturated lipids from sebaceous secretions such as unsaturated fatty acids and squalene. The steam technique was effective at developing fingerprints up to four weeks since deposition. Steam developed identifiable fingerprints on a wide variety of thermal paper, with a success rate of 41% overall. These results are comparable to other techniques used in law enforcement today. It was concluded that the steam technique is a viable method for developing latent fingerprints on thermal paper.

Development of Standardized Test Strips as a Process Control for the Detection of Latent Fingermarks using Physical Developers

Author(s): Kupferschmid, E.; Schwarz, L.; Champod, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 639-655
Abstract: Physical developer (PD) is a detection method for latent fingermarks on porous surfaces. This method presents several difficulties in its application (e.g., the instability of the PD solutions or the risk of obtaining strong background coloration on certain types of paper). In view of these difficulties, a test strip has been developed that contains four fields of ascorbic acid at different loadings and one field of oleic acid. The fields on the test strips were applied using a modified inkjet printer, which guarantees a high reproducibility, small variation of the loading per surface area, and allows the production of a large number of test strips. Experiments with different PD solutions were conducted to test the correlation between the quality of the fingermark development and the number of fields made visible on the test strips. The correlation was shown to be high. The test procedure is easy and quick to apply and makes the application of PD more predictable.

Analysis of the Suitability of the iPrep DNA Purification Instrument for Routine Forensic Applications

Author(s): Leo, W.; Grimley, K.; Peralta, Z.; Kobilinsky, L.; Lents, N. H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 656-681
Abstract: This study sought to analyze the potential utility of the automated iPrep DNA purification instrument in routine forensic applications by subjecting this robotic DNA extraction method to a rigorous comparison study using common biological samples and simulated forensic evidence. Because the Chelex-based DNA preparation protocol is the most commonly used method for routine nonchallenging biological samples, we used this method as the basis of our comparison. In so doing, we found that the iPrep instrument reliably produced high-quality DNA samples from a broad array of biological inputs, while significantly saving time and reducing technician sample handling.

Detecting Bloodstains under Multiple Layers of Paint

Author(s): Howard, M. C.; Neumann, C
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 682-717
Abstract: Using five different techniques [alternate light source (ALS), infrared (IR), BlueStar Forensic, luminol, and fluorescein], bloodstain patterns were detected beneath layers of paint. As a source of visualization and documentation, photographs were taken of the results. Results of this experiment show that all five techniques were effective in detecting bloodstain patterns beneath layers of paint.

The Enhancement and Recovery of Footwear Marks Contaminated in Soil: A Feasibility Study

Author(s): Croft, S.; NicDaeid, N.; Savage, A.; Vallance, R.; Ramage, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 718-737
Abstract: Little published research has been conducted on the chemical enhancement of soil-contaminated footwear marks. Investigations into the application, including the advantages and limitations of processes available for the enhancement of footwear marks in soil, were carried out as part of this study. This included a comparison of current enhancement solutions such as potassium thiocyanate, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, potassium ferrocyanide, and bromophenol blue. The solutions were compared on the basis of sensitivity, sharpness of the color reaction, and their application to a range of commonly encountered substrates. The best-performing chemical enhancement technique for footwear impressions in soil was found to be potassium thiocyanate. Potassium thiocyanate was further explored to study the effects of aging the mark deposited as well as assessing the stability (shelf life) of the solution. The age of the mark appeared to have no significant effect on its ability to be chemically enhanced using potassium thiocyanate. The stability study of potassium thiocyanate revealed that, although aged solutions still enhanced footwear marks, background staining, fading, and deterioration in color sharpness were all observed.

The Documentation of a Large Outdoor Crime Scene with a Large Number of Footwear Impressions: Their Analysis and Comparison

Author(s): Lemay, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 738-747
Abstract: A large outdoor crime scene with 143 footwear impressions in a dirt and gravel driveway was documented using photographic and diagramming techniques. There were 22 known individuals who had entered the scene, potentially leaving footwear impressions. The author was able to associate 136 of the footwear impressions to the shoes of those 22 individuals. A color-coded diagram was produced to illustrate the locations of the footwear impressions at the crime scene and the shoes that could have made the impressions.

A Uniform Protocol to Address Unidentified Human Remains and Missing Persons

Author(s): Mulawka, M. H.; Sebetan, I. M.; Stein, P. C.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 748-757
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine whether a uniform protocol could be developed to aid in streamlining the process of identification. Many avenues currently available were examined and combined to create a comprehensive and universal procedure that can be followed by any agency or organization tasked with identification in the forensic science community.

Standard for the Validation and Performance Review of Friction Ridge Impression Development and Examination Techniques

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 758-764
Abstract: (To Replace: Validation of Research and Technology, ver. 1.0)

The Distribution of Anti-Felon Identification Tags

Author(s): Medley, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 501-509
Abstract: Less lethal weapons, such as the Taser electronic control device, are frequently used by law enforcement agencies to overcome suspect resistance. As a means of regulating the use of Thomas A. Swift Electric Rifle (Taser) electronic control devices, Taser International Inc. has issued each cartridge with tiny confetti-like pieces that include a cartridge-specific, alphanumeric serial number known as anti-felon identification tags (AFIDs). The Department of Justice has suggested that a sample of AFIDs are to be collected from the scene and treated as forensic evidence each time a cartridge is discharged. However, there has been no clear justification for this task beyond the simple tracking of the cartridge assigned to the individual law enforcement agency. The purpose of this study was to map out the AFID distribution patterns from multiple Taser test fires to determine whether it would be possible to reconstruct a Taser deployment. The results of this initial study indicate that even under controlled conditions, AFID distributions are random and provide only a vague image of the crime scene.

RAY Dye Stain Versus Gentian Violet and Alternate Powder for Development of Latent Prints on the Adhesive Side of Tape

Author(s): Wilson, H. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 510-523
Abstract: This research addresses a new method of processing the adhesive side of tape after it has been exposed to cyanoacrylate fumes. The adhesive sides of various types of tape were processed with gentian violet, alternate powder, and RAY (rhodamine, ardrox, basic yellow) dye stain, following cyanoacrylate fuming. Tests of the RAY dye staining technique were done, both prior to and after processing with gentian violet and alternate powder. The RAY dye stain was the superior method for processing the adhesive side of tape after cyanoacrylate fuming, and the optimal results were obtained after the tape had been processed with gentian violet and alternate powder. (See letter to the editor by Terry Kent in JFI 57 (2).)

Distinguishing Bloodstains from Botanic Stains Using Digital Infrared Photography

Author(s): Xiao, R.; Zhao, X.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 524-531
Abstract: Using digital infrared imaging, bloodstains on fabrics can be distinguished from similar looking stains of plant origins.

A Study of Pyridyldiphenyl-triazine as a Chemical Enhancement Technique for Soil and Dust Impressions

Author(s): Ross, E.; Gorn, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 532-546
Abstract: A formulation of pyridyldiphenyl-triazine (PDT) called Ferrotrace was proposed as an alternative to chemical enhancement techniques (i.e., ammonium thiocyanate) of soil or dust footwear impression evidence. The PDT in Ferrotrace reacts with ferrous iron and is used in the criminalistics field to detect firearm contact impressions on suspected shooters' hands. Ferrotrace was compared with ammonium thiocyanate using ferrous solutions and produced results that were sensitive. Soil samples were tested with Ferrotrace and ammonium thiocyanate, and the results were compared. The color reaction produced with ammonium thiocyanate was more distinguishable and reproducible, so Ferrotrace was not recommended as an alternative to ammonium thiocyanate.

Fingerprinting Cadavers with ReproRubber

Author(s): Burke, E.; Knaap, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 547-556
Abstract: ReproRubber is a synthetic material sold by Flexbar Corporation. It is routinely marketed as a casting material for replicating internal and external machinery parts. Its use in fingerprinting cadavers was investigated. Although fingerprint powder is significantly cheaper and more efficient when taking fingerprints (because no setting time is required), this research revealed that ReproRubber replicated more friction ridge detail, especially with digits that required rehydration.

Postmortem Dismemberment in Two Mediterranean Countries

Author(s): Kahana, T.; Aleman, I.; Botella, M.; Novoselsky, Y.; Volkov, N.; Hiss, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 557-572
Abstract: A scrutiny of 25 cases of body dismemberment of homicide victims analyzed at the National Centre of Forensic Medicine (Israel National Police, Israel) and at the Laboratory of Anthropology of the University of Granada (Spain) provides an insight into various aspects of this type of postmortem mutilation. The common features regarding anatomical location of the severing cuts, the most commonly used tools, and the motivation behind the act of postmortem dismemberment are discussed and compared. The taphonomic changes detected in 24% of these cases indicate the use of some type of refrigeration associated with concealment of the body sections.

Audio Extraction from Silicor Technologies' Digital Video Recorder File Format

Author(s): Lacey, D. S.; Koenig, B. E.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 573-588
Abstract: Our laboratory received four proprietary (".wva") audio-video files from a Silicor Technologies, Inc. digital video recorder for analysis. The manufacturer's playback software lacked the capability to digitally export audio information and only allowed audio to be output through real-time playback of the files through a computer sound card. To permit a digital export, analyses were performed to establish the data's format within the files, locate the audio segments, and automate an accurate extraction using an appropriate scripting process. The prepared extraction script produced a rapid method for copying the audio information from the files, audio files usable for authenticity, and files containing additional recorded audio information that was not present during real-time playback.

Tire Tread and Tire Track Evidence — Recovery and Forensic Examination

Author(s): Schenck, R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 589-590

Forensic Field Techniques for Human Remains: An Introduction

Author(s): Murray, E.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 591-594

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 5, Page 600
Abstract: This print would be classified as a central pocket whorl with a meeting tracing and referenced to a plain whorl. It could also be referenced to a 9-count loop. Thank you to CID AFIS Tech Gerri Green with the Nebraska State Patrol for the submission.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Correction
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Page 393
Abstract: On page 392 of volume 60 (3), it states, "This pattern has two equally good looping formations with one delta." It further states that this pattern "is classified as a tented arch and then referenced as necessary". After several discussions, it was concluded that the pattern does meet the definition of a double loop whorl referenced to a loop. The pattern does have two equally good looping formations, two deltas, and a ridge count across each looping ridge. One delta (which is a short or ending ridge) is above the looping formation on the right. It allows a ridge count (01) across the left looping ridge. The other delta (which is a bifurcation) is just below the looping formation on the right. It allows a ridge count (03) across the right looping ridge and the two intervening ridges. These types of discussions are fun and make pattern interpretation interesting. Thank you to David R. Cotton, FBI-CJIS Division, for bringing this to my attention.

Production and Evaluation of a Dark Magnetic Flake Powder for Latent Fingerprint Development

Author(s): Nag, K.; Liu, X.; Scott, A.; Sandling, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 395-407
Abstract: Highly reflective magnetic iron flakes are suitable for visualizing latent fingerprints on dark, textured surfaces. However, there is a need for a darker variety of this magnetic flake powder that would be suitable for obtaining good contrast on light background surfaces. A novel dark magnetic flake powder was therefore developed by vibration milling, and the powder was then evaluated for latent fingerprint development. This evaluation indicated that a darker variety of magnetic flake powder, obtained by dry milling with an optimum stearic acid, provided good-quality results for fingerprint development.

Utilization of Enhancement Software for Visual Analysis in Two and Three Dimensions*

Author(s): Head, J.; Titunik, I.; Kobilinsky, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 408-429
Abstract: A laboratory protocol using three enhancement software products has been developed for the analysis of photographic evidence. Photographs of two bite marks produced by different subjects and two wax registration impressions were scaled to 1:1 using Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Software, Inc., San Jose, CA). The images were then enhanced with Lucis 4.2.1 (Image Content Technology, Groton, CT), a software product that reveals variations in luminance and displays the patterns of contrast present in an image. After Lucis enhancement, the images were analyzed with Measurement of Internal Consistency Software 2.0 (MICS) (LumenIQ, Inc., Bellingham, WA), which allows two-dimensional photographic images to be viewed in a third dimension. The 1:1 enhanced images of the bite impressions were compared to wax registration impressions using an acetate overlay comparison method. Detail in the bite pattern was revealed and clarified by enhancement with both Lucis and MICS. The benefit of the protocol lies in its ability to view physical evidence in three dimensions with various viewing positions.

Optimization of a DNA Extraction Method for Nonhuman and Human Bone

Author(s): Coticone, S.; Barna, L.; Teets, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 430-438
Abstract: The present study involves the use of ultrasonic technology to rapidly and effectively extract trace amounts of DNA from bones. This method not only extracts DNA but also preserves its integrity because there is no heating or foaming during the automated extraction process. Additionally, because the system is self contained, there is minimal risk of contamination. This technique allows for the extraction of DNA from bones using acoustic energy which can be manipulated using two different parameters (duty cycle and amplitude). Using pig bones, different acoustic settings were tested to determine which combination produces the highest yield of amplifiable DNA after the entire extraction procedure has been completed. Pig and human DNA were successfully extracted from bones and amplified using this procedure. The results demonstrate the ability to obtain DNA from bone samples using acoustic energy.

Making Three-Dimensional Footwear Test Impressions with "Bubber"

Author(s): Lemay, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 439-448
Abstract: Footwear examiners occasionally find it necessary to make three-dimensional test impressions of footwear when they are comparing the footwear to photographs of three-dimensional crime scene impressions. There are several products available for such use. Some are polymers that require mixing and hardening. Some are foam products that do not render fine detail. A new product, Bubber, was tested and was found to be very easy to use. It rendered very fine detail that could be photographed and cast with dental stone.

The Forensic Application of High Dynamic Range Photography

Author(s): Brown, K. C.; Bryant, T.; Watkins, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 449-459
Abstract: This paper demonstrates two methods to produce superior photographic images by combining three to five photographs taken at different exposures. Creating high dynamic range (HDR) images in Photoshop CS4 or Photomatix Pro 3 software results in high-quality 32-bit images. HDR images can include a tonal range beyond that which can normally be captured in a single image. This technique provides the forensic examiner with more detailed images for comparisons and examinations.

Screening Potential Latent Fingerprint Examiner Trainees: The Viability of Form Blindness Testing

Author(s): Bertram, D.; Carlan, P.; Byrd, J. S.; White, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 460-476
Abstract: This study examines form blindness testing as a predictor of latent print examination success among college students. Two form blindness tests and a latent fingerprint comparison test were administered to students trained (N = 160) and untrained (N = 167) in the science of fingerprinting. Six independent variables (pattern recognition test, form blindness scale, science and nonscience major, grade point average, corrective vision, and age) were assessed to measure their influence (if any) on student performance on a latent fingerprint comparison test. Results showed that fingerprint training does assist (to some degree) form-blind individuals; however, fingerprint comparison scores were still significantly lower for students with increasing form blindness, even after controlling for the influences of age, corrective vision, grade point average, and science major. From the results, the authors conclude that form blindness testing does appear to be an efficient tool for the recruitment and selection of fingerprint comparison trainees.

The Foundations for the Discipline of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis — A Response to the Report by the National Academy of Sciences

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.; Griffin, T. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 477-494
Abstract: Scientific publications dealing with the field of bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) have existed for more than a century. As such, the discipline is one of the oldest existing forensic investigative aids. The objective of this paper is two-fold: (1) through succinct statements to present a structured foundation of the principles applied in the discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis and (2) to address statements in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2009 report on the state of forensic science in the United States, specifically addressing the validation efforts directed at these principles over the last 115 years.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 4, Page 500
Abstract: The joints of the fingers are unusual. The medial joints of the index, middle, and ring fingers appear to be longer than average and the little finger has an extra joint. This submission is from Rodolfo Zamora who was with the Mesa Police Department in 1998 when the prints were submitted.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Correction
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Page 269
Abstract: On page 268 of volume 60 (2), it stated "This print will be classified as an accidental whorl. There is one recurve in front of the center delta. It would be referenced to a plain whorl." The correct reference would be to a double loop whorl. Thank you to David R. Cotton, FBI-CJIS Division for bringing this to my attention.

Book Review: Bloodstain Pattern Analysis With An Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Author(s): Chisum, J.
Type: Letters
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 271-279

The Use of BackTrack for the Directional Analysis of Shotgun Pellet Patterns

Author(s): McClorry, S.; Kastelic, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 280-290
Abstract: Forensic identification officers encounter shotgun pellet patterns at crime scenes, and it is sometimes beneficial to have knowledge of the location from where the firearm was discharged. Currently, bloodstain experts use a computer program called BackTrack to determine the origin of a bloodstain pattern. Our investigation revealed that the mathematical relationship employed by BackTrack to determine the angle of impact can be applied to impacts from a pellet gun into BIO-FOAM (one-sample t-test; n=102, p=0.057). However, it would not be feasible to utilize BackTrack to determine the origin of a shotgun pellet pattern because the calculated muzzle-to-target distance was often an order of magnitude off of the known distance and thus would not be reliable.

Differentiation of Blue Gel Inks Using Adobe Photoshop

Author(s): Deitz, N.; Quarino, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 291-307
Abstract: The increase in popularity of gel ink pens has made the development of methods for their identification and differentiation necessary. Though multiple methods (e.g., thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and alternate light sources) have been applied, they have not resulted in a large degree of discrimination because most gel inks are nonsoluble pigmented inks. Discrimination of gel inks may be possible through the use of computer programs, such as Adobe Photoshop, which are nondestructive and produce quick results. In this study, thirty-six blue gel inks were analyzed using the three modes available through Adobe Photoshop: RGB (red-green-blue), CMYB (cyan-magenta-yellow-black), and Lab. Visualization of differences was improved through alterations of the input levels and by using the channel mixer. The thirty-six inks were able to be separated into twenty-five groups using these methods.

DNA Swabs from Vehicles: A Study on Retention Times, Locations, and Viability of Identifying the Most Recent Driver

Author(s): Wu, D.; Crichton, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 308-319
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to determine which areas on a vehicle provide the best DNA results to identify the last driver. Of the four locations swabbed, the exterior driver's door handle and the steering wheel were the best in terms of identification. The gear shift and rear-view mirror yielded either no types or complex mixtures with no clear major donor.

An Investigation of Isatin as a Potential Reagent for Latent Fingermark Detection on Porous Surfaces

Author(s): Chan, J.; Shimmon, R.; Spindler, X.; Maynard, P.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.; Stuart, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 320-336
Abstract: This study investigated isatin as a potential fingermark enhancement reagent for use on porous surfaces. A number of parameters were investigated, including concentration, solvent system, pH of the solution, and optimization of the development conditions. It was determined that isatin at a concentration of 0.05% (w/v) provided the optimum balance between the luminescence of the fingermark ridges and background. A carrier solvent of dioxane mixed with acetone [12.5% (v/v)] produced the most intense luminescence. It was determined that the optimum pH for the development of fingermarks was 5.0 and that this could be reached by the addition of 4% (v/v) sodium carbonate buffer. The use of a dry heat press at 180 °C for 10 s provided optimal development conditions. The possible enhancement of isatin-treated fingermark impressions using metal salts was investigated and it was determined that secondary treatment with an ethanolic zinc chloride solution provided enhanced luminescence emission. However, little color change to the developed fingermarks was observed. A comparison of isatin with 1,2-indanedione-zinc (IND-Zn) and DFO demonstrated that the latter two reagents provided greater sensitivity and luminescence than isatin despite the fact that isatin generated strong room-temperature luminescence.

Counterfeit Nike Sneakers

Author(s): Wisbey, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 337-351
Abstract: The popularity of Nike Air Force One sneakers has resulted in the sneaker being a common brand submitted for footwear examination. In the course of the examination process, footwear examiners have contacted the Nike Corporation for manufacturing details. In some cases, Nike was unable to provide information because of the sneaker being counterfeit. This paper will highlight some methods to assist the footwear examiner in assessing the likelihood that the submitted sneaker may be counterfeit.

If the Shoe Fits: An Illustration of the Relevance of Footwear Impression Evidence and Comparisons

Author(s): Lemay, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 352-356
Abstract: It is the author's experience that footwear impression evidence is misunderstood and undervalued when an identification cannot be made. The author uses a case example to illustrate just how significant a conclusion of "this shoe could have made this impression" is and how unlikely it is that there may randomly be two pairs of shoes of the same physical size, same outsole design, and same degree of wear at one geographic location.

The Restoration of Impressed Characters on an Aluminum Alloy Motorcycle Engine

Author(s): Dower, G.; Gutowski, S. J.; Sammut, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 357-361
Abstract: An attempt to restore erased characters on an engine block using standard polishing and etching procedures was unsuccessful. The top layer of the surface was carefully removed by hand filing and the surface was repolished and re-etched. Successful restoration was then achieved.

A Validation Study of Barefoot Morphology Comparison

Author(s): Maltais, L.; Yamashita, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 362-370
Abstract: Nine latent barefoot impressions, with ten accompanying inked impressions, were sent to fifteen barefoot morphology examiners for evaluation, for a total of 1350 comparisons. The examiners were asked to include or exclude suspects as having possibly created the latent impressions. Examiners were not asked to make positive identifications, so more than one inclusion in a set was possible and was not considered to be an error. On only one occasion was the correct inked impression excluded as being made by the same person who created the latent impression, with reservations requesting better standards. These results indicate that the methods used to compare barefoot morphology can be used reliably to include or exclude suspects.

Standardizing Protocols for Fingerprint Reagent Testing

Author(s): Kent, T.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 371-379
Abstract: A move to standardizing protocols for fingerprint reagent testing would benefit both researchers and those responsible for implementing techniques operationally. Some possible sampling protocols and testing methods and procedures are outlined and discussed.

Death Scene Investigation

Author(s): Thornton, J. I.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 380-381

Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy

Author(s): Thornton, J. I.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 382-385

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 3, Page 392
Abstract: This pattern has two equally good looping formations with one delta. It cannot be classified as a whorl since it would be difficult to choose one of the loops over the other. (FBI, Science of Fingerprints, pages 66-6). It is classified as a tented arch and then referenced as necessary. Arbitrary tented arches are rare. This is only the third I have seen in my 20 years of experience. This interesting and unusual pattern was sent in by Jim Betts and Natasha Ellington, Nebraska State Patrol AFIS. Thanks to both. (See correction in JFI 60 (4).)

Coulier, Paul-Jean (1824–1890): A Precursor in the History of Fingermark Detection and Their Potential Use for Identifying Their Source (1863)

Author(s): Quinche, N.; Margot, P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 129-134
Abstract: An online copy of a 1863 French book, The Scientific and Industrial Year (English translation of the title), that predates other historically significant writings about fingerprints suggests the use of iodine stains to reproduce papillary lines of the skin and suggests the feasibility of identifying suspects by touch. It also suggests the use of a magnifying glass for comparing those impressions whose origins need to be determined.

Sexual Dimorphism in Deciduous and Permanent Teeth: Analysis of a Sample of Subadult Subjects with Mixed Dentition

Author(s): Santoro, V.; Donno, A.; Lozito, P.; Ciccarelli, E.; Marrone, G.; Introna, F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 135-147
Abstract: In adult subjects, sex determination of skeletal remains is carried out by means of analysis, looking at the individualization for signs of sexual dimorphism present in the skull and the pelvis. The metric approach is often used in concert with the morphological approach, where assessments are based on size and distances between structures of the cranium. In subadult subjects, on the other hand, it is impossible to apply macroscopic diagnostic criteria based on specific areas like the cranium and pelvis because the specific secondary sexual characteristics are not yet fully expressed. Many studies have shown a positive correlation between the size of the permanent teeth and the sex of the subject. This is particularly evident in the canines and first permanent molars. The main objective of our study was to assess the dimorphic efficiency of odontometric parameters of mixed dentition through the analysis of 126 Caucasian children. The sample included subjects between 6 and 10 years old, each of whose dental and palate diameter measurements were taken using a digital caliper. A statistical analysis was carried out using the values obtained. In particular, the values obtained were analyzed by calculating the standard deviation, the P-value, and the logit model.

Development of Latent Prints on Firearms Evidence

Author(s): Johnson, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 148-151
Abstract: Data were tallied from a single laboratory that indicated that useable latent prints were developed on approximately twelve percent of the firearms and magazines that were processed.

A Significant Improvement to the SPR Process: More Latent Prints were Revealed after Thorough Wiping of Small Particle Reagent-Treated Surface

Author(s): Cohen, D.; Cohen, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 152-162
Abstract: Small particle reagent (SPR) is a well-known and scientifically sound reagent for developing fingerprints on dusty, oily, and wet surfaces [1]. After completing the traditional SPR process, additional fingermarks, which had not been visible at first, appeared after thoroughly wiping the SPR-treated area. This phenomenon was observed on a variety of nonporous surfaces such as the metallic exterior of cars, glass windows, and plastic shutters.

Superimposition of Artifact on Bone in Unidentified Skeleton: Alleged Member of James-Younger Gang

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 163-172
Abstract: The Northfield Historical Society received a skeleton donated in 1981 alleged to belong to Charlie Pitts, a member of the James-Younger gang. In 2008, a superimposition was conducted using digital images of a sternal artifact on the skeleton believed by some to be a gunshot wound to the chest. The artifact aligned with a gunshot wound on a postmortem photograph of Charlie Pitts; however, the authenticity of the artifact was questioned. A bullet wipe test was also conducted and the results were negative.

Bullet Path Directionality

Author(s): Kitchen, G.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 173-180
Abstract: A ricochet defect is investigated to determine the direction of impact on a painted metallic surface. The examination failed to locate pinch marks and boat wave fractures. Tests were conducted on a like surface to determine whether pinch marks and boat wave fractures do occur and should have been visible in the scene photographs. It was found that pinch marks did not occur on a like surface, but some subdued boat wave fractures were visible using close-up photography combined with reflective lighting. The author suggests that this may be the result of a difference in the metal surface, paint, and sealant formulations and needs to be considered in future case work.

Reflected Ultraviolet Digital Photography: The Part Someone Forgot to Mention

Author(s): Sanfilippo, P.; Richards, A.; Nichols, H.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 181-198
Abstract: Reflected ultraviolet photography has been used to document evidence for many years. However, success was often limited because the reflected light was invisible to the eye and was difficult to focus on the film plane. This article presents a discussion about the difficulties of reflected ultraviolet photography and the use of digital reflected ultraviolet photography with cameras like the Fujifilm camera. The benefit of using a Baader Venus filter in lieu of other barrier filters is also explained. With a more thorough understanding of reflective ultraviolet photography, the forensic photographer should be able to produce better results.

Methylamine Pretreatment of Dry Latent Fingermarks on Polyethylene for Enhanced Detection by Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Author(s): McLaren, C.; Lennard, C.; Stoilovic, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 199-222
Abstract: Cyanoacrylate fuming is an effective routine technique for the detection of latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. The fuming mechanism involves the formation of hard, white polycyanoacrylate along the fingermark ridges, resulting in the detection of latent fingermarks on treated evidential items. Because the polymerization reaction is believed to be largely catalyzed by moisture, the inability to detect or develop some fingermarks is understandably attributed to dehydration of the deposit. Dehydration naturally occurs as the fingermark ages over time; such fingermarks are particularly problematic following exposure to harsh environmental conditions such as low humidity, ultraviolet light, or heat. Several pretreatment methods intended to reintroduce moisture to dehydrated fingermarks have been reported, including exposure to heated water vapor, acetic acid vapor, and ammonia vapor. If an effective method for reintroducing moisture to dry latent impressions can be developed and validated, then enhanced detection by cyanoacrylate fuming would result. This study was designed to investigate and compare published and novel strategies for pretreating dry latent fingermarks and to optimize the pretreatment application for polyethylene substrates. The most significant outcome was the enhanced cyanoacrylate response to dry latent fingermarks pretreated with vapor from 10% w/v aqueous methylamine solution. The results indicate that incorporation of an optimized pretreatment of this type into operational casework could potentially be the difference between unidentifiable fingermarks (lacking detail and contrast) versus fingermarks suitable for identification purposes.

Latent Print Training to Competency: Is it Time for a Universal Training Program?

Author(s): Cooney, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 223-258
Abstract: With no standardized training program in the field of latent prints, agencies are left to design and implement their own training programs. At a time when industry standards are being challenged in courtrooms, this type of training methodology has come into question. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline current practices throughout the United States and to analyze whether these practices are consistent. A survey was conducted to determine the following: whether agencies do, in fact, have formal written training programs, whether these training programs adhere to SWGFAST training-to-competency guidelines as written, whether there is consensus as to how these guidelines are interpreted, and whether there is a difference in training standards between ASCLD/LAB accredited agencies and nonaccredited agencies. The data revealed that although most agencies have written training programs, there is very little consistency or adherence to published guidelines.

Succeeding as an Expert Witness

Author(s): Davis, R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Pages 259-262

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 2, Page 268
Abstract: This print will be classified as an accidental whorl. There is one recurve in front of the center delta. It would be referenced to a plain whorl. Thank you to Alan Christensen with the King County SO, Washington. He noticed the flower in the center. It reminds me of Audrey from "The Little Shop of Horrors". [See JFI 60 (3) for correction].

An Alternative Trinity:Objectivity, Subjectivity, and Transparency

Author(s): de Puit, M.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 1-3

Using a Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System to Recover Friction Ridge Impressions on Post-Blast Material

Author(s): Gardner, E.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 104-118
Abstract: As terrorist bombing incidents continue both domestically and internationally, the need to identify those responsible grows. Currently, the majority of post-blast forensics focuses on identifying the explosive materials used and their amount, determining the size of the blast radius, and identifying human remains. Latent prints are commonly located on tape and batteries. Less attention is focused on examining post-blast materials because of the assumption that the intense heat of the explosion would obliterate them. Research using reflective ultraviolet imaging systems (RUVIS) revealed the ability of latent print evidence to survive intense thermal conditions. A potential application of this technology includes a nonintrusive method of locating and capturing friction ridge impressions from devices and munitions, prior to on-site destruction.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis With an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Author(s): Chisum, J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 119-124

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Page 128
Abstract: This is a good example of Syndactyly, the side-to-side fusion of two or more digits (also known as webbed fingers or toes). The pattern type commonly shows two complete patterns, sometimes separated by a split or furrow (Fingerprint Techniques, by Andre A. Moenssens, pg 39).

The Efficacy of Commercial vs Noncommercial Physical Developer Solutions and the Sequential Enhancement of Friction Ridge Impressions Using Potassium Iodide

Author(s): Swofford, H. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 19-33
Abstract: The first section of this study aimed at determining the substrate type and deposition age in which latent impressions were developed with the highest level of quality. The second section of this study, using the combination of the substrate type and deposition age that yielded the highest quality impressions from the results of section one, investigated the results of two physical developer solutions before and again after treatment of the samples with potassium iodide. The results of this study indicate that both the commercial and noncommercial physical developer solutions are competitive in their developmental quality; however, the redox mixture from the commercial physical developer solution has a greater opacity than the redox mixture from the noncommercial physical developer solution. Consequently, the efficacy of potassium iodide as a potential enhancement technique is diminished when using the redox solution from the commercial physical developer solution.

Latent Fingerprint Detection on Thermal Paper using Vacuum Metal Deposition and Steam

Author(s): Kusenthiran, S.; Rogers, T.; Knaap, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 34-44
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vacuum metal deposition (VMD) and steam for developing latent fingerprints on thermal paper. The results indicate that the use of either VMD or steam allows for visualization of latent fingerprints, even for fingerprint deposits that are three weeks old. The study also showed that discoloration of thermal paper was not a problem in either technique.

The Quantification of Tooth Displacement

Author(s): Radmer, T. W.; Johnson, L. T.; Yang, M.; Wirtz, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 4-18
Abstract: By using reference points from a single pixel marker placed at the center point of the cuspid teeth and the center point on each of the incisor teeth, a polynomial curve was generated as a native curve for each dental arch studied. The polynomial curve generated from actual tooth position in each arch provides the forensic odontologist with another reference point that is quantifiable. The study represents that individual characteristics, such as tooth displacement, can be quantified in a simple, reliable, and repeatable format.

Chemical Enhancement of Bloody Footwear Impressions from Buried Substrates

Author(s): Cullen, S.; Otto, A.; Cheetham, P.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 45-86
Abstract: Footwear impressions are regarded as one of the most common forensic evidence types left at crime scenes. A review of research to date describes previous tests on the survival of footwear impressions in a range of contaminants on a myriad of surfaces. None, however, examined the effects of the burial environment on such impressions. Using human blood as a contaminant, footwear impressions were made on samples of white cotton, newspaper, and black plastic trash bags and were buried for specific time frames, from one to four weeks. The study examines the subsequent development of the surviving impressions postexcavation, using chemical enhancement techniques of ninhydrin, acid black 1, leucocrystal violet (LCV), and Bluestar. The majority of impressions recovered were from the substrates that were in the soil for the shortest period. Poor recovery rates and loss of impressions were observed on substrates buried for more than two weeks. LCV and Bluestar proved most effective for enhancing and retrieving impressions. Impressions were able to be examined by a trained forensic footwear investigator to identify class, individual, and wear characteristics of the impression itself. Potential survival of such identifying features is of paramount importance to an investigation.

ACE-V and the Scientific Method

Author(s): Reznicek, M.; Ruth, R.; Schilens, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2010, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 87-103
Abstract: The scientific method is a general approach for all hypothesis testing. Analysis, comparison, evaluation, and verification (ACE-V) is a scientific methodology that is part of the scientific method. Several publications have attempted to explain ACE-V as a scientific method or its role within the scientific method, but these attempts are either not comprehensive or not explicit. This article expands on these previous works and outlines the scientific method as a seven-step process. The scientific method is discussed using the premises of uniqueness, persistence, and classifiability. Each step of the scientific method is addressed specifically as it applies to friction ridge impression examination in casework. It is important for examiners to understand and apply the scientific method, including ACE-V, and be able to articulate this method.

The Visual Characterization and Identification of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) Seeds

Author(s): Fussell, J. L.; Thornton, J. I.; Whitehurst, F. W.
Type: Correction
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Page 597
Abstract: On page 585 in the September/October 2009 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 59, issue 5), the wrong image was published as Figure 7. The editor regrets this error and appreciates that the error was brought to his attention. The correct image is shown below.

The Authority of Fingerprint Experts: Is it Based on Belief or Science?

Author(s): Bush, L.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 599-608

Quantification of the Individual Characteristics of the Human Dentition

Author(s): Johnson, L. T.; Radmer, T. W.; Wirtz, T. S.; Pajewski, N. M.; Cadle, D. E.; Brozek, J.; Blinka, D. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 609-625
Abstract: The considerations for admissibility suggested by the Daubert trilogy challenge forensic experts to provide scientific support for opinion testimony. The defense bar has questioned the reliability of bitemark analysis. Under an award from the U. S. Department of Justice, via the Midwest Forensic Resource Center, a two-year feasibility study was undertaken to quantify six dental characteristics. Using two computer programs, the exemplars of 419 volunteers were digitally scanned, characteristics were measured, and frequency was calculated. The study demonstrates that there were outliers or rare dental characteristics in measurements. An analysis of the intra-observer and inter-observer consistency demonstrated a high degree of agreement. Expansion of the sample size through collaboration with other academic researchers will be necessary to be able to quantify the occurrence of these characteristics in the general population. The automated software application, Tom's Toolbox, developed specifically for this research project, could also provide a template for precisely quantifying other pattern evidence.

Evaluation and Comparison of Casting Materials on Detailed Three-dimensional Impressions

Author(s): Yu, A.; Knaap, W.; Milliken, N.; Bognar, P
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 626-636
Abstract: Five casting products used for impression evidence were evaluated and compared to determine the best-performing casting material for making detailed three-dimensional impressions. The focus of the research was on the quality of the casting materials to replicate fine detail. Four of the materials (Mikrosil, AccuTrans, ReproRubber "Thin Pour", and ReproRubber "Medium Body") outperformed the dental stone.

Interagency Cooperation, Recovery, and Identification of Remains: The Interstate 5 Newhall Truck Bypass Crash

Author(s): Miller, E.; Machian, D.; Winter, E.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 637-653
Abstract: Multiple and mass fatalities are difficult scenes to process. In this case study, an example of interagency cooperation is presented that led to the recovery and quick identification of decedents involved in a multifatality traffic accident.

The Effectiveness of 1,2-Indandione–Zinc Formulations and Comparison with HFE-Based 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one for Fingerprint Development

Author(s): Sears, V. G.; Batham, R.; Bleay, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 654-678
Abstract: This study investigated the modification of a 1,2 indandione–zinc (Ind–Zn) formulation for developing fluorescent fingerprints and compared the modified formulation to 1, 8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO). Laboratory trials indicated that DFO developed more high-quality fingerprints overall. However, there may be surfaces, for example, brown paper, where Ind–Zn could give better results, and these may merit further study.

Standard For Friction Ridge ComparisonProficiency Testing Program (Latent/Tenprint)

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 679-682

Standard For Friction Ridge Automation Training (Latent/Tenprint)

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 683-685

Glossary

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 686-694

Fingerprints: Analysis and Understanding

Author(s): Triplett, M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Pages 695-697

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 6, Page 704
Abstract: The first questions you have to ask yourself would be, Is this print rolled beyond a normal width (extra wide)? Would the left delta always show up when printed? You need to answer these questions before you can determine the primary pattern type. If rolled to a normal width, then it would be a whorl referenced to a loop. If it was rolled beyond a normal width, then it would be a loop referenced to a whorl. Individual judgment is the only standard (FBI - The Science of Fingerprints p 78). Side note: This loop has the appearance of a nutant or lazy loop.Lazy loops are found in the thumbs (Cowger – Friction Ridge Skin p 153). This is a right thumb. Thank you to Gunilla Havebro, National Criminal Investigation Department, Stockhom, Sweden, for this submission.

Qualitative Assessment of Skin Deformation: A Pilot Study

Author(s): Maceo, A. V.
Type: Correction
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 473-474
Abstract: Correction to an article published in JFI 59 (4)

Digital Camera Identification — A Brief Test of a Method Based on the Sensor Noise

Author(s): Höglund, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 475-501
Abstract: Previously conducted research has been done to find methods to identify the camera that shot a specific image. This paper evaluates one of the methods based on the unique sensor noise in digital cameras. By extracting the noise pattern associated with a camera and then comparing it to a number of images from the same and other cameras, a statistical model is made. When comparing the noise pattern to the noise from a specific image, the model helps in determining whether that image was shot with the camera in question. The results are promising when the image consists of at least 0.7 megapixels and is not heavily compressed. Note that identification will fail if the image has been rotated, heavily manipulated, and so forth.

Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Their Ability to Alter the Morphology and Presumptive Chemistry of Bloodstain Patterns

Author(s): Fujikawa, A.; Barksdale, L.; Carter, D. O.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 502-512
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the shape and presumptive chemistry of medium-impact and pooled bloodstain patterns. Experiments were conducted with six contrasting surfaces: painted wall, paneling, wallpaper, wood laminate, linoleum, and carpet. Four presumptive blood tests were used: phenolphthalein, leucocrystal violet, Hemastix, and fluorescein. Feeding activity altered the shape of many stains, whereas other stains were completely eliminated. Regurgitation and defecation resulted in the deposition of multiple new artifacts on all surfaces. The chemical tests yielded no significant differences between blood and artifacts.

The Use of HemoSpat To Include Bloodstains Located on Nonorthogonal Surfaces in Area-of-Origin Calculations

Author(s): Maloney, K.; Killeen, J.; Maloney, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 513-524
Abstract: Determining the origin of impact patterns at crime scenes can be a challenge when there is limited or less-than-ideal information. This is made even more difficult if the analyst cannot incorporate data from nonorthogonal and orthogonal surfaces in the same analysis. Using HemoSpat software for impact pattern analysis allows analysts to remove several limitations, maximize the use of this information, and produce precise and reliable results.

An Examination of Lip Glosses by Thin-Layer Chromatography

Author(s): Kaur, S.; Singh, J.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 525-536
Abstract: Twenty-nine samples of lip glosses were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography using twenty-eight different solvent systems with three visualizing aids (daylight, ultraviolet light, and iodine fuming). Toluene/benzene (3:7) and toluene/benzene/cyclohexane (3:5:2) were the most suitable solvent systems for the separation of components of all the samples of lip glosses examined. This confirms that the constituents in lip gloss that have been recovered in forensic investigations can be separated using thin-layer-chromatography investigations.

The Effects of Differential Cyanoacrylate Fuming Times on the Development of Fingerprints on Skin

Author(s): King, W. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 537-544
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of variable cyanoacrylate fuming times (between 10 minutes and 125 minutes) on the successful development of fingerprints deposited on skin. Pig skin was used as a surrogate for human skin. The skin was fumed in a fuming booth, removed, and printed with a magnetic fingerprint powder applicator. Prints were examined and rated with a three-category ordinal scale. A statistical analysis of the 152 prints indicates no significant relationship (<.05) between fuming time and quality of the developed prints.

Evaluation of the Dimethylaminocinnemaldehyde Contact Transfer Process and its Application to Fingerprint Development on Thermal Papers

Author(s): Lee, J. L.; Bleay, S.; Sears, V. G.; Mehmet, S.; Croxton, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 545-568
Abstract: The use of dimethylaminocinnemaldehyde (DMAC) as a fingerprint development reagent was first proposed in the 1970s as a solution-dipping technique to target the urea constituent of fingerprints. However, in operational trials, the quality of developed fingerprints was poor. This was attributed to diffusion of urea with time, and the technique was not pursued. More recently, the use of DMAC fuming and the use of sheets impregnated with DMAC solution have been proposed as alternative fingerprint development processes for porous surfaces, in particular for thermal papers. This study reports an analysis of the DMAC development process using impregnated paper sheets and compares its effectiveness to other techniques proposed for thermal papers. The study concludes that the DMAC transfer process primarily targets amino acids in the fingerprint, but that these may be less persistent than the constituents targeted by ninhydrin and DFO; consequently, the effectiveness decreases more rapidly as the fingerprints age. Overall, the most effective process for thermal papers if it is not necessary to retain the text is an ethanol pre-dip followed by DFO.

The Visual Characterization and Identification of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) Seeds

Author(s): Fussell, J. L.; Thornton, J. I.; Whitehurst, F. W.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 569-592
Abstract: A study was conducted to create a visual standard and basis for the comparison and identification of seeds of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) based on their appearance. Humulus (hop) seeds were examined, because Humulus is phylogenetically related to Cannabis sativa and is the only other genus in the Cannabinaceae family. Seeds of other plants whose leaf material had been previously shown to have some similarity to the leaf material of Cannabis sativa were examined, and additionally, a survey of approximately one thousand other seeds was conducted to ascertain whether other seeds exist that could reasonably be confused with Cannabis sativa. This work is intended to give forensic workers more complete information relative to the visual identification of marijuana seeds.(See correction in JFI 59 (6).)

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 5, Page 596
Abstract: This loop is interesting because patterns are not common in the medial phalanx. This one may be due to the extra thumb present at birth. It was later removed; notice the scar to the left of the loop. For classification purposes, this is a plain arch and does not need a reference, because the loop is not located in the pattern area. However, this print could present a problem for a latent print examiner. If not fully recorded, it could cause an erroneous exclusion. The loop did not appear during normal recording procedures. Figure 1 is a photograph. Figure 2 is the rolled impression. Figure 3 is the recording of the palm. The plain impression was not provided. Thank you to Mona White-Ortega with the Pima Co Sheriff's Office, Tucson, Arizona, for this submission.

X-Ray Enhancement of Knifepoint Profiles

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.; Blue, K. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 363-371
Abstract: When a knifepoint forms a cavity in a substrate, Microsil or other casting materials can be used to cast an impression of the knifepoint. However, in some cases, the cast is damaged or destroyed when it is removed from the substrate. One method to ensure that the knifepoint profile is documented is by x-ray enhancement prior to removing the cast. By using class characteristics of a knifepoint profile, investigators can eliminate other knives with different point profiles in an investigation. In this experiment, 10 casting mixtures were tested to determine which would yield enhanced roentgenogram knifepoint profiles using the Aribex Nomad x-ray unit with a digital sensor.

Digital Enhancement of Latent Prints using Adobe Photoshop Black & White Adjustments

Author(s): Osborn, S.; Wilson, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 373-385
Abstract: The use of Adobe Photoshop to enhance images containing latent print detail is well documented. There are many techniques ranging from the simple use of color channels and brightness and contrast functions to tools such as the Channel Mixer. These techniques work effectively on single color backgrounds, but when multiple colors exist, these techniques, in addition to others, are required in combination to achieve the desired result. There now exists another option – the Black & White adjustment function – in Photoshop CS3. This function enables the isolation of specific color information in a monochrome image.

Handprints on the Floor

Author(s): Hill, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 386-389
Abstract: Latent hand prints that ultimately identified the suspect were developed on the floor.

Qualitative Assessment of Skin Deformation: A Pilot Study

Author(s): Maceo, A. V.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 390-440
Abstract: Friction ridge skin deforms each time it contacts a surface. The primary factors determining the limits of skin deformation under applied stress to a fixed surface are the elastic nature of the friction ridge skin and the structure of the hand or foot area contacting the surface. This pilot study explored the flexibility of the distal phalanx of two index fingers of a single donor when compressive stress (deposition pressure) and tangential stresses (vertical sheering stress, horizontal sheering stress, and torque) were applied to a smooth, flat surface. The flexibility of the skin was found to be dependent upon the amount of compressive stress applied, the direction of tangential stress, and ridge flows in the fingerprint pattern. In addition to exploring the limits of skin flexibility, the effects of these different stresses were studied in latent prints generated under these conditions. The latent prints displayed robust clues that permit interpretation of the skin deformation by properly trained specialists.[See correction in JFI 59 (5).]

Evaluation of Available Techniques for the Recovery of Latent Fingerprints from Untreated Plywood Surfaces

Author(s): NicDaeid, N.; Buchanan, H. A. S.; Laing, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 441-465
Abstract: An evaluation of several current techniques available for the detection of fingerprints was undertaken to identify the technique(s) most suitable for recovering fingerprints from untreated plywood surfaces. This substrate is often encountered operationally, particularly in doors of local authority premises. This study evaluated the abilities of 13 fingerprint development techniques to enhance marks deposited on untreated plywood surfaces. Each detection technique was applied to fingerprints that had been deliberately planted on pieces of plywood by three donors who had been evaluated as "good", "average", and "poor" donors. The most successful fingerprint development techniques were then more rigorously tested on prints of varying ages, and effort was made to determine the most effective sequence for recovering prints from simulated casework. Of the techniques examined, both ninhydrin and physical developer were found to recover prints up to 28 days old. (Prints older than 28 days were not tested.) A dilution of household bleach was found to successfully darken prints weakly developed with physical developer, and the best recovery of fingerprints was achieved through the application of physical developer only, rather than with a sequence of techniques.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 4, Page 472
Abstract: This unusual amputation was submitted by Chuck Colman when he was working with the Anchorage Alaska Police Department. In his letter he stated that an officer injured his left ring finger, causing the loss of his finger joint and most of the skin tissue. The lower skin tissue and pattern area were still present. The doctor pulled the skin up and over the end of the second joint. The pattern showing is a whorl. Classification would depend on the initiative of the person recording the ridge detail (i.e., whether the person printed the back of the finger on the back of the card, rolled the finger up and over in the block, or just rolled it side to side). As a latent examiner, I would like to see all detail recorded, but I realize the limitations presented with live scan systems.

Does CA Fuming Interfere with Powder Suspension Processing?

Author(s): Scott, M.
Type: Correction
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Page 267
Abstract: This article contains a statement on page 144 that reads "A previous article has suggested that subjecting these particular items to cyanoacrylate fumes somehow inhibits the process of a powder suspension mixture (e.g., Sticky-side Powder) [1]". It has been brought to the editor's attention that this statement is misleading. The cited reference: Pleckaitis, J. Developing Friction Ridge Detail on the Interior of Latex and Nitrile Gloves. J. For Ident. 2007, 57 (2) does not advocate the use of Sticky-side Powder in the described circumstances and should not have been referenced for that information. The cited reference recommended using Wetwop, not Sticky-side Powder. The author apologizes for this error.

The Correlation of Dental Arch Width and Ethnicity

Author(s): Radmer, T. W.; Johnson, L. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 268-274
Abstract: This study sought to demonstrate a correlation between arch width, ethnic background, individual height, weight, and whether orthodontic treatment had been rendered. Conclusions revealed that arch widths were significantly larger (p= 0.002 for the mandible and p= 0.008 for the maxilla) in non-Whites than in Whites. In addition, arch widths of the mandible were significantly larger in individuals who had had orthodontic treatment compared to those who had not (p=0.005). This did not carry through to those arch widths in the maxilla of orthodontic versus nonorthodontic care (p=0.258).

What the Future Can Hold: A Look at the Connectivity of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems

Author(s): Hutchins, L. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 275-284
Abstract: In 2006, the United States Congress appropriated funding to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to study the needs of the forensic science community. Of the eight topics under study, one topic dealt with the interoperability of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). Inherent to the topic of interoperability is the issue of standards, or lack thereof. This paper addresses the inability to standardize AFISs in order to interoperate and proposes the solution of connectivity with regards to the exchange of AFIS information.

Development of Latent Fingerprints on Reptile Skin

Author(s): Eveleigh, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 285-296
Abstract: Research was conducted on the possibility of developing usable friction ridge skin impressions (fingerprints) from the skin of reptiles. The researcher's fingerprints were placed on 48 reptiles, in some cases, multiple times on the same reptile. Most of the reptiles produced good-quality developed fingerprints. The research showed that prints of value can be developed on reptile skin under the pristine conditions of a laboratory experiment.

Safety Notice for Latent Print Chemical Explosion

Author(s): Tierney, L. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 297-301
Abstract: The dye stain RAM is often used as a follow-up to fuming evidence with cyanoacrylate esters for latent prints. This paper discusses an important reason to follow all recommended safety precautions for the storage and shelf life of RAM.

Using Fingerprint Powder to Record Friction Ridge Details from a Cadaver

Author(s): Modeste, K. I.; Anderson, B.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 302-307
Abstract: This case demonstrates the use of black powder to provide distinct friction ridge detail in the photographed images of a cadaver hand.

Spectral Variations for Reaction Products Formed Between Different Amino Acids and Latent Fingermark Detection Reagents on a Range of Cellulose-Based Substrates

Author(s): Spindler, X.; Stoilovic, M.; Lennard, C.; Lennard, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 308-324
Abstract: Ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione, 1,2-indanedione-zinc, and 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) are reagents used worldwide for latent fingermark detection on paper substrates. Although research groups have concentrated on optimization studies and improvements in reagent formulations, mechanistic studies and comparisons against the different amino acid constituents in eccrine secretions are rare in the literature. It is known from studies undertaken in different geographic areas that these reagents produce varied results on different paper substrates under different environmental conditions; however, such observations have not been quantified. In this study, ninhydrin, indanedione, indanedione-zinc, and DFO reagents have been used to enhance deposits of nine major amino acids on three types of cellulose-based media: ashless filter paper, 10% recycled copy paper, and cellulose-coated TLC plates. Absorption and luminescence spectra were recorded for the resulting reaction products. The results provide some insight into the activity of these fingermark detection reagents with respect to the different amino acids present in eccrine deposits.

The Recoverability of Fingerprints on Paper Exposed to Elevated Temperatures — Part 1: Comparison of Enhancement Techniques

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; NicDaeid, N.; Bleay, S.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 325-339
Abstract: This research investigates the recoverability of fingerprints that have been exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those found in arson scenes. Arson is an expensive crime, costing the United Kingdom's economy, on average, £53.8 million each week [1]. Anything that may give rise to the identity of the fire setter should be analyzed and, as such, unburned paper may be a potential source of fingerprints. Although it is true that even a moderate fire will obscure and render partially useless some types of evidence, many items, including fingerprints, may still survive [2-4]. This research has shown that fingerprints are still retrievable from paper that has been subjected to the maximum testing conditions of 200 °C for 320 minutes. In fact, some fingerprints naturally enhanced themselves by the heating process. Our research indicates the most effective enhancement technique is 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) for exposure temperatures up to 100 °C. Physical developer (PD) is the most effective enhancement technique for exposure temperatures from 100 °C to 200 °C. For porous surfaces, there are fingerprint development techniques that are effective at enhancing fingerprints that have been exposed to a temperature of 200 °C, regardless of the firefighting extinguishing technique. Physical developer, in addition to developing fingerprints that have been exposed to high temperatures, is one of the few processes that will enhance fingermarks on wetted surfaces.

The Recoverability of Fingerprints on Paper Exposed to Elevated Temperatures — Part 2: Natural Fluorescence

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; NicDaeid, N.; Bleay, S.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Pages 340-355
Abstract: Previous work by the authors [1] investigated the recoverability of fingerprints on paper that had been exposed to elevated temperatures by comparing various chemical enhancement techniques (ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one, and physical developer). During that study, it became apparent, as a consequence of observations made in operational work [2], that fingerprints on paper subjected to 150 °C fluoresced under examination with green light of wavelength 473 to 548 nm with a 549 nm viewing filter. This current work examined the three types of prints (eccrine, sebaceous, and ungroomed) after 20 minutes of exposure to the temperature range 110 °C to 190 °C (in 10 °C increments) and found that the eccrine fingerprints fluoresced more brightly. This indicates that it is a component of the eccrine deposit that causes the fluorescence. Luminance measurements found that the maximum fluorescence was experienced at 170 °C on the two types of paper tested. As a consequence, eccrine heat-treated fingerprints were viewed under violet-blue (350 to 469 nm), blue (352 to 509 nm), and green light Journal of Forensic Identification 59 (3), 2009 \ 341 (473 to 548 nm). The greatest luminance intensities were obtained under blue light and the smallest under green light. To determine which component of the eccrine fingerprint caused this fluorescence, five of the most prevalent amino acids (alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, lysine, and serine) [3, 4] were exposed to this temperature range. The luminance measurements were taken under exposure to the green light in order for the minimum fluorescence to be observed, with an assumption that blue-violet or blue illumination would provide brighter fluorescence in practice. The results indicate that four of the amino acids behave similarly across the temperature range, but with slightly different luminance measurements, but all exhibit some level of fluorescence. Thermal degradation products of alanine and aspartic acid have been suggested by Richmond-Aylor et al. [5] The structure of these thermal degradation products is cyclic in nature, and, therefore, there is a possibility that two of these products would fluoresce. Sodium chloride and urea were also exposed to the temperature range and they also fluoresced to some extent. This work shows that eccrine fingerprints that have been exposed to temperatures between 130 °C to 180 °C will fluoresce under violet-blue, blue, and green light. This level of fluorescence for ungroomed fingerprints is much less, but this will be dependent on the individual – the more eccrine the deposit, the stronger the fluorescence. This work shows that the amino acids, sodium chloride, and urea present in fingerprint deposits contribute to the fluorescence of the print, but may not be the sole contributors because other eccrine components have not yet been tested.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 3, Page 362
Abstract: This pattern would be classified as a loop and referenced to a tented arch. The delta is the ending ridge at the point of divergence. An imaginary line from the core to the delta cuts the re-curve. If the delta had been located above the shoulders, then it would have been a tented arch and referenced to a loop. With enough pressure, the gap could be filed in, so it could also be referenced to a plain arch. The dot is not the same width as the surrounding ridges, so it would not be considered as the delta. Thank you to Retired Identification Officer Robert Nelson from Minneapolis MN for this submission.

Is There a Relationship Between Fingerprint Donation and DNA Shedding?

Author(s): Dominick, A. J.; Welch, L. A.; NicDaeid, N.; Bleay, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 133-143
Abstract: This research investigates the possible relationship between fingerprint donation and DNA shedding. The level of fingerprint detail developed and DNA profiling results obtained were compared for each donor to investigate whether a relationship between fingerprint donation and DNA shedding exists. Our results suggest that between comparisons of donors, there is no statistical difference between the left and right hand of our volunteers in terms of fingerprint donation, but there is a statistical difference in terms of DNA shedding with three of our eight donors. Our results also indicate that there is no correlation between fingerprint donation and DNA shedding, meaning that an enhanced fingerprint with full ridge detail will not necessarily give a full DNA profile. In serious crime, these two avenues of evidence must be explored.

Does CA Fuming Interfere with Powder Suspension Processing?

Author(s): Scott, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 144-151
Abstract: A test was designed to evaluate whether cyanoacrylate fuming of latex and nitrile gloves and assorted tapes (duct tape, masking tape, and scotch tape) prior to processing the items with a powder suspension technique was a hinderance to the development of latent prints. These tests confirmed a prior reported test that indicated that cyanoacrylate fuming can interfere with subsequent powder suspension processing.(See correction in JFI 59 (3).)

Methods for Developing and Preserving Prints in Petroleum Jelly

Author(s): Snyder, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 152-171
Abstract: Prints in petroleum jelly were observed on a petroleum jelly jar recovered from a sexual battery case in 2005. Because of the lack of techniques known to enhance and document prints in petroleum jelly, multiple methods were tested. Multiple consistencies of the prints in petroleum jelly were tested using various processing and casting methods under two temperature conditions. The best method to enhance and record prints in petroleum jelly was determined to be photographing with oblique light, casting with Mikrosil, and then processing with Sudan black (all at room temperature).

Forensic Analysis of Oxidative Hair Dyes from Commercial Dyes and Dyed Hair Samples by Thin-Layer Chromatography

Author(s): Singh, D.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 172-189
Abstract: In this research, brands of hair dyes were differentiated by using thin-layer chromatography. Propan-1-ol was found to be an efficient solvent for eluting dye from hair samples. A solvent system (ethyl methyl ketone/choloroform/ammonia 20:80:1.5) was developed for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of all types of oxidative hair dyes, including dyes extracted from hair samples.

Using Ninhydrin to Reconstruct a Disturbed Outdoor Death Scene

Author(s): Carter, D. O.; Filippi, J.; HigleyL.G.; Huntington, T. E.; Okoye, M. I.; Scriven, M.; Bliemeister, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 190-195
Abstract: Ninhydrin reacts with various nitrogen-containing compounds, including some that are released from a body during decomposition. Previous research has shown that ninhydrin can be used to identify gravesoils, however, its potential value in death scene reconstruction has not been previously demonstrated. To explore this possibility, the concentration of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) was measured in soil associated with a scavenged death scene where the remains had been scattered. Levels of NRN in the decomposition area were 7 to 13 times higher than in other areas of the scene (under lower body, upper limb, manure and fecal matter, scalp) after more than a four-month postmortem interval. The ability to reconstruct the scene was enhanced, as this measure identified the most probable location of death and decomposition prior to disturbance.

Recovering Impressions from Polystyrene

Author(s): Bekiempis, E.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 197-204
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to discover the most successful method of recovering a footwear impression from a polystyrene cup. Several methods of processing and recovery were compared. The casting of the impression with Forensic Sil and dental stone both demonstrated very good results.

Predicting Biological Profiles from Prescription Eyewear: A Pilot Study

Author(s): Berg, G. E.; Ta'ala, S. C.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 205-218
Abstract: When unidentified human remains are recovered, valuable evidence to determine identity often comes from the nonskeletal material associated with those remains. In light of this observation, the following study presents a test of the hypothesis that, in cases where prescription glasses are found in association with human remains or at a crime scene, data from those glasses may be used to estimate the wearer's age, sex, or race. The study utilized data from the prescription glasses or current eye exams of 97 volunteers. Each anonymous volunteer provided information about his or her age, sex, and race. An automated lens analyzer was used to read prescriptions from glasses provided by volunteers, and the glasses were then returned to volunteers using a drop-off box with an anonymous numbering system. Data collected from lenses and prescriptions were compared to two large databases comprised of eyeglass prescriptions from more than 12,000 individuals in a variety of age, sex, and racial categories. To attempt to estimate the age, sex, and race of the study volunteers from their prescriptions, three methods were applied. The results of the study indicate that one of the methods for estimating age within ±10 years had an 81% accuracy rate; age (±10 years) was correctly predicted in 100% of cases with bifocal prescriptions (n=31). Sex and race could not be estimated with sufficient accuracy using any of the three methods applied in this study. Although the study resulted in the null hypothesis in terms of estimating sex and race using prescription lenses, the ability to estimate an unknown individual's age would be useful in many cases, particularly in instances of advanced age, where traditional age estimation methods fare poorly. Such a method could also prove invaluable in the (albeit rare) instances where a perpetrator leaves glasses behind at a crime scene.

A Performance Study of the ACE-V Process: A Pilot Study to Measure the Accuracy, Precision, Reproducibility, Repeatability, and Biasability of Conclusions Resulting from the ACE-V Process

Author(s): Langenburg, G. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 219-256
Abstract: Six fingerprint analysts participated in a series of tests to measure the accuracy, precision, reproducibility, repeatability, and biasability during 60 ACE and 60 ACE-V trials. The results of the ACE testing, where each analyst received the same set of 60 fingerprint comparisons, showed 100% accuracy for all trials where an opinion of identification was reported (N=268) and an 86% accuracy for all trials where an opinion of exclusion was reported (N=14). The precision tests for the four categorical opinions reported (i.e., identification, exclusion, inconclusive, and no value) all passed threshold criteria that were determined before the test was administered. Reproducibility (the ability of the experts to all reach the same result independently) and repeatability (the ability of the test to provide the same answer upon re-analysis of the material) were both assessed in these experiments. The results varied depending on the amount of information present in the friction ridge impressions and generally how the images were presented to the participants. The ACE-V trials demonstrated 100% accuracy for all trials where an opinion of identification was reported (N=271) and a 67% accuracy for all trials where an opinion of exclusion was reported (N=18). The precision tests for the four categorical opinions during the ACE-V trials showed higher precision than ACE trials during the verification stage.

The results showed a high degree of accuracy with respect to opinions where identification was reported, but lower accuracy with respect to opinions of exclusion. The number of erroneous exclusions actually doubled when a verifier was present to verify exclusions (versus when there was no verifier). However, the verifiers caught every false positive presented to them (N=9). This included close nonmatches that were presented by a trusted colleague as an identification. No erroneous exclusions were caught by verifiers. This demonstrated a strong resistance to bias with respect to identifications but a high degree of bias susceptibility towards exclusions during a nonblind verification procedure.

Documents: The Developer's Toolkit

Author(s): McKasson, S.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 258-259

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 2, Page 266
Abstract: The pattern type is not in question. It is a loop. It is the core that is interesting. You have to determine the sufficient recurve before you can determine the core placement. I believe the outer recurve in image B is sufficient. If you look at image A, the innermost is not one continuous recurving ridge. The right bifurcation has a break and does not come around enough to form a shoulder. This submission was by Retired CLPE Thomas Lewis from Pensacola Florida. He called it a DNA fingerprint due to the innermost spikes having the appearance of human chromosomes. Thank you to Mr. Lewis.

Comparison of Vacuum Metal Deposition and Powder Suspension for Recovery of Fingerprints on Wetted Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): NicDaeid, N.; Carter, S.; Laing, K.
Type: Correction
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Page 1
Abstract: On page 610 of the September/October 2008 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 58, issue 5), the caption was incorrectly worded. The caption of Figure 5 indicated that the prints were developed on clear plastic sandwich bags. The caption should have read "... developed on cowlings", as shown below. The authors and editor apologize for this error.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Page 129
Abstract: The left figure and comments were published in the November 1951 issue of Identification News Letter and the right figure and comments followed in December 1951. In the December issue, Paul McCann suggested publishing unusual fingerprints on a regular basis. They originally appeared under the column title "How Would You Classify It?" Unusual prints did not become a regular feature until October 1985, with John Douthit as the coordinator of "Back to Basics". John retired from the position with the May/June 2002 issue and Karen Hamm Osborn became the next coordinator in the July/August 2002 issue. She continued the feature until the November/December 2008 issue. As the new coordinator, I thought it appropriate to reflect on the history of this column.

Re: New Method for Examining the Inside of Footwear, J. For. Ident. 58 (3)

Author(s): Johnson, G. M.
Type: Letters
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 2-6

The Impact of Cold Climate on the Decomposition Process

Author(s): Bunch, A. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 26-44
Abstract: Studies of environmental factors affecting postmortem interval have been ongoing in particular regions of the United States for decades. Various data have been collected on pig and rabbit carcasses and human cadavers. Data collection techniques vary. For example, still photos, field notebooks, and video cameras have been used to document the decomposition process in a variety of controlled situations. To date, no experimental, systematic decomposition study has been conducted in a relatively cold environment. This qualitative, observational study is a beginning attempt to fill this gap in the literature. The results of this study may be useful as comparative data for forensic scientists and will also be directly applicable for use by the medicolegal community. It is important to note that not only local law enforcement, medical examiners, and forensic anthropologists will find this information useful, but also those located in similar climates in the United States, Canada, and abroad may be able to use these results for their own comparative purposes.

Enhancement of Aged Shoeprints in Blood

Author(s): Morgan-Smith, R. K.; Elliot, D. A.; Adam, H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
Abstract: Shoeprints in blood deteriorate over time, even in indoor or sheltered environments. Of the reagents tested, ninhydrin was the best reagent for treating aged impressions on paper substrates. On wooden and linoleum substrates, amido black was the best of the reagents tested.

Bullet Trajectory Reconstruction on Vehicles

Author(s): Vivona, B.; Gaspari, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
Abstract: Numerous challenges are faced when reconstructing bullet trajectories fired at a vehicle because of the irregular surfaces of the vehicle, impacts through open windows, and deflections. Creating and using baselines around a vehicle allows for measuring trajectory angles in relation to each other, the vehicle itself, and the angle of declination.

Locating Latent Bloodstains

Author(s): Ellis, E. L.; Wong, T. P.; Bowers, S. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
Abstract: This stabbing case illustrates the usefulness of Bluestar Forensic Latent Detection Reagent for the detection of latent bloodstain evidence.

The Effects of Aerosolized Bacteria on Fingerprint Impression Evidence

Author(s): Wilkinson, D.; Larocque, S.; Astle, C.; Vogrinetz, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 65-79
Abstract: The distribution of letters containing viable Bacillus anthracis spores throughout the United States in 2001 demonstrated a lack of interoperability between public health and law enforcement sectors. Although protocols for sampling and analysis of the biological agent and the physical evidence have since been developed and exercised by multidisciplinary response teams, the processing of contaminated evidence presents challenges to the forensic community. In this research, latent and blood-contaminated fingerprints on a variety of substrates were contaminated by aerosolized bacteria: Bacillus globigii (spore), Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger) (vegetative), and Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola) (vegetative) (standard simulants for anthrax, plague, and tularemia). All fingerprint reagents performed well in the presence of biological agents. Increased exposure time and aging samples prior to exposure did not influence the number of detected fingerprints. Standard protocols for surface sampling resulted in no viable organisms for the fragile vegetative bacteria. Instead, a settling plate protocol was used to determine their surface contamination.

Use of Liquid Nitrogen to Separate Adhesive Tapes

Author(s): Bergeron, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 7-25
Abstract: Various types of tape were used as samples to test the use of liquid nitrogen as a method to separate tapes that have been stuck to together. The research included tests to determine whether latent prints could survive the liquid nitrogen bath and separation of the tapes and be developed using Sticky-side Powder. The detrimental effect of outdoor exposures to the tapes was also explored. The results show that developing latent prints on the adhesive side of tape that has been stuck to another adhesive side or a nonadhesive side of tape is possible. Outdoor exposures did reduce the likelihood of developing prints.

Single-Metal Deposition: Optimization of this Fingermark Enhancement Technique

Author(s): Durussel, P.; Stauffer, E.; Becue, A.; Champod, C.; Margot, P.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 80-96
Abstract: Following the introduction of single-metal deposition (SMD), a simplified fingermark detection technique based on multimetal deposition, optimization studies were conducted. The different parameters of the original formula were tested and the results were evaluated based on the contrast and overall aspect of the enhanced fingermarks. The new formula for SMD was found based on the most optimized parameters. Interestingly, it was found that important variations from the base parameters did not significantly affect the outcome of the enhancement, thus demonstrating that SMD is a very robust technique. Finally, a comparison of the optimized SMD with multimetal deposition (MMD) was carried out on different surfaces. It was demonstrated that SMD produces comparable results to MMD, thus validating this technique.

Distinctiveness of Nonstandard VHS Head Parameters

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.; Lacey, D. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2009, Volume 59, Issue 1, Pages 97-126
Abstract: This research article analyzes fifteen nonstandard head parameters, on eight NTSC video cassette recorders using 112 test recordings, to determine whether they are useful in matching a particular recording to a specific VHS unit. These tests resulted in more than 10,000 separate measurements of amplitude, timing, azimuth, head-to-head distance, and waveform shaping. Four parameters were found to be useful for comparisons between unknown recordings and tests prepared on the video recorders: (1) the playback time between the end of the hi-fi audio and the linear audio erase head, (2) the playback time between the end of the hi-fi audio and the full-track erase head, (3) the playback time between the linear audio and the full-track erase heads, and (4) the waveform signature of the linear audio erase head. Three additional parameters were found to be comparable with only certain recorders, but the eight remaining parameters were insufficiently distinct for most forensic applications.

The Federal District and the 12-Point Rule in Brazil

Author(s): Dias da Costa, N.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 621-623

Flammable Solvent Detection Directly from Common Household Materials Yields Differential Results: An Application of Direct Analysis in Real-Time Mass Spectrometry

Author(s): Coates, C. M.; Coticone, S.; Barreto, P. D.; Cobb, A. E.; Cody, R. B.; Barreto, J. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 624-631
Abstract: In this study, we report the analysis of volatile flammable solvents present on common household materials by employing a mass spectrometric technique that incorporates a novel ion source: direct analysis in real time (DART). We used the new ionization method to directly volatilize and ionize a solvent sample, which was then sent to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. We analyzed two common flammable solvents, gasoline and paint thinner, directly from cotton, drywall, and nylon materials. DART sampling occurs directly from the chemical matrix of the common household materials, with no sample preparation needed. Cotton swabs containing solvents, gasoline, and paint thinner produced characteristic signature peaks. In addition, different substrates (cotton, nylon, and drywall) containing gasoline and paint thinner were tested to determine the possibility of detecting aromatic and aliphatic solvents from a complex chemical matrix using DART technology. Specifically, we discovered that nylon was a poor substrate for DART detection of gasoline, with the entire signal disappearing in only two hours. Surprisingly, DART easily detected Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (6), 2008 \ 625 paint thinner on nylon even after 16 hours. Notably, DART was effective in all other cases, detecting both paint thinner and gasoline over a 0- to 16-hour period on cotton and drywall substrates. We conclude that DART sample detection directly from household materials is not simply a matter of vapor pressure; instead, direct DART detection is probably dependent on a complex interaction involving adsorption effects or matrix effects on the ionization mechanism of the flammable solvents. We demonstrate and report a potentially simple, powerful, and useful alternative to traditional mass spectrometric analysis.

Forensic Authentication of Digital Video Tapes

Author(s): Perraud, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 632-635
Abstract: This paper presents a new method for the authentication of DV videotapes based on the analysis of the DIF blocks of the digital video stream. In addition, research has been conducted to determine which kind of hardware has been used to produce the videotape and by what method, if any, the tape may have been tampered with.

High Dynamic Range Fingerprint Images in Photoshop

Author(s): Day, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 647-659
Abstract: The use of a high dynamic range (HDR) image can extend the normal luminance values in an image. The author presents a step-by-step tutorial for creating and using HDR images in a forensic application.

Air Pressure and Cargo Weight Affect the Width of Tire Impressions

Author(s): Lemay, J.; Adair, T. W.; Fisher, A.; James, J.; Boltman, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 660-665
Abstract: It is commonly understood that varying air pressure in a pneumatic tire can affect the size of the contact patch (the area of tire in contact with the road) [1]. A tire with low air pressure will have a longer contact patch than one with higher pressure. In this study, the authors made test impressions of tires at various air pressures and with various weights of cargo in the vehicle to determine whether the width of a tire impression will change based on those variables. The results of these experiments supported the hypothesis that the contact patch width will vary with changes in tire pressure and cargo weight.

Who was Driving?

Author(s): White, K. T.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 666-669
Abstract: Both occupants of a vehicle that was involved in a fatal crash denied being the driver. An impression on one of the occupant's footwear was consistent with the brake pedal pad and revealed who was driving at the time of the accident.

Extraction of DNA from 8-Year-Old Acid Phosphatase Test Papers in a Gang Rape Case

Author(s): Brauner, P.; Barash, M.; Reshef, A.; Michael, A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 671-681
Abstract: In 1997, a woman reported being raped by two men. A positive result for the possible presence of semen by the acid phosphatase (AP) method was obtained on different areas of the woman's clothing. The filter papers used in those tests were retained. In 2005, the case was re-opened for investigation. Biological material eluted from the 8-year-old AP papers in this case contained intact sperm cells. Moreover, DNA, preferentially extracted from the AP papers, was demonstrated to be amplifiable by the AmpFlSTR SGM Plus kit. The relevance of the profiling of AP papers to postconviction DNA testing is discussed.

The Ontogeny of the Friction Ridge: A Unified Explanation of Epidermal Ridge Development with Descriptive Detail of Individuality

Author(s): Swofford, H. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 682-695
Abstract: The use of friction ridge skin as a means of personal identification has withstood more than a century of scrutiny, where no two fingerprints have been found to be identical. However, in a new age of forensic science, this single statement is no longer a sufficient explanation of individuality. Research conducted by a number of biological and anatomical scientists during the last century has resulted in a number of consistent, but also some conflicting, hypotheses of friction ridge development. This review, therefore, serves as a culmination of scientific studies to provide a better explanation of friction ridge development and its uniqueness from a collage of concurring observational findings reported by these investigators. A consideration of those observations and theories agreed upon by all researching parties will provide latent print examiners with a better understanding of the scientific basis of the ontogenesis of friction ridges, thereby revealing the manner in which embryologic tensions and stresses result in the uniqueness of such ridges.

The Significance of Butterflies

Author(s): Pierce, D. S.; Turnidge, S. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 696-711
Abstract: A consistent aspect of science is that the answering of one question often leads to the asking of several others. This evolution of discovery is how those who apply the scientific method gain a depth of understanding that goes beyond that of a lay person. Although there are various niche elements within fingerprint science, this article hopes to create discussion and examination of just one small aspect of the discipline: how some friction ridge impressions, particularly fingerprints, can possess some differences in appearance, which at the outset appear to invoke the "one discrepancy rule", yet upon closer analysis remain suitable for individualization.

Historic Superimposed Image of John Paul Jones was the Brainchild of American Diplomat Horace Porter: Update to Rogers, 2005

Author(s): Rogers, N. L.; Goodheart, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 712-722
Abstract: An earlier article presented evidence that, contrary to published reports, the first modern forensic photographic superimposition was conducted in 1907 to confirm the probable identification of American hero John Paul Jones. In the time since that 2005 Journal of Forensic Identification article was published, evidence was discovered in the manuscript collections of the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C. that the original idea for superimposition should be credited to Horace Porter, an American patriot who conducted the successful search for the body of John Paul Jones in Paris more than a century after his death. Porter's idea for the superimposition followed in an earlier, less scientifically rigorous tradition of superimposing drawings over paintings or photographs rather than using two photographic images. Nevertheless, without his original suggestion, the superimposition of the two photographs would not have been conducted. We are pleased to add to General Horace Porter's credentials by documenting his initiation of the scientific and technical aspects of the first forensic photographic superimposition, conducted by Charles West Stewart and anonymous printers at the U.S. Government Printing Office in 1907.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 727-728
Abstract: This interesting left thumb print has unusual ridge flow. This print is a PLAIN ARCH, but should be referenced to a small to medium count LEFT SLANT LOOP, should a fuller roll reveal a recurving ridge and delta on the right side. This unusual pattern was contributed by Charles Martinez, Denver Police Crime Laboratory, Denver, Colorado.

Examination and Evaluation of .177 Caliber Pellet Wipe Patterns Using Sodium Rhodizonate.

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.; Swart, D. J.; Finch, H. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 505-514
Abstract: A study was conducted to test for lead on pellet wipe patterns produced with .177 caliber air gun pellets. Seventy varieties of air gun pellets were used to produce pellet wipe patterns on white, 100% cotton fabric targets. A macroscopic examination of the pellet wipe pattern areas on the fabric targets revealed different levels of visible pellet wipe around the pellet hole periphery (PHP). Each pellet was recovered and photographed adjacent to the pellet wipe area. The PHP was tested with sodium rhodizonate for the detection of lead produced from the air gun pellet. Of the pellets used to produce pellet wipe targets, 69 (99%) of the targets yielded a positive reaction for metal ions. One pellet (1%) did not produce a reaction to the sodium rhodizonate test. Forty-three (61%) yielded a positive reaction for lead; however, 27 (39%) tested positive for metal ions but not for lead.

New System for the Acquisition of Fingerprints by Means of Time-Resolved Luminescence

Author(s): Moszczynski, J.; Siejca, A.; Ziemnicki, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 515-523
Abstract: The development of latent fingerprints on strongly fluorescent substrates poses serious problems when traditional luminescence methods are used. This problem can be overcome by recording time-resolved luminescence of latent prints. This paper presents the construction and operation of a state-of-the-art electro-optical station, which allows short-lived background fluorescence to be chopped off from a longer-lived fingerprint luminescence, consequently leading to the acquisition of nondisturbed latent print images.

Albumin Development Method to Visualize Friction Ridge Detail on Porous Surfaces

Author(s): Reinholz, A. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 524-539
Abstract: Research was conducted to determine whether an additional method could be developed to visualize latent friction ridge detail on porous evidence surfaces. This research was stimulated by a need to find more effective, reproducible, and safer methods of development that will work in conjunction with already accepted techniques. This new method targets albumin residue in sweat secretions and uses crossover technology from serology, the modified Western Blot method, to develop ridge details.

Using Liquid Latex to Remove Soot to Facilitate Fingerprint and Bloodstain Examinations: A Case Study

Author(s): Larkin, T. P. B.; Marsh, N. P.; Larrigan, P. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 540-550
Abstract: Liquid latex was applied to surfaces at a homicide scene to remove soot from the surfaces to allow further fingerprint examinations. The latex was allowed to dry and, when peeled from the surfaces, the majority of the soot was removed. Numerous fingerprints were located; some were identified to the suspect and to persons of interest in this case. This is an inexpensive, fast, and effective method for soot removal that does not affect further forensic examinations.

Probability of False Positive with an Innocent Image Processing Routine

Author(s): Li, F.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 551-561
Abstract: The probability that an image processing routine will result in a change to an image used in a fingerprint comparison such that a false positive conclusion will be made is presented. When the good faith of the examiner in the usual course of such work is assumed, the probability of such false positive conclusion (as a result of an image processing routine) is infinitesimal.

Level 3 Details and Their Role in Fingerprint Identification: A Survey among Practitioners

Author(s): Anthonioz, A.; Egli, N.; Champod, C.; Neumann, C.; Puch-Solis, R.; Bromage-Griffiths, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 562-589
Abstract: Level 3 details are used in fingerprint comparison by fingerprint examiners to reach a conclusion as to the identity of a person from a latent impression recovered from a crime scene. Level 3 details are usually used in a holistic way, mainly by members of the fingerprint community who are not subjected to a numerical standard rule. Although the term Level 3 detail is well known, a survey performed by the authors suggests that there is no clear consensus on the classification, reproducibility, and individual value of Level 3 details.

Comparison of Three Types of White Powder Suspensions for the Recovery of Fingerprints on Wetted Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): NicDaeid, N.; Carter, S.; Laing, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 590-599
Abstract: Three white powder suspensions (Wetwop, Wet Powder, and a titanium dioxide powder formula) were tested on fingerprints that had been deposited on several nonporous surfaces, submerged in water, and then dried. The white powder suspensions performed comparably well across all surface types tested. However, the optimum powder suspension was determined to be Wetwop.

Comparison of Vacuum Metal Deposition and Powder Suspension for Recovery of Fingerprints on Wetted Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): NicDaeid, N.; Carter, S.; Laing, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 600-613
Abstract: This paper reports a study comparing vacuum metal deposition and white powder suspension as techniques for the recovery of fingerprints from wetted nonporous dark substrates. Powder suspension proved to be an effective, simple-to-use, cost-effective, and quick technique.(See correction by Niamh Nic Daéid, Stephanie Carter, and Kenny Laing in JFI 59 (1).)

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 5, Page 617
Abstract: This interesting left thumb print has unusual ridge flow. This print is a PLAIN ARCH, but should be referenced to a small to medium count LEFT SLANT LOOP, should a fuller roll reveal a recurving ridge and delta on the right side. This unusual pattern was contributed by Charles Martinez, Denver Police Crime Laboratory, Denver, Colorado.

Re: Skull Features as Clues to Age, Sex, Race, and Lifestyle, J. For. Ident. 58 (2)

Author(s): Melbye, F. J.; Hamilton, M. D.
Type: Letters
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 401-408

Quantification of the Individual Characteristics of the Human Dentition: Methodology

Author(s): Johnson, L. T.; Blinka, D. D.; VanScotter-Asbach, P.; Radmer, T. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 409-418
Abstract: This study provides a method for comparing six individual human dentition characteristics using the standard measuring tool in Adobe Photoshop CS2 as compared to measuring individual characteristics with an automated software program under development at Marquette University, which has been adapted for bitemark analysis. The algorithm identifies color-specific pixels and automatically calculates the measurements.

Developing Latent Fingerprints on the Adhesive Side of Tape using a Freezing Technique

Author(s): Cramer, D.; Glass, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 419-423
Abstract: Obtaining fingerprints of sufficient comparison quality from the adhesive side of tape can be a difficult, costly, and messy process. However, it can be quite valuable because it aids in the criminal investigation process. In this experiment, fingerprints were deposited on various types of tape. The tapes were then frozen and dusted with either black powder or magnetic powder. Quality results were obtained for each type of tape and powder.

Improved Results in the Development of Latent Fingerprints on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Scott, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 424-428
Abstract: The portable hair dryer method has been used to develop latent prints on thermal paper. The application of steam during the heating process was explored and determined to further improve the results.

Latent Print Development under a Self-Adhesive Stamp

Author(s): Perez-Avila, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 429-431
Abstract: This paper discusses the use of heat to remove self-adhesive stamps from envelopes to process not only the sticky side of the stamp, but also the paper underneath the stamp.

The Development and Recovery of Identical Latent Impressions from Independent Investigations

Author(s): Ayers, K. R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 432-436
Abstract: A comparison of two lifts from two CDs in different cases confirmed that the impressions were identical. An investigation revealed that the manufacturer places these finger impressions on CDs during the manufacturing process. This information may keep other agencies from spending an unnecessary amount of time following false leads.

Polygraph Testing of Subjects using Steroids

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 437-452
Abstract: This article presents polygraph charts of men and women using steroid hormones (testosterone and estrogen). The tests used the Control Question Technique. The charts show that steroids do not distort human physiology, neither do they affect the perception of relevant and control questions. Additionally, the accuracy of the assumptions of the Control Question Technique in murder cases was confirmed.

New Bloodstain Measurement Process Using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 AutoShapes

Author(s): Reynolds, M.; Raymond, M. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 453-468
Abstract: This study presents an innovative and improved alternative to current manual bloodstain measurement methods. The study describes a new procedure for the measurement of bloodstains using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 AutoShape functions. Results show that, in addition to improved levels of measurement accuracy and precision, the use of this software in the bloodstain measurement process permits management and adjustment of the bloodstain image (e.g., cropping, resizing, magnification, and contrast and brightness modification), making the measurement process easier and thus more effective. This new procedure also generates saveable, reviewable, and auditable electronic case file data of the entire measurement process.

Bloodstain Measurement using Computer-Fitted Theoretical Ellipses: A Study in Accuracy and Precision

Author(s): Reynolds, M.; Franklin, D.; Raymond, M. A.; Dadour, I.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 469-484
Abstract: Accuracy and precision are two key measurement components. Accuracy relates to a confidence level in similarity between known and measured values, and precision relates to similarity between repeated measures of the same standard. Measurements from spattered bloodstains interpolated within a mathematical framework make it possible to determine a blood source area of origin within three-dimensional space.

Sulfur Cement: A New Material for Casting Snow Impression Evidence

Author(s): Wolfe, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Pages 485-498
Abstract: Sulfur cement is a silica-filled modified sulfur mixture that exhibits physical properties which make it an excellent replacement for pure sulfur as a hot-melt casting compound for snow impression evidence. Sulfur cement is melted, cooled, and poured in the same manner as pure sulfur; however, the sulfur plasticizers and silica in the material add strength and stability to the cured cast. This not only prevents the breakage inherent in pure sulfur casts, but also allows easier casting of large snow impressions such as tiretracks and snowmobile tracks. Validation studies were performed on sulfur cement as a snow impression casting medium. The sulfur cement was shown to quickly and reliably preserve snow impressions with detail comparable to that of pure sulfur or dental stone casts.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 4, Page 501
Abstract: This unusual fingerprint is a Central Pocket Loop Whorl with a meet tracing. The definition of a CPLW states that there must be two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit in front of the delta. But "in lieu of a recurve in front of the delta in the inner pattern area, an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow will suffice" (The Science of Fingerprints). This fingerprint should be referenced to a one-count Left Slant Loop and a Tented Arch. This unusual pattern was contributed by Donald Hampton, Springfield Police Department, Springfield, Missouri.

A Digital System for Imaging Bitter Patterns

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.; Lacey, D. S.; Killion, S. A.
Type: Correction
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 281-282
Abstract: Correction to article published in JFI 58 (2)

The Future of DNA Evidence

Author(s): Duncan, C. D.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 283-295
Abstract: The future of DNA as evidence is firmly set as a standard tool of criminal investigators. What is not set is the future of DNA evidence. Because of privacy concerns, the fear of "Big Brother", and legislative constraints, investigators may not ever be able to utilize DNA to its potential. Although the possibilities are nearly limitless, the criminal justice community must be aware of the possible systemwide failures that could occur.

New Method for Examining the Inside of Footwear

Author(s): Nirenberg, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 297-304
Abstract: The inside of footwear, particularly the toe box, can be a source of evidence and reveal characteristics specific to the person who wore the footwear. Prior to separating the shoe or boot upper from its sole, it is customary to visually examine the inside of the footwear. This paper discusses the nondamaging use of a fiber-optic camera to examine the inside of a shoe in great detail, to take photos, and to create a video record of the examination.[See letter to the editor by G. Matt Johnson in JFI 59 (1).]

Recording a Known Tire Impression from a Suspect Vehicle

Author(s): Nause, L. A.; Souliere, M. P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 305-314
Abstract: The use of spray-on cooking oil, black fingerprint powder, and safety film was tried as a new method for recording tire impressions. It was found to be an easy and effective technique.

Thin-Layer Chromatography of Refilled Photocopy Toners

Author(s): Saini, K.; Saroa, J. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 315-326
Abstract: Samples (201) of black toners (raw and processed) from 28 toner companies were analyzed by thin-layer chromotography. Different solvent systems were compared. Two systems were found most suitable for the separation of the dye components: (1) ethyl acetate:ethanol:distilled water and (2) cyclohexane:chlorobenzene:ethanol.

Forensic Hair Characterization of Six Endangered Felid Species of India

Author(s): Chandel, R. S.; Thakar, M. K.; Goyal, S. P.; Sahajpal, V.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 327-341
Abstract: Hair is one of the most commonly encountered types of physical evidence in both poaching and illegal trading cases of wild animals. In the present study, guard hairs of six highly endangered and protected felid species of India were studied with light microscopy. Morphological characteristics (i.e., length, thickness, cuticle scale pattern, medulla pattern, medulla index, cross-section, and cortical pigment distribution) were analyzed. Some species-specific morphological characteristics have been identified and discussed that could be used in the identification and differentiation of these species. Light microscopic methods are simple and economical, as well as reliable. They can be performed in the majority of forensic science laboratories where costly methods, such as electron microscopy and DNA typing, are not available.

Pitfalls in Dental Identification: Italian Cases

Author(s): Santoro, V.; Introna, F.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 342-354
Abstract: The authors describe eight cases of attempted identification of unknown persons with the use of dental records. In each case, it was impossible to compare the data obtained by examination of the cadavers with antemortem records. This was due to the absence or poor quality of dental records.

Deposition of Bloody Friction Ridge Impressions

Author(s): Langenburg, G. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Pages 355-389
Abstract: To date, no experiments have been published measuring the cause and effect relationship of various deposition factors and the resultant appearance of the ridge detail in a bloody friction ridge impression. This study reports the effects of deposition pressure (at four categories of pressure: light, medium, heavy, and extreme), the effects of increasing volumes of human blood loaded onto a finger (from 10 μL to 100 μL), the effects of depositing impressions on a horizontal surface versus a vertical surface, and finally, the effects of allowing the blood to dry on the finger for a significant amount of time before depositing the impression (hereafter: predeposition waiting interval or PWI). Prior to testing these variables, a series of study design tests were also performed to optimize the conditions of the study. During these tests, we examined several other factors (such as the temperature of the blood, the ambient air temperature, the temperature of the skin) for their contribution to the appearance of the bloody impressions.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 3, Page 397
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is classified as a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL with a "meet" tracing. Since the upright loop may possibly be spoiled by an appendage, the pattern is referenced to an Accidental Whorl (loop over a tented arch). This interesting pattern was contributed many years ago by Detective John P. Donahue, Jr., Police Department, Cherry Hill, New Jersey.

Re: The Commentary "Crime Reconstruction" J. For. Ident. 57 (6), 797-806

Author(s): Turvey, B. E.; Chisum, W. J.
Type: Letters
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 133-155

Error Rates in Forensic Science

Author(s): Morris, K.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 157-171

Skull Features as Clues to Age, Sex, Race, and Lifestyle

Author(s): Naccarato, S.; Petersen, S.; John, G. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 172-181
Abstract: This is a basic review of the valuable clues relating to the age, race, sex, or even lifestyle of a particular deceased individual that can be obtained through the proper analyses of unique dental soft tissue and hard tissue structures of the dentition and skull.(See letter to the editor by F. J. Melbye and M.D. Hamilton in JFI 58 (4).)

Modifications to the 1,2-Indanedione/ZincChloride Formula for Latent Print Development

Author(s): Russell, S. E.; John, G. L.; Naccarato, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 182-192
Abstract: Recently, Australian researchers discovered that combining a 1,2-indanedione formulation with a zinc chloride solution improved the visualization of latent fingerprints on paper and other porous surfaces. In this study, three modifications to this indanedione-zinc formula and protocol were explored. Increasing the amount of zinc chloride in the final working solution, dipping the material in the solution a second time, and lengthening the heating time have each enhanced both the color and the fluorescence of fingerprints developed on paper. By employing all of these alterations, optimal visualizations of latent prints were achieved.

The Use of Infrared Rays for Identification Purposes

Author(s): Donno, A.; Carlucci, D.; Introna, F
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 193-202
Abstract: Photographic techniques using infrared rays are widely used in the medicolegal field [1-4]. They are particularly helpful in personal identification investigations [5] because they reveal skin marks (e.g., tattoos) that cannot be seen with the naked eye or in simple color photos. The equipment used, although apparently sophisticated, is in fact easy to manage and has been shown to be decisive in many medicolegal consultations.

Evaluation of the Fingermark Reagent Oil Red O as a Possible Replacement for Physical Developer

Author(s): Salama, J.; Aumeer-Donovan, S.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 203-237
Abstract: This study further evaluates a relatively new fingermark reagent, Oil Red O (ORO), for its potential to be used as a replacement for, or in sequence with, physical developer (PD). A preliminary evaluation of the existing ORO reagent on a number of different porous substrates produced fingermarks with excellent ridge detail and contrast. Attempts were made to reformulate the ORO reagent to improve its application. During these trials, sodium hydroxide was found to be an essential component of the reagent. None of the reformulated ORO reagents developed fingermarks as well as the existing ORO formulation. A comparison of fingermarks developed with ORO and PD on a variety of different porous surfaces indicated that ORO performance appeared to be compromised to a greater extent than PD by the age of the fingermark and the immersion time in water. ORO produced inferior results to PD on fingermarks older than approximately 4 weeks. ORO produced good-quality fingermarks when placed in sequence with PD and HFE-7100/HFC-4310mee formulations of DFO, ninhydrin (followed by secondary metal salt treatment with zinc), and 1,2-indandione-zinc. Selectivity studies revealed that ORO interacts with a wide variety of both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds that may be present in latent fingermark deposits.

A Digital System for Imaging Bitter Patterns

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.; Lacey, D. S.; Killion, S. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 238-264
Abstract: This article explains the use of Bitter (ferrofluid development) patterns, lists the components of the authors' present film-based macrophotography system and protocol, provides and discusses the specifications for a digital imaging system, lists the components and protocol of the new digital system, describes image enhancement through post-processing, and makes specific forensic recommendations regarding its use. Bitter patterns are commonly used in audio duplication, enhancement, authenticity, and voice comparison examinations of analog tapes. Though this article is concerned with Bitter pattern imaging, most of the information is applicable to macroimaging systems in other forensic disciplines.(See correction in JFI 58 (3).)

Direct Detection of Gunshot Residue on Target: Fine Lead Cloud Deposit

Author(s): De Forest, P. R.; Rourke, L.; Sargeant, M.; Pizzola, P. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 265-276
Abstract: The estimate of the muzzle-to-target distance is critical to crime scene reconstruction because it can either help to corroborate or to refute suspects' or witnesses' statements. Methods currently used in criminalistics laboratories for the estimate of the muzzle-to-target distance have changed little over the past sixty years. These methods employ transfer techniques rather than a direct pattern development and visualization approach because color reactions do not provide an adequate contrast with dark fabrics. These methods suffer from several weaknesses. Described herein is the research and development of a simple method that allows the detection of the fine lead cloud deposit, originating from a firearm discharge, directly on the target.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 2, Page 278
Abstract: This interesting latent fingerprint was located on a stolen vehicle. A search through the Chautauqua Region SAFIS terminal resulted in a hit to a known fingerprint that revealed a striking resemblance to the famous painting, "The Scream" by Norwegian artist Edward Munch and to the mask worn in the movie, "Scream". The identification and prosecution were very timely and commenced the week before Halloween 2007. Contributor: Sergeant Michael Williams, Senior Crime Scene Analyst and SAFIS Manager, Chautauqua County Sheriff's Office, New York.

Commentary

Author(s): McKasson, S.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Page 1

Discriminability of Fingerprints of Twins

Author(s): Srihari, S. N.; Srinivasan, H.; Fang, G.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 109-127
Abstract: A study of the discriminability of fingerprints of twins is presented. The fingerprint data used is of high quality and quantity because of a predominantly young subject population of 298 pairs of twins whose tenprints were captured using a livescan device. Discriminability using level 1 and level 2 features is independently reported. The level 1 study was to visually classify by humans each fingerprint into one of six categories (right loop, left loop, whorl, arch, twin loop, and tented arch). It was found that twins are much more likely (55%) to have the same level 1 classification when compared to the general population (32%). The level 2 study was to compare minutiae (ridge endings and bifurcations). This was done by a minutiae-based automatic fingerprint identification algorithm that provided a score (0-350) given a pair of fingerprints. Scores were computed for corresponding fingers from both twins and non-twins. Five distributions of scores were determined: twins, non-twins, identical twins, fraternal twins, and genuine scores from the same finger. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare distributions, the following inferences are made: twins are different from genuines, twins are different from non-twins, and identical twins are the same as fraternal twins. The main conclusion is that, although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, they are still discriminable.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Page 130
Abstract: This is a very unusual palmprint. The contributor correctly suggests the following questions arise when observing this image: Which side is the thenar and which is the hypothenar? Where are the regular creases? Does this palmprint originate from the left or right palm? This person's right hand is completely normal with five fingers and a full palm, but the left hand has a genetic defect, bearing only two fingers and the thumb and, as you can see, this unusual ridge flow. Contributor: Lieutenant József Romanek, Colonel of Police, Justice Institute of Forensic Sciences, Hungary.

Forensic Mapping: The Use of Total Stations and Mapping Software to Produce Scale Diagrams

Author(s): Joice, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
Abstract: Total stations and mapping software are being utilized more and more by law enforcement agencies to collect and produce highly accurate scale diagrams for court. This paper describes what a total station is, how it collects measurement data, and how that data is ultimately used to produce a scale diagram. Also discussed is how the investigator can meet court challenges in order to have the scale diagram and associated data entered as evidence.

Re: A Study of Numeracy in Forensic Scientists, J. For. Ident. Vol 57 (5)

Author(s): McKasson, S.
Type: Letters
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 2-5

The Restoration of Impressed Characters on Aluminum Alloy Motorcycle Frames

Author(s): Peeler, G.; Gutowski, S. J.; Wrobel, H.; Dower, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 27-32
Abstract: This paper discusses a procedure to restore impressed characters on aluminum alloy motorcycle frames. The procedure involves the initial use of an acid etchant followed by the application of an alkali. This procedure is repeated as necessary. The method was used with good results during experimental tests and on several stolen motor cycles received in casework.

Identification through Typing of DNA Recovered from Touch Transfer Evidence: Parameters Affecting Yield of Recovered Human DNA

Author(s): Allen, R. W.; Pogemiller, J.; Joslin, J.; Melisa, G.; Pritchard, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 33-41
Abstract: Parameters affecting the recovery of human chromosomal DNA from touched evidence suitable for subsequent DNA typing was investigated. A model system was devised in which approximately equal numbers of male and female volunteers created a touch impression on clean glass slides with either the thumb or forefinger. Material deposited on the slide was then lifted using a Dacron swab wetted with dilute buffer solution and then subjected to extraction and quantitation of the DNA recovered. Chromosomal DNA present on each slide was quantitated using a sensitive, human-specific assay. Individuals providing touched slides for the study were categorized as heavy, intermediate, and light shedders, depending upon the amount of DNA recovered from their glass slides. Results showed that male donors were more often classified as heavy shedders (26%) when compared with female donors (12.5%), who tended to be classified as intermediate shedders (66.7%). In both sexes, only about 20% of donors were classified as light shedders. When items touched with the forefinger or thumb from the dominant versus nondominant hand from both sexes were compared, the nondominant hand deposited significantly more DNA on glass slides than did the dominant hand. Different types of mock forensic evidence, including knives, guns, and bullet casings, were found to serve as suitable substrates for the recovery of DNA when handled by heavy or intermediate shedders. Interestingly, DNA deposited on bullets handled during the loading of 22 and 9 mm caliber handguns survived firing of the weapons and could be recovered for STR analysis.

Two Cases with the Same Latent Print Evidence

Author(s): Hill, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 42-45
Abstract: The latent print examiner discovered that the latent print evidence in two cases, which were investigated days apart, were the same impressions.

Latent Print Examination on Foldable and Porous Surfaces: Analysis of Three Cases

Author(s): Zampa, F.; Cappiello, P.; Vaccaro, G.; Carullo, V.; Cervelli, F.; Mattei, A.; Garofano, L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
Abstract: The results of three interesting and unusual cases involving fingerprint examinations are presented. This paper points out the extreme usefulness of a careful analysis of the developed friction ridge skin impression with respect to the surface of the item in question.

Recovery of Fingerprints from Arson Scenes: Part 1 — Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Bradshaw, G.; Bleay, S.; Deans, J.; NicDaeid, N.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 54-82
Abstract: This paper reports a study into the recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes. The work aims to establish the range of temperatures and exposure times for which latent fingerprints can survive exposure and the best practice for soot removal and subsequent fingerprint development. Tests carried out in a laboratory demonstrated that several current fingerprint development processes continue to develop marks after prolonged exposure of the print at 200 °C. Above this temperature, marks can still be developed, but the choice of processes is much more limited. Articles were also subjected to simulated fire environments and it was further demonstrated that a range of soot removal processes could be successfully applied and marks subsequently developed. The best performing soot removal techniques included lifting tape, silicone casting compound, and Absorene. For development of marks on nonporous surfaces, black powder suspension was particularly effective, whereas the best technique for porous surfaces was physical developer.

"Subjective" – The Misused Word

Author(s): Leo, W. F.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 6-13

Recovery of Fingerprints from Arson Scenes: Part 2 — Fingerprints in Blood

Author(s): Moore, J.; Bleay, S.; Deans, J.; NicDaeid, N.
Type: Article
Published: 2008, Volume 58, Issue 1, Pages 83-108
Abstract: This paper reports a study into the recovery of fingerprints in blood from fire scenes. The work aims to establish the range of temperatures and exposure times for which fingerprints in blood can survive exposure and the best practice for soot removal and subsequent fingerprint development. Tests carried out in a laboratory demonstrated that some of the protein dyes currently recommended for development of fingerprints in blood continue to develop marks after prolonged exposure of the print to 200 °C. Above this temperature, marks can still be developed, but it is not possible to determine whether the original mark was in blood. Articles were also subjected to simulated fire environments, and it was further demonstrated that a range of soot removal processes could be successfully applied and marks subsequently developed. The best performing soot removal techniques included silicone rubber casting compound and Absorene. For development of marks on nonporous surfaces, acid violet 17 was most effective, whereas the best technique for porous surfaces was acid black 1. Vacuum metal deposition was capable of detecting the position of marks on surfaces exposed to 900 °C.

Crime Reconstruction

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 797-806
Abstract: (See Letter to the editor by Brent E. Turvey and W. Jerry Chisum in JFI 58 (2))

Characteristics of Snow and Their Influence on Casting Methods for Impression Evidence

Author(s): Adair, T. W.; Tewes, R.; Bellinger, T. R.; Nicholls, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 807-822
Abstract: Casting impression evidence in snow can be challenging for many investigators. Understanding the medium of snow and how its properties may influence the success of casting methods can assist the investigator in choosing techniques that offer the best chances of successfully casting track impressions. Various snow types are defined with recommendations for the appropriate casting methods best suited for the characteristics of the snowpack. The terms "impression perimeter" and "penetration" are introduced as they relate to snow casting.

The Dry-Casting Method: A Reintroduction to a Simple Method for Casting Snow Impressions

Author(s): Adair, T. W.; Shaw, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 823-831
Abstract: We report on a method of casting snow impressions with dental stone that produces impressive results with minimal effort. Although variations of this method have been reported as early as 1932, the technique seems to have been overlooked in contemporary forensic texts. Many investigators are dependent on snow print wax and dental stone for casting impression evidence in snow. This method adds yet another option for the crime scene investigator to consider. We introduce the term "dry casting" and provide simple steps for using this casting method.

Positive Identification on the Basis of Dental Work in a Burned Body

Author(s): Santoro, V.; Introna, F.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 832-840
Abstract: This paper deals with a positive identification on the basis of the dental work of the burned body of a young woman who died in a car crash.

Use of Photoshop in Augmenting Software Composite Construction

Author(s): Levi, J. A.; Chaikovsky, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 841-847
Abstract: When facial composite construction is required, software tools are commonly used. This paper describes how to use Adobe Photoshop to make corrections and additions to software-generated composites.

Microsoft Word Crime Scene Drawing

Author(s): Lamarche, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 848-869
Abstract: Microsoft Word is not generally considered to be a graphics program. However, by using the Drawing toolbar, Microsoft Word can be used to make accurate (to scale) drawings. This method has been used successfully to prepare drawings for use in court. Additionally, a drawing may be used as an addendum to a witness statement, allowing witnesses to draw on printed copies of the diagram to indicate position and direction relative to themselves, suspects, and victims. These diagrams can be drawn quickly, if not to scale, and used during an investigation, much in the same way as the scale diagram would be used in the courtroom.

The Case of the Toe Print

Author(s): Watkins, D.; Brown, K. C.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 870-873
Abstract: During an investigation of check fraud involving 5 victims and 34 counterfeit checks totaling $67,245.00, it was noted that a very large fingerprint had been placed on the front of several checks. The investigation revealed that the large fingerprint was actually a toe print that had been purposely placed there to mislead any investigation.

Focus on Pores

Author(s): Turner, J. M.; Weightman, A. S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 874-882
Abstract: Gauging quantity and quality of detail in a fingerprint is a central part of the identification process. It is imperative that an examiner be aware of and be able to identify all features of a mark to assist in an identification. Although pores have often been sidelined as being unreliably reproduced, they can be a useful tool to assist in comparative ridgeology. This case study is an excellent example of how useful pores can be when there are insufficient traditional points of comparison to individualize.

Commercial Woodchipper Fatality

Author(s): Beers, D. A.; Allen, P. C.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 883-890
Abstract: This paper discusses collecting, sorting, cataloging, and identifying the remains of a person killed in a woodchipper incident. Also, the manner of death is determined to be an accident.

Theoretical and Practical Considerations in Crime Scene Reconstruction

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.; Bevel, T.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 891-911
Abstract: Crime scene reconstruction is a distinct discipline in forensics, with a relatively well-established history defining basic methodologies. What has not been articulated well in the past is a basic theory and underlying principles for crime scene reconstruction. This paper examines the history of crime scene reconstruction in an effort to identify basic concepts associated with those methodologies. It identifies an applicable theory and four associated principles that will guide the crime scene analyst and then provides a practical seven-step methodology to use when conducting a reconstruction.

Guide for the Forensic Documentation and Photography of Footwear and Tire Impressionsat the Crime Scene

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 912-917

Guide for Casting Footwear andTire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 918-924

Guide for Lifting Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 925-929

Photoshop CS3 for Forensics Professionals, A Complete Digital Imaging Course for Investigators

Author(s): Wertheim, K.; Langenburg, G. M.; Moenssens, A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 930-931

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 6, Page 966
Abstract: This is an unusual print. Below are the rolled and plain impressions of the #1/right thumb print. The third delta on the top left is certainly unusual and may not always be visible in a rolled or latent impression. A latent impression of this print could cause many headaches when determining location and orientation! Because there are three deltas, this print is classified as an ACCIDENTAL Whorl. Since the third delta may not always be visible, a reference to a Plain Whorl is required. The thumb print appears to be fully rolled, but the tracing cannot be done from the left to the right delta; therefore, this would be given the opposite finger tracing, which is an Outer, and referenced to an Inner and Meeting. Contributor: Tammy Leiter, Chandler Police Department, Chandler, Arizona

Effect of Photographic Technology on Quality of Examination of Footwear Impressions

Author(s): Blitzer, H.; Hammer, R.; Jacobia, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 641-657
Abstract: Using a panel of footwear examiners and photographs produced by both film and digital technologies, it was shown that properly chosen digital technology can give results comparable to those of 35 mm silver halide. Prints produced from 120 film are better than either 35 mm or digital.

Enhancement of Difficult-to-Capture, Two-Dimensional Footwear Impressions Using the Combined Effects of Overhead Lighting and the Perspective Control Lens

Author(s): Chung, J. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 658-671
Abstract: This paper discusses an enhancement method that uses the perspective control lens for the recording of difficult-to-capture, two-dimensional footwear impressions. The results show that such two-dimensional impressions can be enhanced and photographed with overhead lighting through the use of a perspective control lens.

A Study of Numeracy in Forensic Scientists

Author(s): Houck, M. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 672-680
Abstract: A study was conducted with forensic experts using standard tests of frequency assessment and number handling to judge their abilities to estimate problem solving capacities. The experts faired no better than other professions; in some ways, they did worse. Given the prevalence of statistics in the courtroom, a greater emphasis on enhancing numerical literacy teaching statistics may be necessary in the forensic sciences. (See letter to the editor by Stephen McKasson in JFI 58 (1).)

Fingerprint Detection and DNA Typing on Objects Recovered from Water

Author(s): Soltyszewski, I.; Moszczynski, J.; Pepinski, W.; Jastrzebowska, S.; Makulec, W.; Zbiec, R.; Janica, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 681-687
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a water environment on fingerprint development and DNA typing. Fingerprints deposited on glass slides were examined. The experiments were conducted with four different types of water at two temperature conditions. Fingerprint development methods included aluminum powder, ferromagnetic powder, and cyanoacrylate fuming. An AmpFlSTR SGM Plus and ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer or ABI 377 Sequencer were used to obtain DNA profiles. Fingerprints, but no DNA profiles, were recovered from objects that had been submerged in water for up to six weeks.

The Use of Un-du to Separate Adhesive Materials

Author(s): Molina, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 688-696
Abstract: The use of gentian violet, Sticky-side Powder, and Wetwop following the application of Un-du to separate adhesive materials is tested. The test results indicate that Un-du is effective in separating the tape so that it can be processed for fingerprints.

Forensic Analysis of Some Lip Cosmetics

Author(s): Thakar, M. K.; Singh, R.; Singh, R.; Shelja; Kumar, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 697-705
Abstract: Stains of lip cosmetics are commonly encountered in crimes involving rape, burglary, anonymous letters, and so forth. If these stains are analyzed properly, they can provide significant evidence. Thin-layer chromatography, which is relatively simple and inexpensive, can be successfully employed to analyze these types of stains. This study deals with the thin-layer chromatography analysis of various types of lip cosmetics.

The Recovery of Footwear Marks in Blood at a Homicide Scene Involving a Smoldering Fire

Author(s): Gorn, M.; Stafford-Allen, P.; Stevenson, J.; White, P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 706-716
Abstract: A research project was undertaken to determine the specificity of leucocrystal violet, a blood enhancement reagent. The results became important in assessing whether nonvisible marks found at a homicide scene were made in blood or could have been made in another fluid.

Cadaver Dogs as a Forensic Tool: An Analysis of Prior Studies

Author(s): Dorriety, J. K.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 717-725
Abstract: This paper discusses studies involving cadaver dog training and cadaver dog accuracy and also discuss the value of using the cadaver dog as a forensic tool.

What Knots Can Reveal: The Strengths and Limitations of Forensic Knot Analysis

Author(s): Chisnall, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 726-749
Abstract: The analysis of knot evidence can be valuable in civil and criminal investigations. In some instances, knots and knot combinations can be used to distinguish between homicide, suicide, and autoerotic fatalities. In others, knots can indicate the number of tiers and even suggest their handedness. Knot analysis is not a mainstream technique. There is little supporting research, there are discrepancies in the knotting literature regarding nomenclature, there are no globally accepted standards for knot experts, and the general strengths and limitations of forensic knot analysis have not been extensively conveyed. The latter issue is the purpose of this article. Properly preserved and prudently analyzed knot evidence may offer some corroborating details, suggest leads to new sources of evidence, and provide grounds for search warrants and other legal or scientific aspects of investigation.

Criminalistics, An Introduction to Forensic Science

Author(s): Cantu, A. A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 750-751

Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation

Author(s): Miller, R. V.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Pages 752-754

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 5, Page 794
Abstract: This is just for fun, in honor of Patriot Day, September 11! The core area of the fingerprint resembles the picture of George Washington on the one dollar bill!! The contributor noticed it while conducting IAFIS searches. I would classify this as a GWW - George Washington Whorl! Contributor: James L. Rettberg III, FBI Latent Print Unit/TEDAC/ORAU, Quantico, Virginia.

Infant-to-Adult Footprint Identification

Author(s): Sinclair, R.; Fox, C.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 485-492
Abstract: A case report involving the examination of an infant footprint against an adult exemplar to establish citizenship in the United States is presented. The size differential was eliminated through the use of enlarged ridge tracings which were used to demonstrate the comparison.

Image Enhancement and Adobe Photoshop: Using Calculations to Extract Image Detail

Author(s): Smith, J.; York Regional Police; Newmarket, O. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 493-505
Abstract: Adobe Photoshop's calculations function is a powerful enhancement tool to clarify detail while reducing distracting background patterns.

Extracting File Information from Digital Cameras Using JHead and Photo Studio Software

Author(s): Morris, K.; Fitzsimmons, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 506-511
Abstract: This article discusses the functions of the software programs JHead and Photo Studio to view data contained within the exchangeable image file format (Exif). Extracted data can be useful in the establishment of the chain of custody for digital crime scene images taken at a crime and as an investigative tool in determining the origin of images in criminal investigations.

The Fentanyl Patch at the Crime Scene

Author(s): Lounsbury, D. A.; George, D. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 512-521
Abstract: The fentanyl transdermal patch is widely prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain. These patches have high abuse potential and can become convenient instruments for suicide or homicide. Even after continuous use for 72 hours, patches can contain significant and potentially lethal quantities of fentanyl. When fentanyl patches are encountered at crime scenes, the circumstances of their presence should be thoroughly investigated. Particular attention should be given to the preservation of fingerprint evidence on the patch itself and its packaging materials.

Preliminary Investigations into Using Eugenol to Recover Erased Characters on Polymers

Author(s): Burke, K.; Lewis, S. W.; Bett, J.; Southurst, T. E.; Lim, K. F.; Gutowski, S. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 522-529
Abstract: In this paper we present our preliminary studies on the efficacy of eugenol for the recovery of erased characters on polymers. We have found that eugenol rapidly recovers erased characters when applied to the surface of polymer substrates. By applying eugenol to the surface to be treated using a cotton bud or paintbrush, we were able to revisualize erased characters from a range of polymers, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, acrylic, high-impact polystyrene, and polystyrene. Eugenol is a safe, nonhazardous, and easily sourced reagent for this purpose.

Stabilizing Blood Samples Using Osmolytes for Forensic DNA Analysis

Author(s): Hill, A.; Van der Veer de Bondt, A.; Reeder, D.; Coticone, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 530-538
Abstract: Forensic evidence must be stored such that its integrity is maintained while criminal and judicial proceedings continue. Presently, most liquid blood samples are dried on filter paper and stored frozen until DNA analysis is requested. The cost to maintain freezer space is substantial and if effective preservatives could be added to the blood, then the cost to store the evidence at room temperature would be reduced. In the present study, blood samples were exposed to several different environments to determine the effect of osmolytes on the preservation of DNA extracted from resulting bloodstains. To assess the ability of osmolytes to improve the storage of blood and blood stains, two osmolytes, sorbitol and trehalose, were incubated with blood samples for various time periods and extreme conditions (e.g., high temperature). DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed using yield gels followed by STR analysis. Quantiblot results showed that DNA recovery was comparable among the osmolyte-treated samples and the untreated samples. Moreover, DNA recovered from the 10% or 20% trehalose-containing blood samples were the least degraded after four months under the various conditions, as shown by yield gel assays and by STR amplification.

A Latent Print Examiner's Guide to IAFIS

Author(s): Brown, J. P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 539-549
Abstract: Research was conducted on the integrated automated fingerprint identification system (IAFIS) to determine the optimum encoding strategies for latent fingerprint searches of IAFIS. The research looked at the tenprint database, as well as the results of searches. Research showed that although IAFIS is an accurate system, some areas can cause problems for examiners. Knowing these problems and using an encoding strategy that relies on the strengths of the system, while minimizing its weaknesses, will result in a more accurate search.

The Use of Oil Red O in Sequence with Other Methods of Fingerprint Development

Author(s): Guigui, K.; Beaudoin, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 550-581
Abstract: Oil Red O (ORO) has been proven to be equal to or better than physical developer for the recovery of latent fingerprints on white, kraft, and thermal papers that have been wet. To extend these findings, we investigated whether ORO interferes with or improves results when used in sequence with other methods. Our results indicate that on its own, ORO gives excellent quality fingerprints, and further development is often unnecessary. However, if physical developer is needed, it can still be used as a final procedure in the sequence without being influenced by the insertion of ORO.

Audio Record and Playback Characteristics of Small Solid-State Recorders

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.; Lacey, D. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 582-598
Abstract: Using ten small solid-state (flash memory) audio recorders in a research project, test recordings were prepared of sine waves, white noise, and speech samples. The frequency responses, signal-to-noise ratios, sampling frequency variances, intermodulation distortion, and spectrographic vocal resonances were determined and compared for the analog outputs and also for the digital files on the five units containing USB outputs. The results of the research and their applications in forensic examinations, including authenticity, enhancement, voice comparison, and signal analysis, are discussed.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 4, Page 638
Abstract: I often receive submissions of fingerprints with scars. When an injury penetrates both the epidermis and dermis layers of skin, a permanent scar will result. The injury/healing process causes the ridges to be pulled inward. A scar in a recorded fingerprint is identified by a white "line" running through the print. The ridges around the white line will be slightly puckered or bent (a white line with no puckering is a crease). The result of the healed wound runs the gamut from a slightly distorted pattern to a pattern so damaged that classification is impossible (the opposite finger pattern is then used for Henry Classification). Below are examples of scarred fingerprints, where the general pattern type can be determined with reasonable accuracy. Fingerprint A has a heavy scar running down the middle of the print, but it's still possible to see that left of the scar is a Whorl. Fingerprint B is also a Whorl. (Tracings on A and B would be referenced to all possibilities.) Fingerprint C has a thick scar, but again, the pattern is undamaged to the right of the scar, revealing a right slant loop, which should be referenced to a Whorl. Watch for scars – they can create very interesting patterns! Contributors: Kimberly Anderson, Abilene Police Department, Abilene, TX; Jim Richbourg, Pensacola Police Dept., Pensacola, Florida.

Alternative Metal Processes for Vacuum Metal Deposition

Author(s): Philipson, D.; Bleay, S.
Type: Correction
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 329
Abstract: On page 263 in the March/April 2007 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 57, issue 2), figure 2 was inadvertently printed upside down. The printer and editor apologize for this error.

Re: Internet Study of Use and Effectiveness of Facial Composites in the United States, J. For. Ident. Vol 57 (1)

Author(s): Powers, B.
Type: Letters
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 330-332

Re: Use of Dichloromethane in Fingerprint Reagent Formulations

Author(s): Stoilovic, M.; Lennard, C.; Wallace-Kunkel, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Letters
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 333-334

Bodies of Knowledge

Author(s): Vanderkolk, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 335-337

Analyzing Pre- and Post-Event Surveillance Video Frames

Author(s): Brunetti, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 338-347
Abstract: Surveillance video is a rich source of information for the criminal investigator. By using video frames from before and after an incident and specific filters in Corel Photo-Paint X3 and Adobe Photoshop CS, it is possible to determine areas of a crime scene where physical changes have taken place.

Using a Photographic Grid for the Documentation of Bloodstain Patterns at a Crime Scene

Author(s): Hill, T. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 348-357
Abstract: A basic way to accomplish the documentation of bloodstain evidence is with the use of a photographic grid pattern. The grid pattern can be applied to f loors, walls, or ceilings. This method can be employed by the experienced analyst as well as by a novice crime scene photographer who has no knowledge of bloodstain pattern analysis.

The Boiling Technique: A Method for Obtaining Quality Postmortem Impressions from Deteriorating Friction Ridge Skin

Author(s): Uhle, A. J.; Leas, R. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 358-369
Abstract: When friction ridge skin is compromised by various destructive inf luences, it often breaks down into flaccid skin with no discernible friction ridge detail. The boiling technique is a specialized procedure that uses boiling water to recondition friction ridge skin. This reconditioning process rehydrates the skin, enhancing and exposing friction ridge detail. As a result, quality impressions, even from the most distressed bodies, can be recorded and compared to a known antemortem standard or searched through an automated fingerprint or palmprint system to verify or establish identity.

Solving the Puzzle: Joining Separated Latent Fingerprint Parts into One Whole Print for an AFIS Search.

Author(s): Argaman, U.; Chaikovsky, A.; Balman, A.; Mizrachi, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 370-4377
Abstract: Latent fingerprints that are developed on folded plasticbags, folded papers, or similar surfaces usually present a challenge to fingerprint comparison experts, because often, the latent fingerprint is on the surface in several separate parts. Just like separated puzzle parts, there is no continuity between the pieces. This report explains a method to rejoin these separated parts and its value for AFIS searches. The presented method solves the problem of segmented latent prints by using digital imaging and by creating different image layers with Adobe Photoshop.

A Modified Iodine-Fuming Method

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 378-382
Abstract: This paper describes a simple method of impregnating silica gel packs with iodine fumes. These silica gel packs can then be used as a part of a convenient method to fume evidence in a ziplock bag.

Barefoot Morphology Comparisons: A Summary

Author(s): Kennedy, R. B.; Yamashita, B.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 383-413
Abstract: Barefoot morphology comparison refers to the examination of the weight-bearing areas of the human foot to include or exclude suspects in a criminal investigation. Casts or inked impressions of a foot can be compared to bare or socked foot impressions found at a crime scene or to insoles of footwear linked to a crime scene. This article outlines some of the background research that has been conducted into the variability of barefoot impressions and describes the methods used to carry out the comparison. The technique is scientifically valid and should be considered in any cases where its use would be warranted.

Evaluation and Application of Polynomial Texture Mapping in the Area of Shoe and Impression Evidence

Author(s): Hamiel, J. S.; Yoshida, J. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 414-434
Abstract: This polynomial texture mapping (PTM) project explorer the use of the PTM technology in forensic shoe and tire impression evidence, including the use of a smaller, more portable unit for field use. The research evaluates the usefulness of PTM images by comparing them to conventional sidelight and casting techniques of the same impressions. This technology in the forensic field could significantly reduce the overhead for already extended public resources while improving the quality of the data leading to more definitive information from the scene evidence. The use of the PTM technology has the potential for better resolved images for the comparison of known shoe soles or tire treads to impressions left at crime scenes.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 3, Page 482
Abstract: This is a questionable pattern to interpret because of the unusual core.This is an Accidental Whorl (loop over a tented arch) with an outer tracing. It should be referenced to a Central Pocket Loop Whorl, since the core could appear to be an obstruction at right angles to the line off low. Contributor: Rudolfo R. Zamora, Sr., Mesa Police Department, Mesa, AZ.

Re: Questionnaire: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures for Fingerprint Detection, J. For. Ident. Vol 56 (5)

Author(s): Kent, T.
Type: Letters
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 189-192

STR Analysis Following Latent Blood Detection by Luminol, Fluorescein, and BlueStar

Author(s): Jakovich, C. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 193-198
Abstract: Luminol and fluorescein are chemicals commonly used for presumptive tests to visualize latent blood associated with a crime scene. A new chemical, BlueStar, is now available for the same purpose. Research has shown that luminol and fluorescein do not interfere with STR analysis but little research has been done to demonstrate the effect of BlueStar, if any, on DNA analysis. In this study, blood-stained carpets that had been sprayed with luminol, fluorescein, and BlueStar were swabbed and the swabs were submitted for STR analysis. Full profiles at the 13 core CODIS STR loci were obtained from swabs from each carpet, demonstrating that BlueStar, like luminol and fluorescein, does not inhibit STR analysis.

The Mount Bierstadt Study: An Experiment in Unique Damage Formation in Footwear

Author(s): Adair, T. W.; Lemay, J.; McDonald, A.; Shaw, R.; Tewes, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 199-205
Abstract: Randomly formed damage on footwear outsoles has appropriately been used to compare crime scene impressions to the known shoes of suspects, witnesses, and victims. In this study, the authors wore new, identical boots (two pairs) during a seven-mile hike. The authors attempted to control the major variables except the manner in which the outsole of the boot made contact with the ground. The results of this experiment support the use of these marks for the individualization of footwear and confirm their random formation through the use of the shoe by the wearer.

Thin-Layer Chromatography Detection of Volatile Denaturants in Denatured Spirits

Author(s): Sivaprasad, G.; Sivadurai, S. N.; Rajaram, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 206-214
Abstract: Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for the detection of volatile alcoholic denaturants (acetone, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) was carried out. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine was added to denatured alcohol along with a catalytic amount of concentrated sulphuric acid and the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives formed were spotted in TLC along with authenticated samples and identified. This method does not necessitate the use of a spray to develop the spots or UV light to visualize the developed plate. Therefore, the test can be done in the field.

Improved System for Thin-Layer Chromatography of Bear Gall Bladders

Author(s): Sahajpal, V.; Goyal, S. P.; Vishal, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 215-222
Abstract: Thin-layer chromatography studies were carried out on 40 bear gall bladders and 10 gall bladders of other animals (goat and pig) to develop a quicker and more sensitive protocol for identifying bear gall bladders. Fifteen solvent systems were tested for their efficacy and speed of separating bile components. Three different spraying reagents were tested for their sensitivity. We describe a solvent system that is faster in separating bile components with respect to solvent systems reported earlier. A different spraying reagent is recommended that is two times more sensitive then spraying reagents reported earlier.

Locating Taser Anti-Felon Identification Disks

Author(s): Lounsbury, D. A.; Thompson, L. F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 223-229
Abstract: The Taser weapon that projects two darts up to 25 feet on electrical wire leads has become prevalent as a result of civilian sales. In order to control misuse and to track legitimate use, the manufacture has included serialized identification disks known as Anti-Felon Identification (AFID). Identifying and locating the AFIDs for reconstruction and crime scene analysis is problematic because of their small size and their ability to land vertically in carpet or outdoor environments. This presentation demonstrates a method for locating the expended AFIDs, using an alternate light source.

Developing Friction Ridge Detail on the Interior of Latex and Nitrile Gloves

Author(s): Pleckaitis, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 230-239
Abstract: A simple, one-step process using Wetwop to develop latent prints on latex gloves and nitrile gloves was tested. The tests produced identifiable prints on the gloves seventy-seven percent of the time.

The Use of Cellophane Tape to Overcome the Background Discoloration on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Siegel, S. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 240-243
Abstract: Various types of cellophane tape were used to clear the background discoloration of thermal paper that occurs with wet ninhydrin processing.

Small Particle Reagent: A Saponin-Based Modification

Author(s): Jasuja, O. P.; Singh, G. d.; Sodhi, G. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 244-251
Abstract: Small particle reagents involve the use of synthetic detergents. In this present work, the synthetic detergent component was replaced with saponin, a naturally found surface-active compound in the fruit of the Sapindus mukorossi. The reagent was found to work satisfactorily even after 15 days of storage in ambient conditions.

Alternative Metal Processes for Vacuum Metal Deposition

Author(s): Philipson, D.; Bleay, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 252-273
Abstract: This paper reports studies carried out to identify alternative vacuum metal deposition (VMD) processes that are capable of developing fingerprints on articles for which the existing gold and zinc process gives poor results. Initial studies indicated that the best results are obtained using silver deposited as a single metal. Further research established the optimum amount of metal and deposition conditions to be used. A mechanism is proposed for the silver VMD process. It was demonstrated both in a laboratory and in operational trials that additional fingerprints could be developed by depositing silver after the conventional gold and zinc process, and the technique is now recommended for operational use.(See Correction by David Philipson Stephen Bleay in JFI 57 (3).)

Fingerprint Image Quality Measurement Algorithm

Author(s): Yen, R.; Guzman, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 274-287
Abstract: We present a human-visual-perception-model-based algorithm for determining fingerprint image quality that results in a single score to represent the image's quality level. This method would allow an operator who is responsible for the collection of fingerprint images in the field to render, accept, and reject decisions quickly based on calculated quality scores. This method first identifies the fingerprint image's region of interest (ROI) and then targets that area for quality measurement. We then propose the ROI be reduced by 2 in both the horizontal and vertical axes by using a 5 x 5 low-pass filter with Gaussian weighting coefficients. The quality is then determined by the majority orientation within each cell of the image, which is formed by a 9 x 9 pixel block. An image's overall single quality score is calculated by taking the average of all the cells' quality levels.

Fingerprint Identification

Author(s): Burke, K.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Page 288

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 2, Page 326
Abstract: This is an appropriate submission for Spring - a pattern containing a flower with stem and leaves! This is a CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORL with an outer tracing. A reference to a 13+ count right slant LOOP is also necessary, because of the recurves might appear to be too pointed or spoiled. Contributor: Sgt. Michael Bremenour, Crime Scene Unit, Livonia Police Department, Livonia, MI.

Back to Basics

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Page 1

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Page 186
Abstract: This is a good example of distortion caused by injury. The injury and healing process has caused the ridges to be pulled together, creating the appearance of three deltas and two whorl patterns. This is actually a PLAIN WHORL with meet tracing, referenced to an ACCIDENTAL WHORL.

Uncertainties in Bullet Trajectories Reconstructed by the Trigonometric Method

Author(s): Rowe, W. F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 19-31
Abstract: The trigonometric method is an alternative to stringing for determining bullet paths at scenes of crimes. The locations of bullet holes are used to calculate both the horizontal and vertical angles of the bullet's path. In a post-Daubert world, crime scene reconstructionists need to be able to provide judges and juries with estimates of the errors or uncertainties in reconstructions such as the path of a bullet. This paper derives equations for the uncertainties in the horizontal and vertical angles calculated by means of the trigonometric method. In order to follow the derivation, the reader needs familiarity with differential calculus; however, the derived equations are simple and require only a calculator or table of trigonometric functions to use.

Letter re: Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Letters
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 2-3
Abstract: A response to a letter regarding a QUIP print.

Methamphetamine Information Program

Author(s): Warmenhove, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 32-53
Abstract: The Methamphetamine Information Program (a software program) is thoroughly described. The easy-to-use software was developed to assist law enforcement personnel who investigate the manufacturing of methamphetamine. Chemical information, calculators, and tools within the program are described. Information regarding obtaining a free copy of the program is also provided.

Evaluation of a 1,2-Indanedione Formulation Containing Zinc Chloride for Improved Fingermark Detection on Paper

Author(s): Stoilovic, M.; Lennard, C.; Wallace-Kunkel, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 4-18
Abstract: 1,2-Indanedione was first proposed as an amino acid reagent for latent fingermark detection in 1997. Since that time, research groups around the world have undertaken and reported on studies aimed at optimizing the technique and comparing the results obtained with both ninhydrin and DFO development. There has been no general consensus in terms of preferred formulation, development conditions, metal salt treatment, observation conditions, and relative performance compared to conventional techniques. In this study, a new indanedione-zinc formulation is proposed that provides improved detection capabilities compared to DFO, with results that are less dependent on the relative moisture content of treated fingermarks.(See letter to the editor by Milutin Stoilovic, Chris Lennard, Christie Wallace-Kunkel, and Claude Roux JFI 57 (3).)

Eosin Y Detection of Latent Blood Prints

Author(s): Wang, Y.; Weiping, Z.; Janping, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 54-58
Abstract: Preliminary tests for a new reagent for the enhancement of latent blood prints were conducted. Eosin Y was tested on a variety of surfaces and produced good contrast blood prints.

Photographing Fingerprints on Cylindrical Objects

Author(s): Chaikovsk, A.; Cohen, Y.; Gabai, Y.; Levi, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
Abstract: Methods for correcting photographs of fingerprints from nonplanar surfaces are presented. The first method utilizes image processing procedures that spread the image on the picture and is applicable when the fingerprint covers less than half the circumference of the exhibit. In this situation the exhibit fingerprint can be captured in one shot. The second method is for fingerprints that are wrapped around the exhibit and uses multiple photographs of the exhibit.

Internet Study of Use and Effectiveness of Facial Composites in the United States

Author(s): Levi, J. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 69-75
Abstract: Facial sketch composites have been constructed and used to apprehend suspects since early times. This paper discusses facial composite use and effectiveness in the United States. The study was based on local media reports available on the Internet. An overall arrest rate of 10.6% was found.(See letter to the editor by Bob Powers in JFI 57 (3).)

Developing Fingerprints in Blood: A Comparison of Several Chemical Techniques

Author(s): Marchant, B.; Tague, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 76-93
Abstract: Although eccrine (sweat) prints are the most commonly encountered latent prints, blood latent impressions are also encountered. Because of the differing chemical compositions between blood and sweat, blood latents require unique processing procedures. In this article we compare four techniques used to chemically develop prints in blood: amido black, coomassie blue, ABTS, and fluorescein. The amido black processing procedure was used as the standard to which the other techniques were compared. Latent prints developed using each technique were evaluated according to (1) the clarity of the prints produced and (2) the level of detail that was observed. Each technique was also evaluated on its practicality for use, including preparation and development times, as well as overall cost and safety.

Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity by. J. Rich, D.E. Dean, R. H. Powers (Eds.).

Author(s): Parkinson, G. A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 94-96

Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques by V. Geberth

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2007, Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 97-98

Practical Bomb Scene Investigation by T. James

Author(s): Laska, P. R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 1000-1001

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Page 1078
Abstract: This is a very unusual palmprint because of its unusal core formation. Because there is not sufficient recurve in front of the left delta, this right index finger would be classified as a 16 ridge count RADIAL (Left Slant) LOOP.

Letter re: The Boston Conference 2006

Author(s): Meijer, D.
Type: Letters
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 873-876

The Pursuit of Objectivity in the Examination of Forensic Evidence

Author(s): Saviano, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 877-884
Abstract: Objectivity is highly valued as a precaution against inaccurate and self-serving conclusions. Consequently, crime scene investigators and forensic examiners are taught early on to be objective in their work. Since the importance of objectivity is generally accepted among those in the legal field, courtroom attacks on expert and lay witnesses often come from the position of whether or not the witness has been completely objective regarding his or her findings or observations. But is complete objectivity ever attainable? This commentary takes a look at objectivity as it pertains to the investigation of crime scenes and the examination and analysis of physical evidence.

The Recovery of Registration Details from Vehicle Windscreens after Removal of the Registration Label

Author(s): Minutolo, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 885-888
Abstract: When adhesive registration labels are removed from vehicle windscreens, impressions of the information on that label may remain latent on the glass. This latent information can be visualized by steaming the area from which the label was removed. The information revealed may be photographed and the resultant photograph used in the process of vehicle identification.

Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Antemortem Dental Records

Author(s): Delattre, V. F.; Chambers, S. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 889-895
Abstract: This manuscript explores factors that may affect the acquisition of antemortem dental records from dental offices for the purpose of dental identification. Factors considered in this manuscript include overly strict adherence to privacy regulations, quality of dental treatment rendered to the patient, federal regulations, state regulations, and evolving legislation impacting dental offices. This manuscript also details how dental offices can remain compliant with rules concerning patient's privacy and the release of protected health information, while meeting the requests of medical examiners and law enforcement agencies for antemortem dental records.

The Application of Luminol to Bloodstains Concealed by Multiple Layers of Paint

Author(s): Bily, C.; Maldonado, H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 896-905
Abstract: An experiment was devised to determine whether blood could be detected through paint with the aid of luminol. The results of this experiment show that luminol was effective in detecting bloodstains through eight layers of paint.

A Photographic Comparison of Luminol, Fluorescein, and Bluestar

Author(s): Young, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 906-912
Abstract: Three chemicals (luminol, fluorescein, and Bluestar) are photographically compared. The results demonstrate that Bluestar performs as well or better than luminol and fluorescein.

Further Investigation Supports the Accuracy of Polygraph Examinations

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 913-932
Abstract: Psychologists have reservations concerning polygraph examination, especially the Control Question Technique. This article presents the results of a case with the polygraph examinations of three people and demonstrates that the claims of psychologists are unjustified.

Pilot Study: The Application of ACE-V to Simultaneous (Cluster) Impressions

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 933-971
Abstract: In December 2005, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled that applying the ACE-V methodology to simultaneous impressions did not satisfy the requirements set forth in Daubert. Specifically, the Court stated that there was insufficient research on the topic of simultaneous impressions. This paper explores the hypothesis that an examiner can, after a thorough analysis, successfully determine whether two or more latent impressions were deposited at the same time. The study consisted of a series of thirty (30) latent impressions that were sent to volunteer latent print examiners around the world. Their task was to examine each impression and apply ACE-V to determine whether the impressions were truly simultaneous in nature. The data indicate that when making a definitive determination of either true or false, the participants were correct nearly 88% of the time.

Postmortem Skin Erosions Caused by Ants and Their Significance in Crime Reconstruction

Author(s): Jayaprakash, P. T.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, Pages 972-999
Abstract: Although the importance of bloodstain patterns on dead bodies has been well reiterated, the pattern of bloodstains effusing from postmortem skin erosions caused by ants, its relation to hypostasis, and its significance during crime reconstruction, especially for finding movement of the body, have not been addressed so far. It is shown here that prompt identification of the characteristics in the bloodstain pattern from postmortem skin erosions due to ant bites can be useful in eliminating confusion when scientifically reconstructing crimes.

Evaluation of Fingerprint Powders

Author(s): Saroa, J. S.; Sodhi, G. S.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Correction
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 681-684
Abstract: Correction to article published in JFI 56 (2)

Letter re: Conclusion Scale for Shoeprint and Toolmarks Examinations

Author(s): Biedermann, A.; Taroni, F.; Aitken, C. G. G.
Type: Letters
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 685-693

The Use of Camphor in the Development of Latent Prints on Unfired Cartridge Casings

Author(s): Sturelle, V.; Cominotti, C.; Henrot, D.; Desbrosse, X.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 694-705
Abstract: The camphor fuming technique was applied on cartridge casings made of brass, lacquered brass, copper, nickel-plated brass, aluminum, and varnished steel. It was compared with three other techniques (cyanoacrylate, pyrrole electropolymerization, and silver nitrate) to determine the best technique for each surface. This method is inexpensive, nontoxic, and nonabrasive. There is no risk of overdeveloping the print, and the print may be transferred onto transfer plates, which is highly advantageous for cylindrical samples.

Use of Bluestar Forensic in Lieu of Luminol at Crime Scenes

Author(s): Dilbeck, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 706-720
Abstract: Bluestar Forensic, a new luminol-based reagent, was tested in a blood-detection comparison study against luminol. Photographic results were compared and the ease of preparation and the lack of the need for complete darkness for visualization were evaluated. This study determined that Bluestar Forensic has distinct advantages when compared to luminol.

Cartridge Casing Ejection Patterns from Two Types of 9 mm Self-loading Pistols Can Be Distinguished from Each Other

Author(s): Pepper, I. K.; Bloomer, S. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 721-725
Abstract: Cartridge casings that are recovered from the scene of a shooting can be of probative value in an investigation. One hundred rounds of 9 mm jacketed soft-point ammunition were fired from two self-loading pistols (Glock 17 and Sig Sauer P226). The resulting cartridge case ejection patterns were surveyed and plotted. The results show that the ejection patterns from the two self-loading pistols were different.

Marks on Skin Were Caused by Ants

Author(s): Tomboc, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 726-729
Abstract: During an autopsy, an unusual symmetrical pattern on the right arm of the victim was observed. After reviewing the case, a forensic entomologist concluded that the mark was the result of insect bites.

Bullets without Striations — Fired or Unfired?

Author(s): Ravikumar, R.; Rajan, P.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Vijay, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 730-736
Abstract: Bullets, spent cartridges, and firearms involved in a shoot-out were submitted for examination. Some of the bullets had no rifling marks. An examination revealed that they were unfired bullets.

Identifying and Sharing Class Characteristics of Outsole Impressions

Author(s): Brooks, J. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 737-743
Abstract: This case report discusses the importance of identifying characteristics of questioned footwear impressions from a crime scene. A footwear's manufacturer, brand, and model information should be shared with other footwear examiners to assist in the successful identification of questioned footwear impressions from other crime scenes.

The Forensic Examination of Cable Ties

Author(s): Gorn, M. E.; Hamer, P. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 744-755
Abstract: This paper describes how cable ties are manufactured and used, what to look for when comparing ties, and possible conclusions that can be reached. Two case studies in which cable ties were submitted for forensic analysis are discussed.

Preparation and Evaluation of Metal Nanopowders for the Detection of Fingermarks on Nonporous Surfaces

Author(s): Choi, M. J.; McDonagh, A. M.; Maynard, P. J.; Wuhrer, R.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 756-768
Abstract: Gold and silver nanoparticles using oleylamine as a stabilizer have been formulated for developing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. These nanopowders are compared with conventional powders such as black powder, black magnetic powder, aluminum powder, and white powder. Gold nanopowder produced sharp and clear development of latent fingermarks without background staining. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that particles were concentrated in the fingermark ridge areas, with only minor amounts located in the valley regions.

An Evaluation of Dental Stone, Traxtone, and Crime-Cast

Author(s): Bodziak, W. J.; Hammer, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 769-787
Abstract: Dental stone obtained in bulk from dental suppliers has been used worldwide at crime scenes for more than thirty years as the most popular casting material for recovering three-dimensional footwear and tire impressions. In recent years, preweighed products, such as Traxtone and Crime-Cast, have been introduced. This paper provides basic information about dental stone and how it should be used to cast impressions in sand and soil. The newer products are evaluated and compared to the traditional bulk dental stone. For this purpose, casts were made using each of the products in a variety of temperatures in Alaska and Florida.

Guide for Minimum Qualifications and Training for a Forensic Footwear and/or Tire Tread Examiner

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 788-793
Abstract: This Guide (Final dated 3/2006) describes the minimum qualifications and training for a forensic footwear and/or tire tread examiner.

Guide for the Forensic Documentation and Photography of Footwear and Tire Impressions at the Crime Scene

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 794-799
Abstract: This Guide (Final dated 3/2006) provides procedures for the documentation and photography of footwear and tire impressions at the crime scene.

Guide for the Examination of Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 800-805
Abstract: This Guide (Final dated 3/2006) provides procedures for the examination of footwear and tire impression evidence in the laboratory.

Standard Terminology for Expressing Conclusions of Forensic Footwear and Tire Impression Examinations

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 806-808
Abstract: This terminology is intended to assist forensic footwear and tire examiners in expressing conclusions based on their examinations. (Final dated 3/2006)

Questionnaire: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures for Fingerprint Detection

Author(s): Wakefield, M.
Type: S
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 809-816
Abstract: A questionnaire that consists of questions aimed at gathering information about quality assurance and quality control procedures in fingerprint laboratories world-wide.(See letter to the editor by Terry Kent in JFI 57 (2).)

Publication Guidelines

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 817-829
Abstract: This guide provides specific guidelines so that authors can produce papers that will require less editorial effort. The more closely an author follows these guidelines, the more likely the article will be accepted and published.

Forensic Investigation Handbook: An Introduction to the Collection, Preservation, Analysis and Presentation of Evidence by M. Karaglozis and R. Sgaglio

Author(s): Parkinson, G. A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Pages 830-831

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 5, Page 870
Abstract: This is a very unusual palm print. Note the small whorl patterns in the third and fourth interdigital spaces of the left palm. This palm print appears to be looking back at you!

Re: A Report of Latent Print Examiner Accuracy During Comparison Training Exercises, J. For. Ident. 56 (1)

Author(s): Haber, L.; Haber, R. N.
Type: Letters
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 493-510

Confirmation Bias, Ethics, and Mistakes in Forensics

Author(s): Byrd, J. S.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 511-525

An Advanced and Innovative Workflow for an AFIS Configuration

Author(s): Scarborough, S.; Henning, R.; Dechman, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 526-533
Abstract: Through the use of nonproprietary equipment, personal computers (PCs), AFIS terminals at every fingerprint expert's workstation, and an all-digital approach to the system, the workf low of an AFIS operation can be improved. This AFIS system design can be more efficient and effective in the use of resources, both equipment and personnel, and more capable of handling workload increases.

Trained Dogs in the Crime Scene Search

Author(s): Mesloh, C.; James-Mesloh, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 534-539
Abstract: In 2002, we began a project to determine the length of time that a trained police canine could locate evidence in the field. Despite fifty years of research in the field of police dogs and scent, there was a dearth of literature in this area. The researchers decided to conduct preliminary pilot studies in this area. A single dog was used, rather than a large group of canine teams, to identify any potential problems. In hindsight, this was a good decision because many issues in experimental design and data collection arose.

Ophthalmic Appliances in Identification: Information Retrieved from Spectacles

Author(s): Bertolli, E. R.; Forkiotis, C. J.; Pannone, D. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 540-548
Abstract: Ophthalmic appliances may be located at crime scenes. These appliances may provide information that may aid in the investigation of a crime. This paper discusses what information is available and how it can be used by investigators.

Defining a Methodology for Bloodstain

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 549-557
Abstract: Articulating a Concise Scientific Methodology for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis [1] exposed and attempted to explain, in an easy-to-understand manner, the steps involved in reaching a conclusion. This article attempts to further explain the application of scientific method to bloodstain pattern analysis, detailing additional steps and the specific questions posed in that process.

Trace DNA Presence, Origin, and Transfer within a Forensic Biology Laboratory and its Potential Effect on Casework

Author(s): Van Oorschot, R. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 558-576
Abstract: It is important to be aware of the possible presence of DNA-containing material on objects and surfaces within a forensic biology laboratory and its relative risk in relation to its potential to contaminate genetic profiles of casework samples. An assessment of objects and surfaces within our laboratory showed that several harbored DNA-containing material. The contamination risk of many of these objects and surfaces was low to medium because of the number of transfer steps required for contamination of a casework sample to occur. There were, however, two high-risk vectors from which sufficient DNA was retrieved to provide partial DNA profiles. It was found that gloves can accumulate DNA-containing material during the examination of exhibits and have the potential to transfer this to other items. It is recommended that forensic practitioners be aware of potential sources of contamination while performing examinations within their laboratory setting and ensure that their laboratory procedures limit the risk of contamination.

Footwear Examinations: Mathematical Probabilities of Theoretical Individual Characteristics

Author(s): Stone, R. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 577-599
Abstract: The trend in the forensic sciences favors objectivity over subjectivity. Courts in the United States are becoming increasingly hesitant to accept the opinion of an examiner who states, "It's a 'match' because I say it's a 'match'". Objectivity, in most cases, is reinforced by quantification. The individual characteristics that appear on a shoe print or shoe impression can be quantified using two primary variables. Their location on the print and their configuration and orientation yield measurable, discriminating data values. Theoretical types of individual characteristics that are found on shoe prints are described and discussed, and a hypothetical model is presented with probability estimates applied to quantify the likelihood of occurrence of the characteristics. With marks or combinations of marks of reasonable complexity, the magnitudes of the resultant numbers, though entirely abstract and based upon conservative assumptions, are remarkable.

Why Experts Make Errors

Author(s): Dror, I. E.; Charlton, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 600-616
Abstract: Expert latent fingerprint examiners were presented with fingerprints taken from real criminal cases. Half of the prints had been previously judged as individualizations and the other half as exclusions. We re-presented the same prints to the same experts who had judged them previously, but provided biasing contextual information in both the individualizations and exclusions. A control set of individualizations and exclusions was also re-presented as part of the study. The control set had no biasing contextual information associated with it. Each expert examined a total of eight past decisions. Two-thirds of the experts made inconsistent decisions. The findings are discussed in terms of psychological and cognitive vulnerabilities.

SWGFAST Update

Author(s): Butt, L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 617

SWGFAST — Changes to Current Documents

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 618

SWGFAST Special Notice (Name Change for Major Case Prints to Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars)

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 619-627

SWGTREAD

Author(s): Wiersema, S.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 628-629

SWGTREAD — Guide for Lifting Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 630-634

Guide for Casting Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Pages 635-641
Abstract: Draft for Comment 03/2006

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 678
Abstract: This is a difficult pattern to interpret . . . At first glance, it appears to be a DOUBLE LOOP whorl with a meet tracing. If "A" is a tented arch, the loop marked "B" does not form over the tented arch, negating an ACCIDENTAL WHORL pattern type. Therefore, this would be a LEFT SLANT LOOP with a count of 6. If "B" is spoiled, but "A" is not, this pattern is a TENTED ARCH. But, if this pattern does not fit by definition into any other class, it would be an ACCIDENTAL WHORL.

Fluorescence Detection of the Explosive Urea Nitrate with p-DMAC

Author(s): Menzel, E. R.; Schwierking, J. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 325-332
Abstract: The fluorescence detection in the field of the explosive urea nitrate can provide substantial sensitivity gain over the analogous colorimetric detection if careful optical filtering is employed in compatibility with the fluorescence excitation source. The fluorescence modality meshes nicely with the corresponding approach applied to the detection of traces of numerous other explosives.

Lifting Dusty Shoe Impressions from Human Skin: A Review of Experimental Research from Colorado

Author(s): Adair, T. W.; Doberson, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 333-338
Abstract: Experiments were conducted on a human cadaver in August of 2004 at the Arapahoe County Coroner's Office in Centennial, Colorado. An electrostatic dust print lifter (ESDL) was used to lift dusty shoe impressions from human skin. Shoe impressions of varied quality were tested with two commonly used ESDLs. All experiments support the use of this method for recovering dusty impressions from human skin.

Thin-Layer Chromatography of Black Shoe Polish Stains on Fabric

Author(s): Sahajpal, V.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 339-344
Abstract: Stains prepared from six brands of black shoe polish were studied using solubility tests, microscopic examination, and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Fifteen different solvents were examined, and tetrahydrofuran and acetone were the most suitable solvents for the extraction of the stain. Microscopic examination was not useful in distinguishing between the various brands of black shoe polish. The most appropriate solvent system for analysis by thin-layer chromatography was n-butanol-ethanol-water (50:25:25 v/v/v) with the plate subsequently examined using visible light and ultraviolet light. Liquid shoe polishes could be distinguished from semisolid shoe polishes by comparing the color of their extracts in tetrahydrofuran or acetone. Brands of shoe polishes could be differentiated using their developed chromatograms and hRf (distance between the substance zone and starting point divided by the distance between the solvent front and starting point, multiplied by a hundred) values in the new solvent system. The stains were successfully examined with TLC through 8 weeks.

The Etiology of ACE-V and its Proper Use: An Exploration of the Relationship Between ACE-V and the Scientific Method of Hypothesis Testing

Author(s): Triplett, M.; Cooney, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 345-355
Abstract: ACE-V is commonly described as the scientific methodology that fingerprint practitioners use to individualize friction skin impressions, including both tenprint and latent print examinations. This paper looks at the history of ACE-V, analyzes whether a clear understanding of ACE-V exists, gives a brief description of how ACE-V should be used, and looks at the repercussions of incorrectly using ACE-V. Recognizing the misconceptions about ACE-V is the first step in establishing a comprehensive grasp of this process, which in turn will result in practitioners reaching the best possible conclusions.

Fingerprint Impression Development

Author(s): Ostrowski, S. H.; Dupre, M. E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 356-363
Abstract: A vacuum box instrument can be used to process documents for indented writing and associated markings. In this nondestructive procedure, a vacuum box applies suction and an electrostatic charge to affix acetate film to the surface of a document. The acetate film is then processed with a development powder to help visualize existing indentations. During the processing of a demand note from a bank robbery, an identifiable fingerprint impression was developed and ultimately identified to a suspect.

Chemical Fuming: A Practical Method for Fingerprint Development on Thermal Paper

Author(s): Ma, Q.; Wei, Q.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 364-373
Abstract: This paper describes a useful method of chemical fuming for the development of latent fingerprints on the thermal surface of thermal paper. Nine chemicals were tried, and the effectiveness between chemical fuming and ninhydrin was also compared. Several chemicals were effective in developing fingerprints on the thermal surface; however, acetic acid was the best.

Detection of Latent Fingerprints on Fruits and Vegetables

Author(s): Singh, G. d.; Sodhi, G. S.; Jasuja, O. P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 374-381
Abstract: Latent fingerprints are a common and important form of physical evidence at crime scenes. These latent fingerprints may be present on a variety of objects, including the surfaces of fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to determine the best procedure for developing latent fingerprints on fruits and vegetables. Powders were able to develop latent fingerprints with very high quality. The iodine fuming method did not yield good results.

Establishing the Sequence of Intersecting Ballpoint Pen and Felt-Tipped Marker Strokes

Author(s): Singla, A. K.; Thakar, M. K.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 382-387
Abstract: An examination of the reverse side of a paper sometimes provides valuable and conclusive evidence. In this case report, the authors describe a peculiar phenomenon of the seepage of felt-tipped marker ink underneath the intersecting ballpoint pen strokes. This phenomenon can be helpful in determining the chronological sequence of intersecting ballpoint pen and felt-tipped marker strokes.

A Guide for the Artist

Author(s): Jackson, C. T.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 388-401
Abstract: The guide assists with determining the image size, page orientation, and gauging vertical and horizontal balance without affecting the proportions of the selected facial feature references. This system allows the artist to concentrate on developing as close a likeness as possible. The "base face" is created solely on the selected features of the victim, thus, in many cases, fewer corrections are required.

Review of FBI Latent Print Unit Processes and Recommendations to Improve Practices and Quality

Author(s): Smrz, M. A.; Burmeister, S. G.; Einseln, A.; Fisher, C. L.; Fram, R.; Stacey, R. B.; Theisen, C. E.; Budowle, B.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 402-434
Abstract: In the aftermath of the March 11, 2004, Madrid train bombing, personnel from one of the FBI Latent Print Units (LPUs) performed a latent print analysis and reported an individualization of that print with a candidate print derived from an Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification (IAFIS) search. Subsequently that individualization was determined to be in error, and the latent print was ultimately identified correctly as belonging to a different subject. By all accounts, the incorrect identification was primarily due to human error and does not in itself call into question the fundamental reliability of latent print friction ridge skin impression pattern analysis. Because of quality-assurance practices and the FBI Laboratory's desire to improve its operations, the FBI Laboratory took the opportunity to identify limitations in its current practices in friction ridge skin impression pattern analysis. Eight internal latent print review teams were created to (1) conduct a more extensive review of the current practices in the LPUs and (2) suggest to the FBI Laboratory Director courses of action for improvement. This report details the findings and recommendations made by the internal review teams.

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice by S. H. James

Author(s): Griffin, T. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 435-437

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 3, Page 490
Abstract: This is an unusual, interesting pattern...a combination of a loop and double loop, making it an ACCIDENTAL WHORL. If this print were not fully rolled, the far left loop may not appear, therefore requiring a reference to a Double Loop Whorl. The extreme left delta is not visible, therefore the tracing would be classified as an INNER, with references to Meeting and Outer tracings.

A Report of Latent Print Examiner Accuracy During Comparison Training Exercises

Author(s): Wertheim, K.; Langenburg, G. M.; Moenssens, A.
Type: Correction
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 177-178
Abstract: On pages 79 and 85 of the January/February 2006 issue of the Journal of Forensic Identification (volume 56, issue 1), the two tables appeared with incorrect data.

Concerns When Using Examination Gloves at the Crime Scene

Author(s): Lounsbury, D. A.; Thompson, L. F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 179-185
Abstract: Universal precautions that are used by forensic personnel at crime scenes are necessary to protect the crime scene processors from chemical and biological hazards. These precautions also serve to ensure that the scene is not contaminated by actions of the crime scene examiners. A particular type of glove that is routinely used in crime scene processing does protect against hazards but is not effective against scene contamination.

Evaluation of Fingerprint Powders

Author(s): Saroa, J. S.; Sodhi, G. S.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 186-197
Abstract: Several methods have been suggested for the development of latent fingerprints on different surfaces. This paper presents a comparative assessment of a few different powdering methods (e.g.,phloxine B dye, f luorescein dye, rhodamine B dye, and activated charcoal) for the development of latent fingerprints on different substrates. [See correction JFI 56 (5).]

Thin-Layer Chromatography of Nail Enamels

Author(s): Gupta, N.; Saroa, J. S.; Sharma, R. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 198-209
Abstract: Nail enamel smears, chips, or f lakes are sometimes encountered as trace evidence in crimes involving women. Various techniques have been used to analyze such evidence. In the present work, an attempt has been made to characterize common nail enamels by thin-layer chromatography.

Defining the Diameter of the Smallest Parent Stain Produced by a Drip

Author(s): Gardner; R.M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 210-221
Abstract: This study sought to define the size of the smallest parent stain produced by gravity-induced drips (also known as LVIS, passive spatter, passive drops, venous drops). It examines four typical crime scene substrates (linoleum, cloth, tile, and carpet) and three mechanisms of droplet creation (knife tip, nail tip, and hypodermic needle).

A Modified Method for Purification of Biological Samples Collected on FTA Cards for STR Analysis

Author(s): Barash, M.; Shpitzen, M.; Gafny, R.; Zamir, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 222-231
Abstract: FTA cards are regarded as a method of choice for the preservation and storage of blood and saliva prior to genetic testing. In this study, we compared the recommended protocol of DNA purification and amplification from FTA cards to a method we developed in the laboratory. Our simplified method was tailored for amplification using the AmpFLSTR SGM Plus kit.

MAPP Gas: An Alternative to Oxyacetylene

Author(s): Smith, D. R.; Hall, B. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 232-241
Abstract: MAPP gas is compared to oxyacetylene for use in the restoration of vehicle identification numbers. Significant advantages in equipment weight and cost are demonstrated.

Validation of the BackTrack Suite of Programs for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Author(s): Carter, A. L.; Forsythe-Erman, J.; Hawkes, V.; Illes, M.; Laturnus, P.; Lefebvre, G.; Stewart, C.; Yamashita, B.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 242-254
Abstract: Directional analysis provides bloodstain pattern analysts with a method for calculating the approximate location of a source of a bloodstain pattern that is independent of the f light path curvatures of the blood drops. The BackTrack suite of programs allows the analyst to use digital photographs of stains to compute the region in space where the blood source was positioned at the time of impact. Repeated trials carried out by various operators using a large number of different practice targets have been used to validate the computer program. Without knowing the initial location of the blood source, analysts have been able to use BackTrack to determine X-, Y-, and Z-values that lie within an average of at most 7 cm of the actual location. By comparison, the so-called "tangent method" also produced very good results by approximating the f light path of the blood drop as the hypotenuse of a right triangle.

Conclusion Scale for Shoeprint and Toolmarks Examinations

Author(s): ENFSI Expert Working Group - Marks Conclusion Scale Committee
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 255-280
Abstract: The Conclusion Scale Committee (CSC) of the ENFSI Expert Working Group Marks (EWG Marks) reached very soon with common consent a harmonized "Six-Level Conclusion Scale" for interpreting findings in proficiency tests and collaborative exercises within ENFSI. The theoretical fundamentals of this harmonized conclusion scale take into account interpretation models based on the Bayes' rule. However, these mathematical background models weren't and aren't reached with common consent. Some members of CSC say that only one of the three parts of the Bayes' rule - the likelihood ratio - is for the forensic experts. And furthermore, this group favours interpretations of the Bayes' rule with formulations such as the prosecution and the defense hypotheses and presumption of innocence or adjudicative fact-finder. The others - and these are the majority of the members of CSC - have the opinion that words like prosecution, defense, presumption of innocence, and adjudicative factfinder are non-scientific elements and therefore things for the judges or jury members and normally these aren't issues for the forensic scientists.

The majority of the members of CSC emphasize that in many countries the practice in court is that the judges and jury members need to get answers to questions such as "What is the probability that the questioned shoesole produced the print?" So, the jury requires answers for a given effect in retrograte to the cause. This is an answer to a line of reasoning against the causal direction and that is also termed a diagnostic result (a posteriori probability): the interest of the court ultimately lies in the posterior odds in forensic scientific experiments. So, the majority of the members of the CSC apply all three parts of the odds form of the Bayes' rule, using only scientific interpretations by means of the Principle of Causality and of the Principle of Maximum Entropy (PME). And furthermore, they show that this interpretation incorporates the "Traditionalists" with the "Classical Approach". [See letter to the editor by A. Biedermann, F. Taroni, and C. G. G. Aitken in JFI 56 (5).]

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 2, Page 322
Abstract: This plain whorl could create a headache if found at a crime scene. It is not a fingerprint... this print happens to be from the hypothenar zone of the right palm.

re: Obtaining Typable DNA from Bloodstains that Serologically Test Negative, J. For. Ident. 55 (5)

Author(s): Hofsass, P.
Type: Letters
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

Guide for the Forensic Documentation and Photography of Footwear and Tire Impressions at the Crime Scene.

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 102-106
Abstract: Draft for comment 09/2005

Guide for the Examination of Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 107-112
Abstract: Draft for comment 9/2005

Standard Terminology for Expressing Conclusions of Forensic Footwear and Tire Impression Examinations

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 113-116
Abstract: Draft for comment 09/2005

SWGFAST — Quality Assurance Guidelines for Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 117-128
Abstract: Draft for comment ver 2.3

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Page 174
Abstract: Shown is a 14-count right slant LOOP with a very unusual formation in the core area. For classification purposes, the core is placed as shown. Contributor: This was submitted by Richard W. Kinney, California Department of Justice, Fresno, CA.

Explosive Effects on Latent Print Evidence

Author(s): Lanagan, S. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 18-23
Abstract: An initial test was conducted to determine whether undeveloped latent print impressions would survive an explosion. Test prints were located on surfaces in the vehicle and on the vehicle's exterior door handles. Two types of explosives were placed in a vehicle and were detonated. Some surface areas where the prints had been deposited were completely destroyed during the blasts. Only one very faint print was located on an exterior door handle.

Investigation into the Binding of Gold Nanoparticles to Fingermarks Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author(s): Choi, M. J.; McBean, K. E.; Wuhrer, R.; McDonagh, A. M.; Maynard, P. J.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 24-32
Abstract: For the first time, scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks placed on nonporous surfaces. The results show that gold nanoparticles, under standard MMDII conditions, bind preferentially to latent fingermark ridges on nonporous surfaces. Variation in surfactant concentration inf luences background development but does not affect the binding of gold nanoparticles to the ridges, while pH variation influences the binding to ridges but leaves valley regions unaffected.

Oil Red O Versus Physical Developer on Wet Papers: A Comparative Study

Author(s): Rawji, A.; Beaudoin, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 33-54
Abstract: Amino acids dissolve in water, and, therefore, fingerprints on porous surfaces that have been exposed to aqueous environments cannot be tested with traditional methods such as ninhydrin or DFO. Traditionally, the physical developer method has been used. Tests were conducted to compare Oil Red O and physical developer on three types of paper surfaces: thermal paper, white standard paper, and brown kraft paper. Oil Red O was consistently superior to physical developer in terms of the mean fingerprint quality produced on thermal paper. Oil Red O was also shown to be superior for recovering fingerprints on standard white paper. On brown paper, the mean fingerprint quality was not significantly different between the two methods. This research supports the use of Oil Red O in laboratories for the treatment of wet porous surfaces.

A Report of Latent Print Examiner Accuracy During Comparison Training Exercises

Author(s): Wertheim, K.; Langenburg, G. M.; Moenssens, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 55-93
Abstract: During comparison training exercises, data from 108 participants were collected. For each participant, the following were recorded: the number of comparisons performed, the number of correct individualizations made, the number of erroneous individualizations made, the number of clerical errors made, and the assessments of the latent prints regarding the quantity and quality of information present in the latent prints in the exercises. Additional information regarding the training and experience of the participant was also gathered in such a manner that preserved the anonymity of the participant. Because the training courses were open to participants of any skill level, including participants with no training and experience, the authors separated the data of participants with more than one year of experience from the data of participants with one year of experience or less. The 92 participants with more than one year of experience made 5861 individualizations (identifications) at the highest level of confidence. Fifty-eight hundred of these individualizations were correct and 61 of these individualizations were one of two types of error: 59 were clerical in nature and 2 were erroneous individualizations. This resulted in an erroneous individualization rate of 0.034% and a clerical error rate of 1.01% for the participants with more than one year of experience during these training exercises. A follow-up experiment was performed involving verification of the errors reported by previous participants. Sixteen participants with more than one year of experience acted as verifiers to previous participants' results. Each verifier was given a packet to verify containing the results of eight correct individualizations and two errors. These 16 independent reviewers did not verify any of the errors given to them in the verification packet exercises. [See correction JFI 56 (2), 177-178.]. [See Letter to the editor by Lyn Haber JFI 56 (4).]

Use of Tilt and Shift Lens in Forensic Photography

Author(s): Chung, J. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 6-17
Abstract: A tilt and shift lens (TS lens) has special features that enable it to tilt ± 8º with respect to the film plane and to shift the lens up to 11 mm from the center of the film plane. In this paper, the application of the TS lens in the field of forensic science is presented. It is shown that the TS lens is useful in (1) photographing imprint evidence on ref lective surfaces, (2) photographing imprint evidence on a partially shielded area, and (3) scene photography in some difficult positions. Some problems that are encountered with photography when using a normal lens can be overcome with the use of the TS lens.

SWGTREAD — Message

Author(s): Wiersema, S.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 94-95

Guide for Minimum Qualifications and Training for a Forensic Footwear and/or Tire Tread Examiner

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 96-101
Abstract: Draft for Comment 09/2005

A Comparison of Cyanoacrylate Fuming in a Vacuum Cabinet to a Humidity Fuming Chamber, J. For. Ident. 55 (1)

Author(s): Kent, T.
Type: Letters
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 681-684

An Interesting Case Involving Footwear Distribution Information, J.For.Ident. 55 (4)

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Letters
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 685-686

Remains to Be Seen!

Author(s): Powers, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 687-696
Abstract: Unidentified human remains present a multitude of difficulties to investigators. Positive identification is often chief among these. When law enforcement personnel and the Medical Examiner - Coroner have exhausted traditional means, such as fingerprints or dental comparisons, a forensic artist may be called upon to render a likeness from skeletal, badly decomposed, or disfigured remains. Usually, the forensic artist has not been to the scene or autopsy and must rely solely on photographs, physical evidence, and information provided by other personnel. Often, a significant amount of time elapses between the initial investigation and the decision to use a forensic artist. How successful the finished likeness is depends on the condition of the remains and the quality of physical evidence or photographs provided to the artist.

Forensic Identification Study Groups

Author(s): Klasey, D. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 697-701
Abstract: Forensic specialists can receive no-cost training and networking contacts by attending study groups. This paper will discuss the Northern California Forensic Identification Study Group, one of the oldest in the country, as an example of what can be accomplished when professionals work together.

Laterally Inverted Fingerprints

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 702-706
Abstract: A few documented cases of laterally inverted fingerprint impressions are reviewed. Two additional cases are also presented and discussed to emphasize the importance of proper analysis during the comparison process.

Cold Case Project

Author(s): McLean, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 707-710
Abstract: A project to rerun latents that had been previously registered in the CAL-ID unsolved latent database was initiated. Searches through local, state, regional, and federal AFIS databases provided a 30% hit rate on latents that had been previously searched in one or more databases. This project demonstrates the value in rerunning cold case latents.

Three-Dimensional Representation of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Author(s): Maloney, K.; Jory, S.; Carter, A. L.; Yamashita, B.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 711-725
Abstract: As part of a bloodstain pattern analysis course delivered at the Canadian Police College by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, a mock crime scene bloodstain pattern was analyzed by computer, and the results were rendered in three dimensions for court presentation. The data from the BackTrack program used on the course were successfully integrated into a standard AutoCAD program in order to show the virtual f light paths of droplets of blood in a three-dimensional depiction.

The Importance of Careful Interpretation of Shell Casing Ejection Patterns

Author(s): Sims, E.; Barksdale, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 726-740
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to gain information about shell casing ejection patterns. The research project showed that shell casing ejection patterns are dependent on a number of variables: type of firearm, stance, hand and weapon position (grip), and movement.

Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood Part 3: Reactive Techniques, Acid Yellow 7, and Process Sequences

Author(s): Sears, V. G.; Butcher, C. P.; Fitzgerald, L. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 741-763
Abstract: A systematic evaluation of a number of techniques that react with the components of blood has been carried out on various surfaces (both porous and nonporous) that are typically found at scenes of crime. Most effective on porous surfaces were DFO and ninhydrin, which react with amines. On nonporous surfaces, no process was found to be as effective at developing fingerprint detail as the protein dye benzoxanthene yellow. However, because this dye has become unavailable, acid yellow 7 was determined to be a suitable replacement.

Scope of Work Relating to Forensic Footwear and/or Tire Tread Examiners

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 764-765

Guide for the Detection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Field

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 766-769
Abstract: Final 03/2005

Guide for the Collection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Field

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 770-773
Abstract: Final 03/2005

Guide for the Detection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Laboratory

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 774-777
Abstract: Final 03/2005

Guide for the Collection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Laboratory

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2006, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 778-780
Abstract: Final 03/2005

Guide for the Preparation of Test Impressions from Footwear and Tires

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Pages 781-786

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 6, Page 882
Abstract: This is an interesting fingerprint. Looking at the core as an eye, the image appears to be the head of a zebra! Classification is a 15-count left slant LOOP.

Re: Recovery of Latent Prints from Human Skin, J. For. Ident. 55 (3)

Author(s): Hamm, E.
Type: L
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Page 565

Re: Recovery of Latent Prints from Human Skin, J. For. Ident. 55 (3)

Author(s): Yamashita, B.
Type: Letters
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 566-573

Multiple Exposure Method in Digital Photography of Fingerprints

Author(s): Chaikovsk, A.; Argaman, U.; Balman, A.; Sin-David, L.; Barzovski, A.; Yaalon, U.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 574-584
Abstract: Forensic latent fingerprint photography, performed with evidence that has a substrate that is not uniform in terms of shape, color, and so forth, requires the use of various techniques. This report will introduce the multiple exposure method using digital photography and computerized image processing using layers methodology.

The Bermuda Angle: Getting the Best from an AFIS

Author(s): Downes, P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 585-593
Abstract: This report is based on a small database and the resulting percentages may not apply to other larger systems. However, you may be surprised at how efficient you can make your AFIS with a little creative thinking and a little extra effort.

An Analysis of Epidermal Ridges on Ancient Sumerian Tablets

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.; Veenker, R. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 594-604
Abstract: Epidermal ridge impressions on clay artifacts from antiquity have been observed by historic and contemporary research-ers during the past two centuries. An examination of four Sumerian tablets from the Ur III period revealed epidermal ridge impressions that were made when the clay was in a plastic state. The location of the ridge impressions can assist the investigator in reconstructing pos-sible positions in which the tablet was held when the impressions were formed. Also, the approximate diameter and condition of the ridges provide some information about the attributes of the Sumerian who handled the tablets. Even though the findings are not conclusive, they offer researchers a method for analyzing ancient tablets.

Electrostatic Dust Lifting on Metallic Surfaces Using Automotive Window Tinting Film as a Nonconductive Barrier

Author(s): Adair, T. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 605-610
Abstract: Electrostatic devices use a high-voltage electrical current to charge a surface and attract dust particles left from shoe outsoles and other objects to a metallic film. Placing this film in direct con-tact with a conductive substrate, such as a metal vehicle, can cause damage to the film and increases the risk of injury to the analyst and damage to property. The use of a nonconductive film barrier allows for the use of the metallic film and the electrostatic dust lifter in obtaining shoe impressions from metal surfaces such as automobiles and countertops.

Establishing a Maximum Effective Range for String Shooting Reconstructions

Author(s): Rose, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 611-617
Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to identify an approxi-mate maximum effective range for the string reconstruction method using three different nylon strings. A practice wall was used that had been created in the past for this type of reconstruction experimen-tation. This moveable section of wall has numerous existing bullet strikes. Some of these bullet strikes were reconstructed with string and by mathematical calculation to determine an approximate margin of vertical error for string reconstruction.

Serviceability of Obsolete WWII German Rifle

Author(s): Ravikumar, R.; Rajan, P.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Vijay, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 618-623
Abstract: An old bolt-action rifle was submitted for examination. Firearm identity and serviceability were important issues. The iden-tity of the firearm was established as an obsolete 7.92 mm Mauser. However, because of the lack of suitable ammunition, smaller caliber ammunition was used to test the rifle's serviceability.

Matching Vehicle Parts Using Brush Strokes

Author(s): Novoselsky, Y.; Tsach, T.; Volkov, N.; Shor, Y.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 624-632
Abstract: A study is presented that demonstrates the indirect matching of vehicle parts. The challenge in this case was that the parts had been cut with a grinder, resulting in a removal of mate-rial during the cutting process. This created a missing area between the parts that prevented a direct (physical) match. The brush strokes (striations) of a polymer sealant (applied during the manufacturing of the vehicle) were sufficient to match the vehicle parts, in spite of the gap in the material.

Obtaining Typable DNA from Bloodstains that Serologically Test Negative

Author(s): Coy, K. L.; Lewis, K. E.; Fulmer, A.; Hudson, A.; Dawson-Cruz, T.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 633-643
Abstract: Confirmatory serology tests are often utilized at crime scenes or in the laboratory to determine whether evidence should be submitted for further DNA analysis. Previous literature has reported that bloodstains contaminated with detergents can result in altered serological test results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether typable DNA could be obtained from bloodstains treated with household detergents and bleach, specifically when a negative serological result was obtained. Bloodstains were diluted up to a con-centration of 1:500, applied to a cotton T-shirt, and then subjected to treatments of machine-washing in water, Tide, or bleach. The samples were then tested for the presence of human hemoglobin using the ABAcard HemaTrace assay. For each sample, DNA was organically extracted and quantified by the QuantiBlot method, followed by STR amplification using the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus PCR kit. The ampli-fied samples were size-separated by capillary electrophoresis using an ABI 3100 Avant Genetic Analyzer. Data analysis of the Profiler Plus loci was performed using the GeneScan and Genotyper software. The resulting genotypes of the STR loci indicate that typable DNA is often present even though a negative serological result may be obtained prior to DNA testing. Furthermore, the data show that bloodstains washed in bleach are capable of yielding a complete profile. On the basis of these results, investigators and examiners should use caution when interpreting screening test results, because negative serological results cannot always be used to predict the ability to successfully genotype DNA. [See letter to the editor by P. Hoffsass in JFI 56 (1).]

Crime Scene Processing Laboratory Manual and Workbook by D. A. Hayden

Author(s): Parkinson, G. A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 644-645

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 5, Page 678
Abstract: This is a very interesting example of what injuries to the dermis level of skin can do to the pattern area. Shown are three photographs of the left thumb of the same person. The top image was taken July 1, 1987 and is a 10-count ULNAR LOOP. The middle image was taken March 3, 1993, showing an obvious injury below the core and affecting the type-line, therefore requiring a classification of an ULNAR LOOP, referenced to a WHORL. The bottom image was taken January 16, 1997, where it appears the injury to the dermis has changed the pattern type to a PLAIN WHORL with a meet tracing. This image should be referenced to an ULNAR LOOP.

Counterfeit NIS 10 Coins in Israel

Author(s): Tsach, T.; Shor, Y.; Volkov, N.; Novoselsky, Y.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 433-441
Abstract: The problem of counterfeit coins exists in many countries. Until 1995, coins from Israel were a single color and were easily duplicated. In 1995, the Bank of Israel issued a new Israel shekel 10 coin that was intended to reduce the likelihood of counterfeiting. After the initial distribution of the new coins, counterfeits soon appeared. This report describes the various processes used to produce counterfeit coins.

Assessing the Competency of Crime Scene Investigators in the United Kingdom

Author(s): Pepper, I. K.; Pepper, H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 442-447
Abstract: This paper highlights the benefits of competency assessments and the methods by which crime scene investigators in the United Kingdom are assessed. It deals with the key organizations of The Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners and Skills for Justice, along with the use of assessment and development centers. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the use of competency assessment is a positive step forward.

Analysis of Bullet Wipe Patterns on Cloth Targets

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 448-460
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the reliability of bullet wipe patterns on cloth targets for use by the investigator in analyzing and reconstructing the events in a crime scene investigation. The study included variables such as ammunition, distance to target, and angle of impact. The study examined the coloration and measurements of the bullet wipes and the effect of the variables tested. Although bullet wipe patterns can assist in reconstructing the events, the investigator should exercise caution when interpreting bullet wipe patterns.

Articulating a Concise Scientific Methodology for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Author(s): Saviano, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 461-470
Abstract: The increasing number of recent courtroom challenges to various areas of forensic science has forced examiners to re-examine their methods of explaining analyses. Although the methodology involved in these disciplines is generally sound, many examiners have difficulty putting into words the steps involved in reaching their conclusions. This article addresses the discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis and attempts to describe an easy-to-understand methodology that can be articulated in the courtroom.

Obtaining Fingerprint and Palmprint Impressions from Decomposed Bodies or Burn Victims using the Mikrosil Casting Method

Author(s): Tomboc, R.; Schrader, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 471-479
Abstract: This report discusses the success that has been achieved by using the Mikrosil casting method in obtaining exemplar prints from cadavers and also its advantages over other traditional methods.

Fingerprint Patterns: A Study on the Finger and Ethnicity Prioritized Order of Occurrence

Author(s): Swofford, H. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 480-488
Abstract: This study provides a mathematical link between fingerprint pattern types, the ethnicity in which they occur, and the fingers on which they occur. In doing so, the study reveals an order based on priority of occurrence of the most likely fingerprint pattern types to occur in a specific ethnicity along with the most likely fingerprint pattern types to occur on a specific finger. This study uses statistical analysis to validate the prioritized order of occurrence.

Computer Assisted Analysis of Footprint Geometry

Author(s): Natarajan, N.; Cecil, G. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 489-498
Abstract: The dimensions of a footprint are generally figured manually, using geometrical constructions. When applying various methods that are available in the literature for footprint study, even customized automated software may not be adequate. Now these dimensions can be figured much faster and with greater accuracy using the general-purpose desktop publishing software Adobe Pagemaker.

An Interesting Case Involving Footwear Distribution Information

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 499-502
Abstract: Although it is not uncommon to individualize a questioned footwear impression to a particular shoe, it is certainly the exception to the rule. In most cases in my experience, the highest degree of association between questioned and known impressions is correspondence in combined class characteristics such as physical size, shape, and outsole design. However, simply reporting this correspondence may not be the best information that can be provided to the investigator. The addition of distribution information for a particular shoe could strengthen your conclusions. This is the approach that was taken in this case. (See letter to the editor by John P. Black in JFI 55 (6).)

Manufacturing Variations in a Die-Cut Footwear Model

Author(s): Kainuma, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 503-517
Abstract: In this study, a hundred pairs of a footwear model produced through a die-cut process were examined for variations produced as a result of the manufacturing process. No two pairs were found to share identical features. Variations were found not only in the orientation of the pattern on the soles but also in the physical dimensions of the pattern.

The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation by J. Horswell

Author(s): Black, J. P.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 518-521

The Detection Of Human Remains by E.W. Killam

Author(s): Parkinson, G. A.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Pages 522-523

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 4, Page 562
Abstract: This is an unusual and interesting fingerprint . . . the postmortem subject printed has two right thumbs webbed together, making it impossible to roll on the inside of each thumb. Such fingers should be rolled as completely as possible and a notation made to the effect that they are joined. The ridges appear to flow upwards, forming a "cuspal" pattern (see QUIP Back-to-Basics Sept/Oct 2003, Vol. 53, No. 5). This thumb print would be classified as a TENTED ARCH, with references to an Ulnar Loop and an Accidental Whorl.

re: A New Silver Physical Developer, J. For. Ident. 54 (4)

Author(s): Cantu, A. A.
Type: Letters
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 289-290

Coins in the Pocket: A Simple Explanation of Quantitative — Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis

Author(s): Ramsey, P.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Page 291

Development of Latent Prints using Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) in Small Particle Reagent, White (SPR-W) on Adhesives

Author(s): Williams, N. H.; Elliott, K. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 292-305

Latent Fingerprint Imaging: How to Reproduce an Image of a Latent Print to a Specific Size

Author(s): Lackey, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 306-311
Abstract: The report describes methods to capture 1:1 photographs with a copy camera and also describes a simple way to resize images that were not taken at a 1:1 ratio.

The First Use of a Composite Image in Forensic Facial Superimposition: The Case of John Paul Jones, 1907

Author(s): Rogers, N. L.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 312-325
Abstract: The United States' Revolutionary War hero John Paul Jones (1747-1792) died of natural causes in Paris during the French Revolution and was buried pending repatriation to the United States. An agreement to return his body was not negotiated and the location of his unmarked grave was forgotten. His coffin was located in 1905 and the remains were positively identified with the aid of a portrait bust sculpted by French artist Jean Antoine Houdon. The official reports of the identification were published in 1907 and include a composite photographic superimposition of the Houdon bust and the remains of John Paul Jones. Contrary to the published literature that identifies the 1935 Ruxton case as the first forensic use of composite photographic superimposition, the published report of the John Paul Jones case was the first publication of such an image. This article details the circumstance of the superimposition and compares it to other historically noteworthy cases.

The Recovery of Fingerprint Evidence from Crime Scenes Contaminated with Chemical Warfare Agents

Author(s): Wilkinson, D.; Hancock, J.; Lecavalier, P.; McDiarmid, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 326-361
Abstract: This paper explores how the presence of chemical warfare agents affect the ability of the forensic identification specialist to recover latent fingerprint evidence using common fingerprint development techniques. The effects of exposure to vapor versus liquid chemical warfare agents on the performance of fingerprint development techniques, and decontamination before and after fingerprint processing, are also considered. Standard operating procedures for evidence processing in the presence of a variety of different chemical warfare agents are described.

Recovery of Latent Prints from Human Skin

Author(s): Sampson, W. C.; Sampson, K. L.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Pages 362-385
Abstract: A review of personal experience, published accounts, interviews, case reports, and data collected from more than 4,000 student questionnaires pertaining to the recovery of latent prints from human skin is presented. The surface conditions of the body and the ambient environment (temperature and humidity) are discussed, and recommendations are presented to achieve optimum results. This article provides a guideline for the processing of human skin for latent prints and suggests that efforts to obtain latent prints from human skin are sporadic and should be increased. (See letters to the editor by E. Hamm and B. Yamashita in JFI 55 (5).)

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 3, Page 430
Abstract: The ACCIDENTAL WHORL is an interesting pattern consisting of a combination of two different types of pattern (excluding the plain arch) with two or more deltas, or a pattern which possesses some of the requirements for two or more different types, or a pattern which conforms to none of the definitions. To trace an accidental whorl, locate the ridge emanating from the lower side or point of the extreme left delta and trace until the point nearest or opposite the extreme right delta is reached (The Science of Fingerprints, FBI). All four impressions shown are ACCIDENTAL WHORLS. Figure A is a loop over a plain whorl with three deltas, inner tracing. Figure B is a loop over a double-loop whorl, inner tracing. Figure C (both index fingers from the same person) shows the right index finger is a loop over a plain whorl, inner tracing (tracing will be same as the opposite finger since the far right delta is not recorded, with a reference to a meet and outer tracing necessary) and the left index finger is a loop over a double-loop whorl, inner tracing.

Testifying to the Question of "Points"

Author(s): Gray, L. M.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 165-168

Restoring Faded Authentiprint Fingerprint Image on a Check

Author(s): Tomboc, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 169-175

Suicide by Simultaneous Discharge of Two Handguns

Author(s): Adair, T. W.; Cloyd, D. W.; Isaacson, B.; Dobersen, M.; Goodman, C.; McDonald, A. K.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 176-180

Aging of Shoes and its Effect on Shoeprint Impressions

Author(s): Wyatt, J. M.; Duncan, K.; Trimpe, M. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 181-188

Functionalized Europium Oxide Nanoparticles for Fingerprint Detection: A Preliminary Study

Author(s): Menzel, E. R.; Schwierking, J. R.; Menzel, L. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 189-195
Abstract: We report the lipid-based detection of fingerprints with amino-functionalized europium oxide nanoparticles, utilizing diimidemediated amidation that targets carboxylic acid functionalities of fingerprint constituents. The functionalized nanoparticles are easy to prepare. Their use may remedy a number of problems associated with current europium-based chemical fingerprint detection. The fingerprint photoluminescence detection can be carried out in the usual fashion or with nowadays facile time-resolved techniques to suppress background fluorescence.

Forensic Examination of Shampoo Residues in Human Head Hair

Author(s): Pillyal, S.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 196-201
Abstract: Nine different samples of human hair shampoo residues that were obtained from eighteen individuals were analyzed by thinlayer chromatography (TLC). Fifteen different solvent systems with two visualization aids (UV light and iodine fuming) were attempted for the separation of the shampoo residue from the human hair. In this study, methanol:water (70:30) as a solvent system and iodine fuming as a visualizing aid were found to be the most suitable for the separation of the constituents. This study can help in eliminating an individual as a suspect of a crime.

The Development of Latent Fingerprints on Thermal Paper Using a Novel, Solvent-Free Method

Author(s): Wakefield, M.; Armitage, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 202-213
Abstract: Since its emergence, thermal paper has been a problematic substrate for latent print development because of interactions between the paper's chemical components and the solvents used in chemical development reagents. Techniques that have been used with success, such as ninhydrin, iodine fuming, or ninhydrin in HFE-7100, cannot be used at crime scenes because they require specialized equipment, can be time-consuming, and may involve toxic or hazardous chemicals. Recent anecdotal evidence has suggested a rapid, solventfree method of visualizing latent fingerprints on thermal paper: the application of low-temperature heat using a hair dryer.

Evaluation of Techniques for the Detection and Enhancement of Latent Fingermarks on Black Electrical Tape

Author(s): Schiemer, C.; Lennard, C.; Maynard, P.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Pages 214-238
Abstract: This study investigated a selection of methods to detect latent fingermarks on black electrical tapes. Subsequently, a sequence of techniques was developed and is suggested as a standard operating procedure.

Different formulations of white and silver powder suspensions were developed by comparing Citron detergent and Kodak Photo-Flo as the surfactant in the suspension. A mixture of both surfactants in the suspensions repeatedly produced greater fingerprint development on the adhesive side compared to using either one on its own.

Two techniques consistently performed to a higher standard for both fresh and aged marks on the adhesive side: cyanoacrylate followed by a combined basic yellow 40/basic red 28 stain and the white powder suspension. The contrast, sharpness, ridge detail, and simplicity of preparation and application achieved with both of these techniques made them superior to the other methods tested. The sequence that proved successful on the adhesive side of all tapes tested involved cyanoacrylate fuming and application of a fluorescent stain, followed by white powder suspension, and finally gentian violet with a transfer of developed marks if necessary. This sequence allowed maximum development and the greatest enhancement of latent marks, without causing the destruction of the deposit for subsequent methods. Latent fingermarks on the backing (nonadhesive side) of the electrical tape were also successfully developed with cyanoacrylate and the fluorescent stain, so treatment of the backing could be incorporated into the sequence.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 2, Page 286
Abstract: This is a rare example of extreme DYSPLASIA, the incomplete or faulty development of friction skin, resulting in patternless surfaces. Because of faulty embryological development, the individual ridge elements failed to align in continuous ridges (Fingerprint Techniques, Moenssens). When classifying these patternless ridges, the same rule applies as when the same fingers on both hands are scarred beyond recognition: all ten prints would be classified as WHORL patterns with MEET tracings.

The Application of Infrared Photography in Bloodstain Pattern Documentation of Clothing

Author(s): Perkins, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

A Comparison of Cyanoacrylate Fuming in a Vacuum Cabinet to a Humidity Fuming Chamber

Author(s): Bessman, C. W.; Nelson, E.; Lipert, R. J.; Coldiron, S.; Herrman, T. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 10-27
Abstract: Two new types of cabinets for cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming were constructed and tested to determine whether either would develop better latent prints than a CA fuming cabinet using a heating element. The first type, a humidity cabinet, consisted of a glove box modified to provide precise control of both the CA vaporization temperature and the humidity level in the cabinet. The second cabinet was a vacuum chamber in which the pressure could be controlled over a wide pressure range (from atmospheric pressure down to < 0.1 torr). The operating conditions and fuming methods that gave the best results with various types of substrates were determined for each cabinet. Prints developed with the optimized methods were compared to results obtained using a normal cabinet (i.e., a cabinet with no pressure or humidity control using a single hot plate for CA heating). Thirteen different substrates were tested to determine which cabinet produced the best prints for each type of surface. Particular attention was paid to determining whether either cabinet would lessen the background discoloration often found after performing CA fuming in a normal cabinet. Less background enhances the contrast between the ridges and the substrate, making the ridges easier to analyze and evaluate. It was determined that both the humidity and the vacuum cabinets produced better results (e.g., less background coloring and sharper, clearer ridge detail) on most substrates than prints developed in the normal cabinet. (See letter to the editor by Terry Kent in JFI 55 (6).).

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Page 162
Abstract: This is a questionable pattern. Since the rod does not reach the shoulders of the loop, it cannot be used for the core location. By using A & B as the type lines (they tend to run parallel and diverge), the delta is placed on the recurve, resulting in no ridge count. This should be classified as a TENTED ARCH, referenced to a 1 count left slant loop.

Thin-Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Liquid Lipsticks

Author(s): Jasuja, O. P.; Perkins, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 28-35
Abstract: Lipstick stains are commonly encountered in cases such as homicide, rape, burglary, and anonymous letters. Lipstick stains may be found on glasses, tea cups, cigarette butts, bedding, tissue papers, envelopes, skin, and so forth. These stains, if analyzed properly, may prove to be of forensic significance to provide a link among the suspect, victim, and crime scene. Thin-layer chromatography is one of the most simple and economic methods used in forensic analysis. The analysis of conventional cake lipsticks has been reported in the literature, but recently a different variety of lipsticks has been introduced to the market: liquid lipsticks. To the best of our knowledge, no work has been reported for their analysis. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze samples of liquid lipsticks by thin-layer chromatography.

Latent Print on Glass Surface: Deposited Before or After Breakage?

Author(s): Ellis, E. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 36-46
Abstract: A latent palmprint was developed on the inside surface of a broken window at the scene of a burglary. The print was located at the edge of the glass adjacent to the break. Specific features of the developed print were noted and were considered to possibly have probative value in establishing whether the print was placed on the surface before or after the breakage. Experiments were conducted that provided results that support the determination of the print deposition and glass breakage sequence.

SWGTREAD

Author(s): Wiersema, S.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 47-48
Abstract: The Scientific Working Group on Shoeprint and Tire Tread Evidence (SWGTREAD) was created by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to serve as a professional forum in which experts in the forensic analysis of shoeprint and tire tread evidence and practitioners from related fields share, discuss, and evaluate methods, techniques, protocols, quality assurance, education, and research relating to shoeprint and tire tread evidence. The first meeting was held in Quantico, VA in September 2004. Published here are six (6) draft documents produced at that meeting. These documents provide SWGTREAD guides regarding the detection and collection of shoeprint and tire tread evidence in the field and in the laboratory, a scope of work statement, and a guide for the preparation of test impressions.

SWGTREAD — Scope of Work Relating to Forensic Footwear and/or Tire Tread Examiners

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 49-50
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This description covers, in general, the duties of forensic footwear and/or tire tread examiners.

SWGTREAD — Guide for the Detection of Footwear

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 51-53
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This Guide provides procedures for the detection of footwear and tire impressions in the field.

1.2 The particular procedures and methods employed in a given case will depend on the nature and quality of the impressions.

1.3 This Guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon conditions.

1.4 This Guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

SWGTREAD — Guide for the Collection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Field

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 54-56
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This Guide provides procedures for the collection of footwear and tire impressions in the field.

1.2 The particular procedures and methods employed in a given case will depend on the nature and quality of the impressions.

1.3 This Guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon conditions.

1.4 This Guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

SWGTREAD — Guide for the Detection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Laboratory

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 57-59
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This Guide provides procedures for the detection of footwear and tire impressions in the laboratory.

1.2 The particular procedures and methods employed in a given case will depend on the nature and quality of the evidence.

1.3 This Guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon conditions.

1.4 This Guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

SWGTREAD — Guide for the Collection of Footwear and Tire Impressions in the Laboratory

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 60-62
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This Guide provides procedures for the collection of footwear and tire impressions in the laboratory.

1.2 The particular procedures and methods employed in a given case will depend on the nature and quality of the evidence.

1.3 This Guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon conditions.

1.4 This Guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

SWGTREAD — Guide for the Preparation of Test Impressions from Footwear and Tires

Author(s): SWGTREAD
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
Abstract: 1. Scope

1.1 This Guide provides procedures for the preparation of test impressions from footwear and tires.

1.2 The particular procedures and methods employed in a given case will depend on the examination needs.

1.3 This Guide may not cover all aspects of unusual or uncommon conditions.

1.4 This Guide does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 69-72

Sex-Related Homicide and Death Investigation: Practical and Clinical Perspectives by V.J. Vernon

Author(s): Napier, M. R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 73-74

re: Analysis of the Radio Shack Micro-30 and the Olympus Pearlcorder S950 Time Code, J. For. Ident. 54 (4)

Author(s): Bell, D. A.
Type: Letters
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 625-632

Write into the Future

Author(s): Greenfield, C.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 633-636

Introduction to the Trigonometric Shooting Reconstruction Method

Author(s): Rose, D.; Ekleberry, T.; Wilgus, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 637-644
Abstract: This article is an introduction to the use of trigonom-etry for the urpose of reconstructing shooting cenes. It was written to provide the crime scene investigator, without a background in mathematics, with a basic look at how mathematical reconstruction is performed. This method has been reliable and is complementary to other reconstruction methods.

Studies on the Layer Structure of Paint Flakes Collected from Motor Vehicles in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Author(s): Alwi, A. R.; Kuppuswamy, R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 645-652
Abstract: Paint is important trace evidence encountered during the investigation of crime, especially in hit-and-run vehicular homicide cases, burglaries, and art forgeries. Paint flakes were collected at random from one hundred motor vehicles in the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They were studied under a stereomicroscope (20 X to 115 X) for color and layer structure. Under microscopic examination, all the paint flake specimens were distinguishable from one another, based on layer structure cross-section. Thus, the layer structure of a paint flake is significant in the characterization of paint evidence.

Study on the Direct Developing of a Latent Fingerprint Using a New Fluorescent Developer

Author(s): Li, C.; Li, B.; Yu, S.; Gao, J.; Yao, P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 653-659
Abstract: This paper reports a new fluorescent developer, Eu-Tb-PA-OPA-SDS, consisting of europium, terbium, tho-phthalic acid, and ortho-phenanthroline. This is a multiple component chelate that can be used to develop latent fingerprints directly in the presence of a surfactant (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulphonic acid).

Recovery of DNA from Latent Blood after Identification by Fluorescein

Author(s): Martin, L. A.; Cahill, C. F.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 660-667
Abstract: Luminol has been widely used in the field of crime scene investigations to detect latent blood; however, luminol has the ten-dency to destroy DNA evidence. Fluorescein, an alternative to luminol for detecting latent blood at a crime scene, does not destroy DNA evidence. This paper demonstrates the successful recovery of DNA from a blood sample treated with fluorescein. DNA was extracted from blood-containing denim substrates after fluorescein was applied to the substrates. The DNA locus, D18S51, was amplified using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, analyzed by electropho-resis, and used to demonstrate that DNA was successfully recovered from the samples.

Trace DNA: An Underutilized Resource or Pandora's Box? A Review of the use of Trace DNA Analysis in the Investigation of Volume Crime

Author(s): Raymond, J. J.; Walsh, S. J.; Van Oorschot, R. A.; Gunn, P. R.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 668-686
Abstract: Spectacular advances in DNA technology have greatly expanded its applicability to forensic science. As the processes become sufficiently sensitive to detect trace DNA, a vast number of crime scene samples not previously considered for analysis are now able to be tested. However, in spite of these obvious benefits, trace DNA anal-ysis raises problems not often considered by investigators and forensic scientists. This paper discusses the history and development of trace DNA analysis. It suggests a trend of underutilization and discusses issues surrounding its application and alternative uses for the results gained. The approach in the past has been that DNA evidence was solely employed as an absolute form of evidence, and, consequently, research focused primarily on increasing sensitivity and discrimina-tion power. We are suggesting that DNA evidence should be treated as any other trace evidence. Research to provide data for basic trace evidence properties of deposit, presence, transfer, and persistence may allow trace DNA analysis to be more effectively utilized in the investigation of crime. Together with recent developments in forensic intelligence, this research could facilitate the progressive application of trace DNA analysis to volume crime investigations, an outcome with the potential to reduce the rate of volume crime and contribute to crime prevention strategies.

The Detection and Enhancement of Latent Fingermarks on Porous Surfaces — A Survey

Author(s): Wallace-Kunkel, C.; Roux, C.; Lennard, C.; Stoilovic, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 687-705
Abstract: The most common reagents for fingerprint development on porous surfaces are ninhydrin and DFO. However, a large number of different reagent formulations are in use in fingerprint laboratories around the world. 1,2-Indanedione is also emerging as a potential reagent for the development of fingermarks on porous surfaces in routine casework. This situation prompted this study in which a survey was undertaken. The aims of the survey were two-fold:1. Determine the type and frequency of use of fingerprint reagents applied to porous surfaces.2. Determine the fingerprint community's awareness and experience with 1,2-indanedione.The fingerprint survey was sent to state police laboratories in Australia and New Zealand and to members of major fingerprint research groups and laboratories in the USA, UK, and Europe. Thirty-four responses were received from nine countries. These responses indicated a high degree of variability, in both the testing performed and the reagent formulations employed.Although only thirty-four agencies responded, some valuable insight into the lack of awareness and implementation of 1,2-indane-dione is presented.

A Report on the Erroneous Fingerprint Individualization1 in the Madrid Train Bombing Case

Author(s): Stacey, R. B.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 706-720
Abstract: In the aftermath of the March 11, 2004, Madrid train bombing, personnel from the FBI Latent Print Unit performed a finger-print analysis and reported an individualization of a latent print with a candidate print from an Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification (IAFIS) search. It was subsequently determined that the individualization was in error, and the latent print was ultimately identified to a different subject.This report provides information regarding the corrective actions the FBI Laboratory implemented upon recognizing the error, an outline of significant events surrounding the FBI's fingerprint investigation, and a synopsis of the comments by an international committee regarding the erroneous fingerprint conclusion.

Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition by D. Maltoni; D. Maio; A. K. Jain; S. Prabhakar

Author(s): Downs, M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Pages 719-720

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 6, Page 754
Abstract: These are unusual palm prints. The man printed has an extra thumb joint in both hands!

Impact Marks from Ejected Cartridge Casings

Author(s): Poorman, J. K.; Spring, T. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 525-529
Abstract: Ejected casings from handguns fired at a shooting range were observed to leave impact marks on nearby wooden support posts. This led to the idea that such marks could be present at shooting scenes and, if found, could provide additional information to aid in scene reconstructions. The identification and careful interpretation of such marks from actual shooting scenes could assist in reconstructing shooting incidents.

The Use of Electrostatic Equipment to Retrieve Impressions from the Human Body

Author(s): Tovar, R. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 530-533
Abstract: Most articles submitted to forensic journals contain suc-cess stories. Unfortunately, this one does not, but it does demonstrate the viability of an electrostatic technique for retrieving impressions from human skin in certain situations. Most uses of electrostatic equipment focus on the retrieval of impressions made on hard sur-faces, such as the impressions left on hard surfaces by dirt or dust from the soles and heels of shoes. In addition to its use for retrieving impressions left on hard surfaces, electrostatic equipment can also be considered for the examination of impressions left on human skin.

Old Latent Prints Developed with Powder: A Rare Phenomenon?

Author(s): Azoury, M.; Rozen, E.; Uziel, Y.; Peleg-Shironi, Y.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 534-541
Abstract: Several cases of relatively old prints developed with powder have been reported in the literature over the years. These are generally considered as unusual and fairly rare cases. Latent prints were deposited on two types of smooth substrates, exposed to different storage conditions in two geographic sites, and developed with powder at various intervals for a total period of nine months. It was found that identifiable fingerprints could be easily developed with magnetic powder, even months after being deposited.

Bloody Latent Fingerprint Detection using LeuR6G

Author(s): Yapping, L.; Yue, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 542-546
Abstract: This research, which tested varying levels of blood-contaminated fingerprint marks on different surfaces, revealed that leuco rhodamine 6G aids blood-contaminated latent print visualization. The results were better on smooth surfaces than on rough surfaces. The age of the blood prints (tested to four weeks) was not a factor in the ability to visualize the prints.

Surveillance Video in Law Enforcement

Author(s): Lewis, D. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 547-559

Ordinary and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Field Detection of Traces of Explosives and Fingerprints

Author(s): Menzel, E. R.; Menzel, L. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 560-571
Abstract: We describe field methodology for photoluminescence detection of traces of explosives as well as latent fingerprints. The pertinent instrumentation is simple, battery-powered, highly por-table, and usable in a daylight environment. It lends itself to standard detection as well as to time-resolved detection when background fluorescence is an issue.

Dental Identification Software ProgramsCompared on Disaster Size and Direction of Search

Author(s): Lewis, C.; Leventhal, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 572-592
Abstract: Computer software programs are frequently used to compare antemortem and postmortem dental records to assist victim identification at large disasters. We evaluated three programs – WinID2, WinID3, and CAPMI4 – in a computer-simulated disaster. Three hundred simulated antemortem records (victims) and 105 simulated postmortem records (fragments) were created from actual patient charts. We manipulated the number of victims (100, 200, and 300) and the direction of computer search (antemortem to postmortem and postmortem to antemortem), and measured the performance of the programs on two different measures (mean rank of correct match and total correct matches). The major effects were the same on both measures: (1) Postmortem-to-antemortem search beat antemortem-to-postmortem search by a large margin, with one exception. (2) The number of victims made a large difference only when little or no dental pathology was present. (3) WinID2 and WinID3 performed almost identically. (4) CAPMI4 and one data set of the WinID program, "Most Dental Hits", tied for best overall performance.

Hot Zone Forensics by S. C. Drielak

Author(s): Laska, P. R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 593-594

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 5, Page 622
Abstract: This fingerprint pattern contains a ridge dot (one ridge unit) within the innermost recurving ridge. It is classified as a right-slant LOOP with a ridge count of five. Because the ridge dot may appear to be one ridge path making a complete circuit, the pattern is referenced to a CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORL.

re: The McKie Case — Opinions Versus Reporting Accuracy — Resolution to the IAI

Author(s): Bush, L.
Type: Letters
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 409-412

New Technique for Revealing Latent Fingerprints on Wet, Porous Surfaces: Oil Red O

Author(s): Beaudoin, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 413-421
Abstract: Oil red O (ORO) can be used to reveal latent finger-prints on porous surfaces that have been wet. Tests were carried out on various types of paper and cardboard. Compared with a physical developer, the ORO technique is much less complex and gives results of impressive clarity and intensity.

A New Silver Physical Developer

Author(s): Yapping, L.; Yue, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 422-427
Abstract: Physical developer is a reagent that reacts with the lipids, fats, and oils that are present in fingerprint residues. This article presents a new physical developer formulation that uses only two solutions. The new physical developer can develop water-insoluble latent fingerprints on porous and nonporous surfaces and latent fingerprints on adhesive tape. It is stable, simple, inexpensive, and does not need maleic acid pretreatment. (See letter to the editor by A. Cantu in JFI 55 (3).)

Latent Shoeprint Recovery on Human Skin

Author(s): Wilgus, G.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 428-437
Abstract: The development of latent fingerprints on human skin in the field has been limited; some studies estimate that the chances are less than 1% [1]. The Ohio Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation has chosen to keep the process simple: fume the body with cyanoacrylate and use magnetic powder. Within an eleven-month period, the Bureau recovered two identifiable latent fingerprints from two bodies and also recovered a unique impression from a third homicide victim: a latent shoeprint.

Do Not Believe Everything You Think You See

Author(s): Herrera, J. D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 433-437
Abstract: The lesson of this case is to avoid tunnel vision (e.g., loop versus whorl) and do not believe everything you think you see. These are all things we know and practice everyday, but sometimes we need to be reminded. Take a second look. Wipe away your assumptions and try again.

Progressive Processing: A Matter of Persistence

Author(s): Monday, T. D. Jr.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 438-441
Abstract: The successful result in this case was possible because of the collective efforts of an entire department, a commitment to the public, and a commitment to Alexandra's family. The team effort that was employed here kept me motivated to continue with progressive processing.

Analysis of the Radio Shack Micro-30 and the Olympus Pearlcorder S950 Time Code

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.; Lacey, D. S.; Killion, S. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 442-451
Abstract: All three of these cases required the intelligibility enhancement of the submitted microcassettes, and additionally, the murder case and the civil lawsuit involved analyzing the tapes for authenticity. In the enhancement examinations, an assessment of the time codes revealed the most accurate playback speeds. When analyzed in concert with other techniques used to authenticate audio recordings, the embedded time codes further validated the integrity and continuity of the recorded information. [See letter to the editor by D. Bell in JFI 54 (6).]

Evaluation of Polygraph Examination against a Background of its Evidential and Investigative Significance

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 452-468
Abstract: Eight cases are presented where polygraph tests were given to persons suspected of murdering their own children (three persons) or parents (five persons). The polygraph tests showed no con-nection of the suspects to the homicide with which they were charged. This was later confirmed by other evidence. The analysis of the poly-graph charts of the eight tested persons shows that the opponents of the polygraph are mistaken when they claim that an innocent person will react to the relevant questions. The ethical aspect of these cases was emphasized because the polygraph tests enabled the "clearing" of the innocent persons of these serious accusations, which contributed to implementing justice. The polygraph should be assessed in positive, rather than negative, terms.

Legal Ease: A Guide to Criminal Law, Evidence, and Procedure by A. Campbell; R. Ohm

Author(s): Coker, L. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 469-471

Principles of Kinesic Interview and Interrogation

Author(s): Nowicki, S.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages 471-472

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 4, Page 522
Abstract: The two pohtographs are of the rolled (A) and plain (B) impressions on the same fingerprint card. The pattern is classified as a CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORL. Distortion in the inking gives the appearance of the rolled impression to a plain loop, thus emphasizing the importance of referencing.

re: Proportional Analysis: The Science of Comparison, J. For. Ident. 53 (6)

Author(s): McKasson, S.
Type: Letters
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 273-274

IAFIS Program: In-House Demonstration of Performance

Author(s): Onstwedder, J. I.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 275-280
Abstract: The Illinois State Police Forensic Science Center at Chicago has developed a prototype Latent Print Forensic Workstation. Initially, the purpose of this workstation was to support the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). A lack of funding, infrastructure, and technical support forced our state to come up with unique solutions for the many challenges. Our final product not only supports IAFIS, but also performs many administrative and technical functions, as well.

Enhancing Fluorescence in Time-Resolved Imaging of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Ong, S. K.; Seah, L. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Ong, L. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 281-295
Abstract: The time-resolved (TR) method has provided an alterna-tive platform in the time domain for the imaging of latent fingerprints via fluorescence. An improvement in the fluorescence lifetime resolution for this method from milliseconds to nanoseconds comes at the expense of the fluorescence emission intensity from the latent fingerprint. This paper explores the use of an optimized excitation parameter, such as the excitation wavelength, in conjunction with the nanosecond-TR imaging method as a remedy for the drawback. Results from the TR imaging study revealed an improvement in the visibility of the resultant fingerprint image upon the application of the optimized condition.

Persistence of Creases of the Foot and Their Value for Forensic Identification Purposes

Author(s): Massey, S. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 296-315
Abstract: Foot morphology comparison is an established tool for bare and socked foot impressions left at crime scenes. This project attempts to confirm the persistence of foot creases. Volunteers' footprints were collected during a twelve-year period, and then those footprints were compared to subsequent impressions. The results lead the author to conclude that the number of foot creases varied per foot from zero to in excess of 90, averaging 15 per foot in the sample group used here. It was determined that foot creases remain persistent over time, and, when sufficient in number and significance, are a valuable tool for individualizing the donor. Barefoot impressions are rarely found at crime scenes and even more rarely are friction ridge detail and crease detail present. When an impression displays sufficient detail for creases to be noted, even if the friction ridges are insufficient for analysis, the impressions should be collected and considered for potential forensic identification based on barefoot morphology and creases of the foot.

Duality of a Shotgun

Author(s): Ravikumar, R.; Rajan, P.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Vijay, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 316-320
Abstract: Generally, both homemade and factory-made shotguns that are encountered in criminal cases are submitted for firearms examination to establish their link with the crime through discharged shotshells. During the examination process, it is necessary to obtain test samples fired from the suspected firearm for comparison with the evidence collected. However, when a firearm fails to fire factory-made ammunition, it might be difficult to obtain test samples for comparison. This study describes how it was possible for the authors to establish the dual performance in respect to the serviceability of one such single-barreled, breech-loading (SBBL) shotgun.

The Burned Palm

Author(s): Spitsen, M.; Argaman, U.; Chaikovsk, A.; Shelef, R.; Levi, A.; Attias, D.; Hermon, D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 321-326
Abstract: This case is unique because of the palm skin evidence that made the arsonist's identification possible, using fingerprint identification and the subsequent DNA matching. This report again emphasizes the importance of cooperation between the forensic laboratories, which leads to quality results.

Salary Study on Civilian Crime Scene Units at Sheriffs' Offices in the State of Florida

Author(s): Becker, J.; DeWitt, T.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 327-341
Abstract: The pay of civilian crime scene personnel at sheriffs' offices in Florida can vary greatly. Salaries are evaluated using several factors including size of department, educational requirements, and the Florida Department of Law Enforcement's Crime Index Rate.

SWGFAST Update

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 342-343

SWGFAST Quality Assurance Guidelines for Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 344-352

SWGFAST Guidelines for Latent Print Proficiency Testing Programs

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 353-357

SWGFAST Special Notice Name Change for Major Case Prints to Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Pages 358-359

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 406
Abstract: Shown are several thumb prints classified as either left or right slant LOOPS. They are interesting in that each contains another pattern formation in the extreme tip area of the thumbs.

re: Unusual Latent Print Examintions, J. For. Ident. 53 (5)

Author(s): Leadbetter, M.
Type: Letters
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Page 133

re: Book Review of Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink, J. For. Ident. 53 (6) by G. M. LaPorte

Author(s): Brunelle, R. L.; Crawford, K. R.
Type: Letters
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 134-139

Techniques for Digital Enhancement of Latent Prints Obscured by Disruptive Backgrounds

Author(s): Scarborough, S.; Dziemieszko, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
Abstract: Three techniques for distracting overlay colors and distracting colored patterns are discussed. In cases where the color (not the pattern) is the distracter, these techniques can give better results than those achieved with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filters. In fact, some of these techniques can be combined in those instances when the bank stamp, the paper color, the developed print, and inked writing all fall within the same color range. In other words, multiple techniques may be necessary when there are a number of background distracters.

Background Subtraction Through Exhibit Substitution

Author(s): Dalrymple, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 150-157
Abstract: Previous articles have described a process for the elimination of background from fingerprint and other images by subtracting the background. Two options, filtration and erasure, have been discussed. Channel subtraction, either in RGB (Red, Green, Blue) or HSI (Hue, Saturation, Intensity) mode, can also be effected with variable results. There exists a fourth option: substituting another item of the same type in exact register to obtain a substitute background image for purposes of the subtraction.

Casting Tires with Expandable Polyurethane Foam and Other Materials

Author(s): Wilson, J. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 158-169
Abstract: The use of expandable polyurethane foams and other casting materials to cast a tire is presented. In some cases, tire impression evidence left at a crime scene may be matched to a particular tire. At times, it may be difficult to seize or ship a tire to a lab for comparisons to a tire print. A three-dimensional cast of a tire can offer more details than an ink roll of a tire. In this study, polyurethane foams provided a detailed, durable, inexpensive, and lightweight cast of a tire. The foam casting method is more practical than other three-dimensional casting materials.

Integrating DNA Collection into the Latent Print Section

Author(s): Amick, J.; Bivins, D.; Cathart, K.; Hammer, L.; Pippin, T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 170-177
Abstract: DNA laws across the nation are changing and, as a result, offenders who have been convicted of less serious crimes are now required to give DNA samples. Because these new laws are in effect, the possibility of linking and solving crimes is increased with the aid of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS). The purpose of this paper is to provide information about potential DNA sources on common evidence items that are encountered by latent examiners and to explore the ways that limited DNA collection might be incorporated into a latent print section. Case examples are provided to illustrate the benefits of this process.

Research on Transferring a Fingerprint to a Ninhydrin-Treated Document

Author(s): Beaudoin, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 178-184
Abstract: This paper explores the possiblity to transfer, with the help of an adhesive lifter or other device, someone's prints onto a document that had been previously treated with ninhydrin. It is evident from this study that the secondary transfer of prints (i.e., transferring the print using a lifter or pressing a smooth surface) to ninhydrin-treated paper is very unlikely.

Locator System Versus WinID3 Versus CAPMI4: Identifying Victims from Dental Remains in a Large Disaster

Author(s): Lewis, C.; Leventhal, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 185-202
Abstract: Actual patient charts were used to simulate 300 ante-mortem files (victims) and 105 postmortem files (dental fragments) for a fictional disaster. All 105 simulated fragments came from 100 of the simulated victims. We compared three methods of matching victims and fragments: the Locator System (LS), WinID3 software program (Win), and CAPMI4 software program (Cap). Win and Cap were designed to help identify disaster victims. LS was not a computer program. It required dental professionals manually to sort antemortem files into six categories of dental characteristics and to compare a postmortem file of a given category to antemortem files in the same category. Twenty-four dental professionals were randomly assigned to the three methods with eight per team. The teams worked five hours. We measured the number of correct victim identifications and the number of correct matches. Overall, LS performed best, with Win close behind and Cap a distant third. All methods performed worse when fragments had few or no restorations – but LS did best. LS and Win findings were similar to a previous simulation study using only 100 victims.

Visualization of Latent Prints on Adhesive Surfaces

Author(s): Ong, S. K.; Seah, L. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Ong, L. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Pages 203-215
Abstract: This study investigates the use of one fluorescence and two nonfluorescence enhancements for the visualization of latent prints on adhesive surfaces. In terms of the fluorescence detection, a systematic evaluation on the fluorescence emission from the enhanced latent print is carried out both quantitatively and qualitatively. The preferred excitation wavelength and the appropriate optical filtering required to enhance the visibility of the desired fingerprint evidence are identified. Subsequently, the effectiveness of these enhancements on adhesive surfaces is compared and discussed.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 2, Page 270
Abstract: This is an unusual and difficult pattern, because it has characteristics of all three types of patterns: the whorl, arch, and loop. The first preference for this pattern type would be a loop over a tented arch or ACCIDENTAL WHORL with "meet" tracing. Heavier inking may result in more solid ridge flow, creating a loop with sufficient recurve at "A". This would then be interpreted as a DOUBLE-LOOP WHORL with meet tracing.

The Wheel

Author(s): Benningfield, D.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 1-3

Restoration of Vehicle Identification Numbers

Author(s): Kuppuswamy, R.; Senthilkumar, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
Abstract: If a stolen and renumbered vehicle is involved in a crime (e.g., murder, sexual assault, robbery, theft, etc.), then it becomes necessary to restore the original numbers to prove the identity of the motor vehicle. We found that the careful use of the procedure described in this article has been very successful in many other instances in the restoration of erased numbers in motor vehicles. Further, we noted that Fry's reagent is perhaps the best solution for steel surfaces, as reported in other studies.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Page 130
Abstract: This is an interesting and complex pattern. Initial analysis shows two separate loop formations in juxtaposition upon the same side of a common delta. Closer observation reveals what appears to be a scar just above the core of the bottom loop.

The Effect of Common Fingerprint Detection Techniques on the DNA Typing of Fingerprints Deposited on Different Surfaces

Author(s): Raymond, J. J.; Roux, C.; Du Pasquier, E.; Sutton, J.; Lennard, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 22-44
Abstract: DNA and fingerprints are two of the most important forms of evidence in terms of their ability to individualize persons. This study investigated the effect of common fingerprint detection techniques on the recovery of DNA from fingerprints. It was found that the recovery of DNA is possible after fingerprint development using certain techniques, and that the recovery is more dependent on the surface type, rather than the enhancement technique used. Fingerprints placed on plastic bags, glass microscope slides, and adhesive tape returned DNA profiles before and after treatment, which consisted of white light, UV, dactyloscopic powders, Stickyside Powder, and cyanoacrylate plus rhodamine 6G stain or VMD treatment. The profiles that were obtained from these surfaces were often found to contain contamination peaks, and at this stage, trace DNA analysis of this type may be more useful as an intelligence tool, rather than being relied upon in court for identification purposes. No DNA profiles were obtained from treated or untreated prints on paper and aluminum foil substrates.

Fingerprint Powder Formulations Based on Organic, Fluorescent Dyes

Author(s): Sodhi, G. S.; Kaur, J.; Garg, R. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 4-8
Abstract: Two novel fingerprint dusting compositions based on fluorescent, organic dyes (phloxine B and fluorescene) have been prepared. The proportion of the dye in each formulation is 1%. The remainder of each formulation is an adhesive mixture of meshed aluminum, boric acid, talc, and barium carbonate. The powders give sharp, clear prints on a wide range of absorbent and nonabsorbent surfaces, including multicolored ones. The fluorescent natures of phloxine B and fluorescene assist in developing weak prints.

ACE+V: A Model

Author(s): Vanderkolk, J. R.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
Abstract: Perceiving detail in an examination of physical evidence is the function of a forensic scientist. An explanation of that methodology is "A recurring application of Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation and Verification (ACE-V)".

Thin-Layer Chromatography of Photocopy Toners

Author(s): Thakur, V.; Jasuja, O. P.; Singla, A. K.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 53-63
Abstract: Samples of photocopy toners were analyzed with the help of thin-layer chromatography. Dye components and resin components of photocopy toners were analyzed by eluting the samples on the same plate but in two different solvent systems. It was found that the solvent system that could elute the dye components was not able to elute the resin components. The results indicate that batch variations, if pres-ent, in two samples of the same brand can be determined through the application of thin-layer chromatography.

A Statistical Analysis of the ACE-V Methodology — Analysis Stage

Author(s): Langenburg, G. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 64-79
Abstract: In July 2002, 24 latent print examiners and trainees in Minnesota participated in a pilot study. Each participant recorded the number of minutiae observed in two inked prints and ten latent prints possessing a varied quantity and quality of ridge characteristics. In addition, the participants received an enlargement (15 X) of one of the ten latent prints. They recorded on the enlargement the minutiae that were observed. Using standard statistical measurements, the results were compared against a control group of individuals with no train-ing or experience in latent print comparisons. The participants also completed a 30-question survey. The survey asked questions regarding physical traits, education, experience, training, and miscellaneous factors.

The results of this pilot study demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the mean number of minutiae reported for the examiner group versus the mean number of minutiae reported for the control group. The results of this pilot study were used to plan a large-scale national study of examiners in the United States, which commenced in the spring of 2003. This study is intended to be the first in a long series of studies that will examine various aspects of the ACE-V methodology.

A Radiologic Atlas of Abuse, Torture, Terrorism, and Inflicted Trauma by B. G. Brogdon

Author(s): Bonnel, H. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Page 80

Friction Ridge Detail Preserved on a Tool

Author(s): Horsman, A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2004, Volume 54, Issue 1, Pages 9-12
Abstract: In this case, high voltage electrocution caused an unusually detailed preservation of friction ridge detail upon a tool. Though the victim's identity was known in this case, such a discovery could become key to determining the identity of an unknown victim.

Public Funding of a Regional Crime Lab: Los Angeles Police Department and Los Angeles Sheriff's Department Work Together to Build Regional Crime Lab

Author(s): Cavanaugh, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 633-638

Demonstrative Aid for Bloodstain Pattern Examiners

Author(s): Moore, C. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 639-646
Abstract: In bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), the ideal demonstrative aid for court would not only hold true to the theory offered by the testimony of the witness presenting the visual aid, but it would also pass the test of acceptability and admissibility before the court. The author believes a labeled model, built by the bloodstain pattern analyst, can enhance the analyst's testimony, because it allows the jury to not only hear theory, but also to see visual prompters that transform an abstract thought into a tangible concept.

Shoe and Tire Impressions in Snow: Photography and Casting

Author(s): Hammer, L.; Wolfe, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 647-655
Abstract: Shoe and tire impressions in snow present a unique set of collection and preservation challenges. Becoming familiar with and practicing techniques for photographing, coating, and casting snow impressions will enable the successful recovery of this type of evidence.

A Primer on the Tools of Crime Scene Analysis

Author(s): Garrett, R. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 656-665
Abstract: Reconstruction and analysis are logical extensions of the crime scene investigator's craft. Those who concentrate solely on reconstruction analysis can only do so while relying on the efforts of the crime scene investigator. Through experience and training, a crime scene investigator can develop an eye for what is needed in order to interpret the meaning of what he or she collected and photographed.

Mold Making of the Skull

Author(s): Nusse, G. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 666-689
Abstract: There are times when making a mold of a skull is necessary and valuable. Creating a facial reconstruction on a casting leaves the real skull available for study and investigation. Having a casting of a skull can also be helpful for educational purposes, and it may be used in a courtroom exhibit.

The Skills of Crime Scene Investigation as Part of a BSc (Hons) Degree

Author(s): Pepper, I. K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 690-695

Digital Evidence Subcommittee and Panel Discussion

Author(s): Marr, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 696-699
Abstract: The first meeting of the IAI Digital Evidence Subcommittee and the associated panel discussion provided participants with an opportunity to discuss current issues regarding digital evidence and to plan future activities of the newly-formed Digital Evidence Subcommittee. The panel discussion summarized the status and current issues of the Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE). Digital evidence activities of the International Organization on Computer Evidence (IOCE) and American Society of Crime Laboratories Directors / Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB) were discussed.

Proportional Analysis: The Science of Comparison

Author(s): Hare, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 700-706
Abstract: Proportional analysis is a systematic approach to any comparative analysis and can be used to determine individuality and recognition. This methodology can be applied to all of the forensic comparative sciences and is not limited to the analysis of friction ridge formations. Proportional analysis is a means of explaining scientifically how a comparison is effected. The science of identification and individualization is a visual process which utilizes observation and measurement to assign value to spatial relationships that exist between any set of features present in two patterns being compared. These spatial relationships and the interlocking spatial clusters that are made when viewed together allow an examiner to systematically apply proportional analysis to obtain recognition and individualization in a manner that allows for repeatability and reliability from one examiner to another during the verification or peer review process. Any scientific comparison is a verifiable reconstruction of visual information with sufficient measurable detail in sequential alignment that results in a conclusion of individuality or an exclusion of individuality. This paper will be limited to the application of proportional analysis for comparing fingerprints or any ridged impression. [See letter to the editor by S. McKasson in JFI 54 (3).]

Adobe Photoshop for Demonstrating Latent Print Uniqueness

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 707-721
Abstract: Charted enlargements serve to demonstrate how identifications are effected and also to demonstrate to the jury a case identification. The value of utilizing technology to accomplish this more quickly and efficiently has been realized with the widespread use of Microsoft PowerPoint. However, tools within PowerPoint were not designed with image processing in mind.Adobe Photoshop, on the other hand, has an extensive array of tools that can be used in combination to achieve powerful demonstrations of latent print uniqueness.

Using Virtual Heads for Person Identification: An Empirical Study Comparing Photographs to Photogrammetrically-Generated Models

Author(s): Bailenson, J. N.; Beall, A. C.; Blascovich, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 722-728
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of virtual heads (i.e., three-dimensional models of human heads and faces). Our goal was to test these virtual head models as functional substitutes for photographs of humans as well as for live humans during eyewitness lineups and other processes relating to person identification. We tested the effectiveness of virtual heads by taking photographs of people and then using 3DMeNow software by bioVirtual to build three-dimensional models that resembled the photographs. We tested to see how easily experimental subjects would recognize images of the three-dimensional models (compared to photographs) after being trained on short video clips of people. The goal of this study was to examine subjects' recognition of virtual faces and to compare this performance to recognition of real faces. In the following sections, we discuss relevant previous research, present the methods and results of the current study, and finally point to directions for future work.

Crime Scene DNA Collection:Research and Practical Considerations

Author(s): Bellefeuille, J.; Bowen, K.; Dixon, P.; Hanniman, J.; Hillier, E.; Lama, D.; Wilkinson, D.; Yamashita, B.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 729-734

Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink by R. L. Brunelle; K. R. Crawford.

Author(s): LaPorte, G. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 735-738
Abstract: [See letter to the editor by R. Brunelle and K. R. Crawford in JFI 54 (2).]

The Forensic Analysis of Knots and Ligatures by Robert Chisnall

Author(s): Zercie, K.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Pages 739-740

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 6, Page 818
Abstract: This palm would make a highly unusual recorded palm print. This is the palm of an Iranian, who explained during his arrest that he had had a skin graft and the doctors had used f lesh from his thigh to replace the damaged tissue on his finger.

Forensic Science, or Business?The Use of Production Standards

Author(s): Stimac, J. T.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 525-530
Abstract: The various disciplines of forensics are not businesses. Each is a science. Yet, just as criminal and civil laws entwine with each discipline, the progressive use of production standards within our laboratories must be recognized. Administrators and management are aware of their benefits, but increasingly, they must also be responsive and avoid the negative implications these benchmarks can possess. To lose sight of forensic scientific necessities in lieu of an increased dependence on business-style benchmarks is not beneficial to the quality assurance responsibilities of the involved analysts, their laboratories, the agencies they service, and perhaps the most important entity, the civil liberties of victim and suspect.

Unusual Latent Print Examinations

Author(s): Reneau, R. D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 531-537
Abstract: Latent print examiners encounter interesting or unusual prints on a daily basis. In many agencies, latent prints of particular interest are exchanged with colleagues for input during analysis. This sharing of information is an invaluable tool that promotes professional growth, and it is encouraged in the author's laboratory. Two latent prints from different cases were encountered recently that fit the category of extremely interesting, if not highly unusual. [See letter to the editor by M. Leadbetter in JFI 54 (2).]

Recovery of Developed Latent Printsfrom the Inside of a Compound Curved Surface

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 538-544
Abstract: The recovery of a developed latent print from the inside of a compound curved surface can be accomplished with flexible casting materials.

Forensic Acumen Reveals the Identity of a Car

Author(s): Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Damodaran, C.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 545-549
Abstract: A car involved in an investigation was found to have the license number of a motorcycle. An attempt to identify the car through its chassis and engine numbers did not yield any result; the manufacturer reported that, according to their records, a car with those numbers did not exist. Suspicion about the car led to a forensic examination, which ultimately not only proved that the manufacturer's information furnished originally was wrong, but also helped to reveal the true identity of the car.

A Fingerprint Powder Formulation Based on Rhodamine B Dye

Author(s): Sodhi, G. S.; Kaur, J.; Garg, R. K.; Kobilinsky, L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 551-555
Abstract: A novel fingerprint dusting powder based on rhodamine B has been prepared. This fluorescent, organic dye consists of 1% of the formulation with the remaining components consisting of an adhesive mixture of boric acid, talc, and barium carbonate. Use of this powder provides sharp and clear prints on a wide range of absorbent and nonabsorbent surfaces, including those that are multicolored. The fluorescent nature of rhodamine B assists in developing weak prints and can be used in conjunction with an intense light source, such as the Crimescope or Lumiscope, to reveal high-quality ridge patterns.

Latent Print Processing of Human Bones

Author(s): Steadman, D. W.; Andersen, S. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 556-565
Abstract: Dried human bones can provide a valuable source of latent print evidence that should not be overlooked. Processing of both unpreserved and chemically preserved human bones demonstrated that black magnetic powder yielded the best latent print developments of the five processes tested.

The Use of the Hexagon OBTI Test for Detection of Human Blood at Crime Scenes and on Items of EvidencePart I: Validation Studies and Implementation

Author(s): Hermon, D.; Shpitzen, M.; Oz, C.; Blattsein, B.; Azoury, M.; Gafny, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 566-575
Abstract: The Hexagon OBTI kit was adapted for human blood detection at crime scenes as well as on items of evidence. The detection limit was increased while its specificity was kept unchanged. The implementation of the kit by the Israel National Police was accomplished with the introduction of a newly designed "blood testing" carrying case. The case contains all the items and reagents required for the Kastle-Meyer presumptive blood identification test and the Hexagon OBTI test.

The Use of the Hexagon OBTI Test for Detection of Human Blood at Crime Scenes and on Items of Evidence Part II: Use on Amido Black Treated Surfaces

Author(s): Hermon, D.; Azoury, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 576
Abstract: Bloody exhibits, which are frequently encountered at crime scenes, commonly undergo latent fingerprint and biological examinations. These exhibits are routinely processed for fingerprint detection by using amido black, which is a protein dye. In this study, the OBTI kit was evaluated on amido black treated blood stains and fingerprints, and its sensitivity was compared to Kastle-Meyer (KM) testing. It was found that OBTI is a powerful confirmatory test for human blood that can be employed after amido black treatment. Its sensitivity equals or surpasses the KM test. The time interval between the amido black staining and the OBTI test is also critical.

The Biology of Skin by R. K. Freinkel; d. Woodley

Author(s): Maceo, A. V.
Type: Book Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 585-595
Abstract: This report summarizes information from the book that lends itself to a greater understanding of the concept of permanence (of all the levels of ridge detail). The information is not presented in the order the book presents the information. Rather, the relevant information from different chapters of the book is correlated in a manner that hopes to illustrate its usefulness to the latent print community. The information from The Biology of Skin is supplemented with explanations from Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 7th ed., edited by Gerard J. Tortora and Sandra Grabowski, published by HarperCollins College Publishers, New York, 1993. The supplemented explanations include the discussion under the section entitled "Homeostasis" and the subsection "What is a Cell Cycle?" under the section entitled "A Closer Look at Proliferation".

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 5, Pages 628-629
Abstract: Several contributors have submitted these interesting fingerprints with "CUSPAL" patterns, a condition in which the ridges f low upward. The ridges do not recurve to form loops or whorls and they do not enter from one side and f low out the other to form a plain or tented arch. The ridges do not group in any recognizable pattern. A cuspal pattern would be classified as a TENTED ARCH, since one or more ridges at the center form an upthrust, which is an ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient degree from the horizontal plane (i.e., 45 degrees or more). Since the cuspal pattern actually conforms to none of the other definitions, it could be argued that a reference to an ACCIDENTAL is needed. Interestingly, the four index fingerprints are from female identical twins. The remaining fingerprints are of the right and left little fingers of a different female.

IAFIS Fingerprint Search Solves 45-Year-Old Double Police Officer Murder

Author(s): Leo, W. F.; Tillmann, S.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 397-403
Abstract: This double murder was solved through the application of emerging technology to fingerprints developed at the scene almost half a century earlier. To our knowledge, this is the oldest case solved through the use of an AFIS system.

Application of Amido Black Mixture for the Development of Blood-based Fingerprints on Human Skin

Author(s): Lawley, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 404-408
Abstract: Amido black is a chemical blood reagent often used by forensic specialists in the development of blood-based latent prints on porous and nonporous surfaces. The effectiveness of this chemical was recently tested on the dermal surface of a homicide victim. The results were impressive, and further forensic study in this area appears to be warranted.

Identification of a Bare Footprint on a Hamburger Bun

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 409-413
Abstract: A plastic impression (three-dimensional) of the sole of a bare foot on a hamburger bun that was recovered at the scene of a brutal homicide is photographed, compared, and individualized to a suspect. The process to effect the individualization is related in terms of distinct steps following the methodology described in the acronym "ACE-V" (Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification).

Compressed Air to Aid Investigators in the Laboratory and Field

Author(s): Knaap, W.; Davie, R.; Doyle, M.; Benton, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 414-420
Abstract: Tests were conducted to determine the viability of using air powered spray guns to assist with the application of latent fingerprint dyes, chemical solutions, and chemical blood reagents. In addition to lab applications, air operated tools were examined for use in crime scene processing and exhibit seizure.

Glowing Numbers

Author(s): Natarajan, N.; Hemalatha, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 421-423
Abstract: The restoration of identification numbers (e.g., vehicles, firearms) that have been tampered with is accomplished by chemical etching. The recording of these numbers photographically before and after etching is an important aspect of the examination. The conventional method of lifting fingerprints using fingerprint powder and cellophane tape is now reported for an unconventional application, namely to induce fluorescent "glow" for the purpose of photographing the restored numbers.

The Basics of Analog Videotape Evidence

Author(s): Brunetti, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 424-434
Abstract: Videotapes from closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras can play a crucial role in identifying suspects. Unfortunately, some investigators, and even some evidence technicians, are unaware of how to properly collect and preserve videotape evidence. This paper addresses the basics of analog videotape evidence and its proper handling.

Stringing a Crime Scene to Determine Trajectories

Author(s): Parkinson, G. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 435-443
Abstract: The use of string in reconstructing crime scenes for certain types of evidence is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and accurate method of demonstrating trajectory. Caution is emphasized that the determination is not exact but is more of a general, or relative, position fixing method. The use of string is still valid and remains as only one of several methods of determining the point of convergence or origin. When feasible for use in court, it remains an excellent demonstrative tool.

An Evaluation of Multimetal Deposition II

Author(s): Jones, N.; Lennard, C.; Stoilovic, M.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Pages 444-488
Abstract: Multimetal deposition (MMD) has not found routine application because of its complexity and inconsistent results. Recent research that sought to overcome these problems resulted in the development of a new formulation known as MMDII. MMDII utilizes smaller colloidal gold particles (14 nm as compared to 30 nm) and an alternative physical developer (silver acetate/hydroquinone rather than silver nitrate/iron(II)/iron(III)). Several MMD formulations were evaluated in this study, and MMDII proved to be the superior formulation, giving better overall print detail. On nonporous surfaces, MMDII may offer further print development than that achieved with cyanoacrylate fuming (CA) and luminescent staining, but vacuum metal deposition (VMD) always gave superior results to MMD. MMDII and VMD were compared to standard techniques on a number of semiporous surfaces, including expanded polystyrene, waxed paper, latex gloves, and nitrile gloves. MMDII proved to be the technique of choice on these surfaces. The ability of MMDII to react with print residue within and on the surface is believed to be important to its success.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 4, Page 522
Abstract: This fingerprint is Questionable, Unusual, and Interesting! The exceptionally wide fingerprint pattern (Figure A), from the right ring finger, contains a recurving ridge on the extreme left and right sides. It is classified as a an Accidental Whorl, inner tracing. In the event the pattern is not sufficiently rolled to include either or both of the outer recurves, it is referenced to a double loop whorl, inner tracing; to a double loop whorl, outer tracing; and to a 7-8 count plain loop (as it appears in the plain impression Figure B).

Thermal Paper: Latent Friction Ridge Development via 1,2-Indanedione

Author(s): Stimac, J. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 265-271
Abstract: Thermal paper technology has become one of the most popular means of recording business and personal interaction. Whether in the form of an ATM printout, or a point-of-sale receipt, the increased application of this method of documentation will also increase the responsibility of a forensic laboratory to effectively analyze such items. To assist in this accountability, it is recommended that the practical use of 1,2-Indanedione within a forensic laboratory, both on thermal paper and on other traditional porous items, be utilized pending independent validation, supplemented by thorough research of available literature.

Locator System Versus WinID2: Identifying Disaster Victims from Dental Remains

Author(s): Lewis, C.; Leventhal, L.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 272-295
Abstract: One hundred simulated antemortem and 105 simulated postmortem records were used to compare three methods of identifying disaster victims from dental remains. Method 1 (LS) was the Locator System, which required sorting antemortem records into six categories of dental conditions and comparing postmortem records to the relevant category for identification. LS was used without a computer software program. Method 2 (Win) was the WinID2, version 2.3.7, software program, which was designed to help identify disaster victims. Method 3 (Win/S) was the same WinID2 software program except that radiographs were scanned into the program so that they could be manipulated and viewed on the computer screen. Five dental forensic teams were assigned to each method, with two persons per team. The teams worked six hours. Overall, LS performed better than Win by a small margin and Win/S was a distant third. All methods found it harder to make identifications when fragments lacked dental restorations.

Exposure Monitoring of Fingerprint Powders

Author(s): Elad-Levin, M.; Azoury, M.; Yaffe, Y.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 297-303
Abstract: Inhalation exposure of crime scene technicians to black magnetic, silver gray, and black powders used for fingerprint development was monitored using standard environmental evaluation criteria. Air samples were collected while crime scene technicians developed latent fingerprints at simulated crime scenes. Air samples were analyzed for aluminum, carbon black, and iron. The amount of each element found was calculated for a normal workday and compared to the known threshold limit values. The values recorded in this preliminary survey were well below the occupational exposure standards for the components evaluated.

An Improved Silver Physical Developer

Author(s): Burow, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 304-314
Abstract: The silver physical developer is the usual reagent that follows DFO or ninhydrin in the processing of latent prints on porous surfaces. It visualizes the water insoluble components of the latent print residue. Such components include fats and oils (e.g., lipids). This work presents a silver physical developer formulation that develops better quality prints and is less expensive than the traditional silver physical developer.

Form-blindness

Author(s): Byrd, J. S.; Bertram, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 315-341
Abstract: Form-blindness is a combined physical and mental fault, an imperfection in the brain which causes the inability to interpret and correctly store what is actually focused on the human retina. A similar scenario in the realm of sound would be not hearing a specific pitch until it reaches a certain volume. The same is true of vision where minute dissimilarities in size, shape, or form cannot be seen until the differences are increased to a level within the observer's comprehension. The failure to recognize the real differences and fundamental similarities and to properly understand them and interpret them causes problems in latent print comparison training. This study will provide insight to the connection between an individual's formblindness test results and the ability to complete a latent print training course.

Hard Evidence Case Studies in Forensic Anthropology by D. Wolfe Steadman

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 342-343

Handbook of Computer Crime Investigation — Forensic Tools and Technology by E. Casey

Author(s): Stroz, E. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Pages 344-352

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 3, Page 394
Abstract: This pattern, from a right finger, is classified as a 1 to 2 count RADIAL LOOP. In addition to being referenced to a tented arch, it is referenced to a cental pocket loop whorl (obstruction type - "in lieu of a recurve in front of the delta in the inner pattern area, an obstruction at right angles to the line of f low will suffice", The Science of Fingerprints, FBI.)

Development of Bloody Prints on Dark Surfaces with Titanium Dioxide and Methanol

Author(s): Bergeron, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 149-161
Abstract: Through the use of titanium dioxide and methanol, a simple, safe, and effective chemical solution has been found to treat patent blood prints on dark surfaces. The titanium dioxide and methanol solution enhanced the blood prints on dark surfaces, resulting in white ridge detail. It also developed ridge detail not detected in the original visual exam.

An Evaluation of Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Fingerprint Powders on Ceramic Materials

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2005, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 162-168
Abstract: Crime scene investigators have used magnetic fingerprint powder and nonmagnetic fingerprint powder to process ceramic surfaces for latent prints since the development of the magna brush. Even though the magnetic powder causes more background discoloration than the nonmagnetic powder, the magnetic powder produces superior latent prints.

The Significance of Situational Sequencing Tests in Establishing the Participation of Two Persons in a Murder Case and the Hiding of the Corpse

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 169-184
Abstract: In this report, a 1996 investigation that utilized SST is reviewed and presented to further demonstrate the value of SST as a complement to other polygraph examination techniques.

Thermal & Carbonless Papers: A Fundamental Understanding for Latent Friction Ridge Development

Author(s): Stimac, J. T.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 185-197
Abstract: Both thermal and carbonless specialty papers pose a challenge to latent fingerprint examiners. A fundamental understanding of the chemical and physical properties of both forms of paper is required to assist the examiner in determining what possible method of chemical processing will not damage these specialty papers, while subsequently allowing for the development of quality latent friction ridge detail on their surface.

Reduction of Background Features in Images of Fingerprints Using Combinations of Images Acquired Under Different Lighting Conditions

Author(s): Comber, B. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 198-208
Abstract: Images of a subject can be acquired under different lighting conditions that cause the relationships of the brightness or darkness of the various features to vary from one image to another. We can take advantage of these variations by combining the images in different proportions in an additive or subtractive manner, allowing a feature, such as background printing or pattern, that is visible in both images to be significantly reduced. This technique is useful in reducing the effect of features that constitute interference when trying to examine other features of interest within an image.

The Significance of Using Level 1 Detail in Latent Print Examinations

Author(s): Saviano, J.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 209-218
Abstract: This article examines the use of fingerprint patterns and the general f low of ridges in latent impressions as they pertain to the inclusion or exclusion of possible donors. Advantages of this level of examination are discussed, as well as certain hazards of which the latent examiner must be aware.

Forensic DNA Typing by J.M. Butler

Author(s): Word, C. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Pages 219-223

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 2, Page 262
Abstract: This is an interesting pattern. Since the left side of the recurve appears to be spoiled, this pattern would be classified as a TENTED ARCH. Because the appendage on the left side of the recurve could appear to f low off smoothly, a reference to a 1-2 count RIGHT SLANT LOOP is necessary.

Are You Dead? Take This Test and Find Out

Author(s): Nielson, J. P.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Juvenile Sexual Homicide by W.C. Myers

Author(s): Hazelwood, R. R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 100-101

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 144-146
Abstract: The accidental whorl fingerprint pattern is defined in the FBI book, The Science of Fingerprints, as: a pattern consisting of a combination of two different types of pattern, with the exception of the plain arch, with two or more deltas; or a pattern which possesses some of the requirements for two or more different types; or a pattern which conforms to none of the definitions.

Consensus Obtained in a Delphi Study of Shoe Wear Pattern Experiences Amongst Podiatrists

Author(s): Vernon, W.; Parry, A.; Potter, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 15-41
Abstract: Shoe wear patterns may have value in forensic identification. Podiatrists are known to use shoe wear patterns in clinical diagnosis and therefore claim knowledge in this area. A panel of podiatrists participated in a multiple-round Delphi study to establish their shoe wear pattern experiences. The final round and the conclusions of this study are reported here. The questionnaire used in this round contained two sections, both showing statistical feedback of the previous round results. In section one, respondents were asked to name the pathology which they would associate with an attached pattern. In section two, respondents were asked to show which pattern components they would associate with a named pathology. Respondents were also asked to show which associations they would disagree with in addition to those which they supported. Responses, which were fewer than in previous rounds, suggested that the Delphi had reached a natural conclusion by showing that pattern relationships had been accepted, rejected, or had reached a static level of agreement that had not changed significantly from the previous round.

Fingerprint Age Determination: Is There Any Hope?

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 42-49
Abstract: Fingerprint age determination has traditionally been approached in three ways: (1) the physical appearance of the latent print, either before or after development, (2) the use of experiments that help to establish the effects of environmental factors over a given period of time, (3) the measurement of chemical changes in the constituents of latent print residue. It is virtually impossible to recreate the exact conditions under which a latent print was created,deposited, and affected by its environment, as required by the first two methods. The third method seems to offer the most promise in the quest for a reliable, universally accepted method of latent print age determination.

The Development of Latent Fingerprints on Polymer Banknotes

Author(s): Jones, N.; Kelly, M.; Stoilovic, M.; Lennard, C.; Roux, C.
Type: Article
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 50-77
Abstract: Polymer banknotes, especially older banknotes and banknotes with aged prints, present challenges for latent print development. A sequence of techniques has been optimized for the development of aged prints on the surface of banknotes. The procedure involves optical examination, cyanoacrylate fuming, vacuum metal deposition treatment, and luminescence staining. It is essential to treat banknotes with cyanoacrylate fuming as soon as they are received so that the print degradation, which occurs quickly on the banknote surface, is minimized. Vacuum metal deposition treatment should also be applied as soon as possible after cyanoacrylate fuming. Treatments other than those outlined in this procedure should be avoided, because they will be detrimental to vacuum metal deposition development.

SWGFAST

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 79-81

Fingerprint Detection Using Phloxine B Dye

Author(s): Sodhi, G. S.; Kaur, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 8-13
Abstract: Phloxine B dye, along with a phase transfer catalyst, has been used to detect latent fingerprints on a wide range of surfaces, including paper, glass, steel, lamination sheets, polyethene, plastic, and Bakelite.

SWGFAST Modifications and Approvalsof Documents Published for Periodic Review

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 82-87

SWGFAST Guidelines for Latent Print Proficiency Testing Programs

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 88-92

SWGFAST Standards for Conclusions

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 93-95

SWGFAST Submitting Comments

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Page 96

Effective Interviewing & Interrogation Techniques by N.J. Gordan; W.L. Fleisher.

Author(s): Nowicki, S.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pages 97-99

re: ACE-V: Is It Scientifically Reliable and Accurate? JFI 52 (4)

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Letters
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 669-676

re: Latent Fingerprint Development on Thermal Paper using Muriatic (Hydrochloric) Acid J. For. Ident. 52 (4)

Author(s): Sears, V. G.
Type: Letters
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 678-679

Footwear Impressions On Fabric

Author(s): Keith, L. V.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 681-685
Abstract: A visual examination revealed two footwear impressions on a couch cushion. Comparisons were conducted using an overlay technique. Although some size distortion was obvious, it could be attributed to the compression of the foam cushion material and the stretching of the fabric. On the basis of a comparison, the right shoe was positively identified. This case may serve as a reminder to crime scene personnel and footwear examiners that footwear impressions that are suitable for comparison and subsequent identification can be found on all types of surfaces.

The Crime Scene Team Website: A New Approach to Team Training and Communication

Author(s): Rose, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 686-690
Abstract: This article focuses on the use of a secure website to facilitate crime scene team communication and training, as well as to provide a storage spot for a wealth of reference material.

The Effect of Small Particle Reagent Employed as a Fingerprint Enhancement Technique on Subsequent STR Typing from Bloodstains

Author(s): Zamir, A.; Oz, C.; Leifer, A.; Geller, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 691-695
Abstract: In cases involving multiple forensic disciplines, the effect of one analysis or processing technique on another analysis is of utmost concern. SPR is not routinely used in the visualization of blood prints, so little research regarding its effect on DNA has been previously conducted. A study was conducted to test whether SPR would be detrimental to the DNA analysis by STR typing. This study showed no deleterious effect on the DNA analysis.

Dusting the Past: Archaeology and Ancient Fingerprints

Author(s): Arp, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 696-703
Abstract: A small group of archaeologists and researchers have begun to look toward ancient fingerprints, preserved in clay or paint, as a source for clues about the past. These efforts have been sporadic and tend to build off one another over a period of years, or even decades. While cataloging a collection of Sumerian cuneiform tablets housed in the University of Nebraska State Museum (UNSM), faint markings on the surface of one tablet were observed. These marks appeared to be fingerprints, probably those of the Sumerian scribe who wrote the tablet sometime in 2042 B.C.

Sniff Test: Utilization of the Law Enforcement Canine in the Seizure of Paper Currency

Author(s): Mesloh, C.; Henych, M.; Wolf, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 704-724
Abstract: This paper examines the police canine's role in creating a nexus between confiscated currency and drugs. Additionally, this paper examines the roles that the canine handler and evidence collector play in the collection of currency and in maintaining a chain of evidence. Suggestions are presented for the creation of new policy for police agencies that utilize a canine to seize money allegedly involved in the sale of drugs.

A Comprehensive Question List for the Courtroom: Re-evaluating and Revising the Qualifying Question List for Latent Print Testimony

Author(s): Scarborough, S.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 725-731
Abstract: The court qualifying question list for latent fingerprint testimony can be a living document that should be f lexible, adaptable, and current. The questions and answers should be updated and revised as the experience and knowledge of the latent print examiner increases. The order and selection of the questions, and even the particular wording, can be adapted for the comfortable presentation by each law enforcement professional testifying on latent fingerprint comparisons and identifications.

Polar Coordinate Mapping and Forensic Archaeology within Confined Spaces

Author(s): Hochrein, M. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 733-749
Abstract: Often, human remains or other evidence of crimes is concealed in settings such as wells, pits, cisterns, sinkholes, cave shafts, or other confined subterranean spaces. Once the scene has been identified as having forensically significant evidence, it should be documented. This article presents a technique, suspended polar coordinate mapping, that allows for measurements of evidence within well-like locations.

Optimized Digital Recording of Crime Scene Impressions

Author(s): Dalrymple, B.; Shaw, L.; Woods, K.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 750-761
Abstract: Four situations were re-created to explore the effectiveness of digital techniques, the application of which depends on recordings taken at the scene in specific order and procedure. Although the images acquired in this study were transferred to a desktop computer for processing, the same results could have been obtained on a laptop computer at the scene. Resulting digitized fingerprints can be forwarded for AFIS search with minimum delay.

Forensic Voice Identification by H. Hollien

Author(s): Koenig, B. E.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Pages 762-766

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 6, Page 852
Abstract: These are very unusual fingerprints in that each whorl has an interesting core: the number "13", a "heart", the letter "G". The last is open to interpretation: is it an "ID", or "10" or maybe "IP"?

The Detection of Bleached Ninhydrin Developed Fingerprints on Paper

Author(s): Lennard, C.; Stoilovic, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 537-550
Abstract: A case involving allegations of fingerprint forgery was reinvigorated by claims from a defense fingerprint expert that police had used a bleaching reagent on the questioned document, a stolen bank check. The allegation was that police had cleaned an area on the back of the check using a bleaching solution before depositing a forged latent fingerprint that was subsequently developed with ninhydrin. The bleaching theory became a significant issue at an appeal, lodged in 1995, against convictions in 1983. The Forensic Services laboratory of the Australian Federal Police (AFP) was requested to assist with the determination of whether or not a bleaching reagent had been used on the questioned document. A number of experiments were conducted, with results presented before a Court of Criminal Appeal in November 1998. Based on the examination of available material and the results of bleaching experiments, it was concluded that the chemical bleaching proposed by the defense fingerprint expert did not take place. The Court of Criminal Appeal accepted this view and the appeal was rejected.

Development of Latent Prints with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)

Author(s): Wade, D. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 551-559
Abstract: The rutile forms of titanium dioxide work very well for developing latent prints on dark surfaces. When used as a substitute for Sticky-side powder, they produce excellent results on black electrical tape and have the added advantage of developing prints on both sides of the tape. They also work well on plastic bags and cellophane. Titanium dioxide powder can be used as a white fingerprint powder or may be mixed with water and Kodak Photo-Flo to make a white small particle reagent.

The Knaap Process: Lifting Two-dimensional Footwear and Fingerprint Impressions Using Dental Stone

Author(s): Knaap, W.; Adach, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 561-571
Abstract: The use of dental stone to obtain three-dimensional footwearimpressions is a common crime scene investigative tool. The purpose of thisresearch was to determine whether the use of dental stone was effective as aforensic tool in the lifting and preservation of two-dimensional fingerprintand footwear impressions from various substrates. A solution to the problemof background contrast is addressed.

Detection of Latent Fingerprints on Newly Developed Substances Using the Vacuum Metal Deposition Method

Author(s): Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Ohta, H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 573-578
Abstract: Latent fingerprint visualization by the vacuum metal deposition (VMD) method on ferromagnetic-coated and styrofoam surfaces was nvestigated. Using this method, latent fingerprints on these materials were clearly detected. Furthermore, fingerprints were detected on the reverse surface of low-density polyethylene film.

Directionality in Swipe Patterns

Author(s): Gardner, R. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 579-593
Abstract: The method for determining direction of motion for swipe patterns in bloodstain pattern analysis is outlined in numerous references. These methods, however, have not been previously studied in depth for verification and validity, and some of these methods are now under scrutiny within the discipline. This study identifies five physical characteristics that appear in swipe patterns and their orientation in relation to direction of motion. The study suggests that the presence of an irregular demarcation in conjunction with any of the other four characteristics in the opposite boundary is a valid indicator of direction of motion for the pattern.

An Operational Trial of Ozone-Friendly DFO and 1,2-Indanedione Formulations for Latent Fingerprint Detection

Author(s): Merrick, S.; Gardner, S. J.; Sears, V. G.; Hewlett, D. F.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 595-605
Abstract: A comparative trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a 1,2-indanedione formulation and two 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) formulations in ozone-friendly solvents for the development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces. The CFC 113-based DFO formulation currently recommended for use by UK police services was used as a control.

Numerous fingerprints were recorded and used to evaluate the performance of these formulations. The results demonstrated that a DFO formulation in a mixture of HFE7100 and trans-l,2-dichloroethylene is an effective replacement for the CFC 113-based formulation.

Tattoos in Investigations: An Experimental Study in Profiling Cases Based on Investigators' Assessments and Interpretations of Tattoo Iconography

Author(s): Bailey, J. A.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 607-619
Abstract: Profiling is used in criminal investigations as an investigative tool for unsolved cases, sensational cases, or when there are limited investigative leads. This study was conducted to determine whether an examination of tattoo designs, coupled with other descriptive information about unknown subjects, could provide specific information about the subjects. Police officers were asked to examine and evaluate photographed tattoos from twelve subjects. Quantitative data corresponding to police officer preferences is reported for each of the tattoos examined and evaluated. The benchmark for success was established at any score above fifty percent.

Digital Camera Identification

Author(s): Geradts, Z. J.; Bijhold, J.; Kieft, M.; Kurosawa, K.; Kuroki, K.; Saitoh, N.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 621-632
Abstract: In criminal and civil cases, evidence is frequently needed to establish a nexus between a specific photograph and a specific camera. Defects in the charge-coupled device, noise introduced by the pixel arrays, file formats, and manufacturer watermarkings were examined as methods to establish the nexus.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 5, Page 666
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is quite unusual in that it contains a second pattern formation in the lower left area. Since the lower pattern is so far out of the normal pattern area, it is disregarded. Therefore, the pattern is classified as a PLAIN WHORL with an outer tracing. Reference to an accidental-type whorl is necessary.

Battles are Won in the Temples….

Author(s): MacDonald, A.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 397-399

ACE-V: Is It Scientifically Reliable and Accurate?

Author(s): Clark, J. D.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 401-408
Abstract: (See letter to the editor by K. Wertheim in JFI 52 (6).)

The Identification of 35 mm Photographic Negatives Using Frame Edge Defects: A Case Report

Author(s): Lennard, C.; Stoilovic, M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 409-419
Abstract: The criminalist is occasionally confronted with the determination of whether a given film negative was exposed in a particular camera. This information may be necessary to establish the ownership of a stolen camera, to associate a camera with negatives of questioned origin, or to determine whether two or more film negatives were exposed in the same camera. A case is described where strips of 35 mm negatives alleged to be second or third generation copies were proven to be original negatives from a specific camera based on a comparison of frame edge defects.

A New Method for Obtaining Highly Detailed Exemplars of Shoe Soles and Friction Ridge Detail

Author(s): Hill, T. S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 421-425
Abstract: Self-Stick mounting board produces finely detailed exemplars of soles or friction ridge detail using a minimal amount of material.

Latent Fingerprint Development on Thermal Paper using Muriatic (Hydrochloric) Acid

Author(s): Broniek, B.; Knaap, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 427-432
Abstract: The authors conducted experiments to determine whether exposing thermal paper to muriatic acid vapors would facilitate the development of latent fingerprints on the emulsion side. (See letter to the editor by V.G. Sears in JFI 52 (6).)

Development of Prints on Antlers and Horns

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 433-437
Abstract: The development of fingerprints in connection with the investigation of hunting violations can provide valuable evidence. Two methods for obtaining prints are presented: (1) cyanoacrylate fuming techniques followed by the application of dye stains, and (2) leucocrystal violet enhancement of prints in blood.

An Unofficial Public Telephone

Author(s): Aharon, O.; Wiesner, S.; Aperman, A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 439-442
Abstract: Preliminary examination of a public telephone showed that it contained a computer with a disk drive, a cellular telephone, and other electronic devices to record credit card information from users. Electrical tape recovered from in the phone was carefully examined under white light, processed with superglue, dyed with Basic Yellow 40, and dyed with crystal violet and yielded four fingerprints.

Matching Items of Jewelry from a Crime Scene with Items of Jewelry Found in a Suspect's Possession

Author(s): Klien, A.; Shor, Y.; Levin, N.; Brauner, P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 443-448
Abstract: In a "smash and grab" robbery at a jewelry store that resulted in the murder of the storeowner, a number of items of jewelry were stolen. Among the items remaining in the jewelry store after the robbery were four single earrings and a jewelry display pin. Several months later, a suspect was apprehended. In a search of his vehicle, four single earrings and a jewelry display pin were found. Based solely on class characteristics, the link between a single pair of earrings would not provide strong evidence to connect the suspect to the crime. However, the combination of the five different pairings lead the investigators to conclude that it was highly probable that the items found at the jewelry store and those found in the suspect's car shared a common origin.

Ethics in Forensic Science: A Review of the Literature on Expert Testimony

Author(s): Saviers, K. D.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 449-462
Abstract: The person offering expert testimony in a court of law faces several challenges. There are the exterior pressures of the adversarial system in the judiciary. There are the interior pressures of human feelings and desires. These, in addition to other factors, may lead to ethical misconduct. This paper outlines a series of behaviors: one group, unethical; the other, demonstrating professional attitudes.

Scientific Evaluation of "Graphology"

Author(s): Throckmorton, G. J.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 463-474
Abstract: In Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael, ll9 S. Ct. 1167 (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court states that expert testimony cannot be accepted if the discipline itself lacks reliability. Questions regarding the reliability of graphology as a discipline have been debated by both graphologists and forensic document examiners for many years. Graphologists claim their training establishes them as scientifically reliable. During a period of 11 years, more than 500 people participated in a series of blind tests to determine whether the principles of graphology are reliable. The results of these tests show absolutely no correlation between a person's handwriting and his/her personality traits. The research further demonstrates the principles relating to graphology are neither accurate, nor consistent, and, therefore, are not reliable.

Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis by D.R. Ashbaugh

Author(s): Hazen, R. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 475-476

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction by T. Bevel and R. M. Gardner

Author(s): Bratton, R. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 477-479

Forensic Tire Impression Identification by L. Nause

Author(s): Wiersema, S.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Pages 480-481

Back to Basics

Author(s): Osborn, K. H.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 4, Page 533
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown, classified as a TENTED ARCH, is quite unusual.

Information Needed

Author(s): Tilson, R.
Type: Letters
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 249

Emergency

Author(s): Morton, E.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 250-251

Forensic Science, Psychology and Philosophy

Author(s): Vanderkolk, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 252-253

The Case of Boss Tweed: Identification by Caricature

Author(s): Moore, M. K.; Haglund, W. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 254-262
Abstract: December 5, 1875, the New York City corrupt political giant, Boss Tweed, escaped from prison. Because of a political cartoon done by Thomas Nast, a Harper's Weekly illustrator, Boss Tweed was recognized andapprehended upon his arrival in Spain, after nearly a year at large. A brief survey of psychological research of human face recognition is included, to better understand the phenomenon of "caricature advantage". Several recent studies conclude that both child and adult subjects will prefer a slightly caricatured photo or line drawing over a veridical image of a familiar subject. This "caricature advantage" is evidenced in both speed and accuracy of identif ication. This suggests that the mind either stores familiar facial images in memory as a slight caricature or that caricatures optimize the retrieval process. Both conclusions make car icatures enticing to forensic application.

SWGFAST

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 266-267

SWGFAST — Guidelines for Professional Conduct

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 268

SWGFAST — Friction Ridge Automation Training Guidelines

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 269-275

SWGFAST — Friction Ridge Digital Imaging Guidelines

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 276-278

SWGFAST — Validation of Research and Technology

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 279-287
Abstract: The purpose of validation is to ensure the integrity of all techniques and procedures used for the development of friction ridge detail in order to establish confidence in those techniques and procedures for the examiner and the scientific and legal communities.

SWGFAST — Glossary - Friction Ridge Automation

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 288-293

SWGFAST — Glossary - Anatomy

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 294-299

SWGFAST — Glossary - Identification

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 300-304

SWGFAST — Glossary - Fingerprint Classification

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 305-308

SWGFAST — Minimum Qualifications for Latent Print Examiner Trainees

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 309

SWGFAST — Training to Competency for Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 311-315
Abstract: This outline provides the recommended training program to achieve competency in friction ridge examination. The student must demonstrate knowledge of required objectives by passing written tests and/or practical exercises, and by communicating an understanding of the objectives and underlying principles. It is also strongly recommended that students demonstrate knowledge of supplemental objectives.

SWGFAST — Quality Assurance Guidelines for Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 316-323
Abstract: Friction ridge examinations are based on the following premises: The fundamentals of the science of friction ridge individualization (identification) are permanence and individuality. The comparison and individualization of two areas of friction ridge impressions are based on the examination of infinite combinations of ridge structure, individual ridge appearance, minutiae, spatial relationships, pores, and other details. There is no scientific basis for requiring that a minimum number of corresponding friction ridge details be present in two impressions in order to effect individualization.

SWGFAST — Friction Ridge Examination Methodology for Latent Print Examiners

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 324-328

SWGFAST — Glossary - Latent Print Processing

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 329-338

SWGFAST — Glossary - Identification (Supplement)

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 339

SWGFAST — Bylaws

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 341-345

Forensic Handwriting Identification, Fundamental Concepts and Principles

Author(s): Licht, G.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 349-351

Mute Witnesses: Trace Evidence Analysis

Author(s): Stephens, D. D.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 352-353

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 3, Page 394
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains two of the basic requirements for a whorl-type pattern, i.e., two deltas with a recurving ridge in front of each. The left and right deltas are marked D-1 and D-2 respectively. Since a line drawn between the deltas does not touch or cross a recurving ridge, the pattern is classified as a Central Pocket Loop Whorl. References to a plain loop and tented arch are necessary.

Latent Print Recovery from Human Skin

Author(s): Wilgus, G.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 133-135
Abstract: During a two week period three female homicide victims were found in the same general location. The second victim's body was processed using an alternate light source, cyanoacrylate fuming, and black magnetic powder. A latent palm print of value, which was developed on the stomach of victim two, was subsequently compared and identified to a suspect.

The Reconstruction of A Staged Sexual Assault

Author(s): Adair, T. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 137-143

Suicide by Drowning? An Unlikely Method

Author(s): Heindel, A. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 145-150
Abstract: In all apparent suicide by drowning events, the death scene investigator should bear in mind the drowning sequence. The investigator must also consider environmental factors, such as water temperature, depth, current, and submerged entanglements or obstructions. Other factors relating to the victim, such as alcohol or drug abuse, emotional state, recent behavior, medical history, or evidence of suicidal intent, must be considered. Although drowning is listed as a rather common cause of accidental death, a victim's body that is discovered in water may also be there as an attempt to conceal a homicide. The immediate suggestion of a drowning suicide at a death scene should be met with healthy suspicion.

Identification of Human Remains Through Comparison of Computerized Tomography and Radiographic Plates

Author(s): Kahana, T.; Goldstein, S.; Kugel, C.; Hiss, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 151-158
Abstract: Scientific identification of human remains is frequently accomplished by comparing antemortem and postmortem radiographic (X-ray) data. Positive identification of a decomposed cadaver was achieved by comparing: (1) antemortem computerized tomography (CT) images of the head with postmortem cranial radiographs, and (2) antemortem with postmortem radiographs depicting staples within the abdomen.

Treatment of Cocaine Contaminated Polythene Bags Prior to Fingerprint Development by Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Author(s): Magora, A.; Azoury, M.; Geller, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 159-168
Abstract: Cyanoacrylate fuming is applied routinely by many law enforcement agencies to develop latent fingerprints on polythene bags. Polythene wrapping contaminated with residue drug powder is a common challenge, as these articles usually render no prints. It has been observed that the problem is especially acute when the polythene has been contaminated with cocaine residue. In this study, five solvents or solvent mixtures were tested for maximal removal of cocaine residues, while ensuring minimal damage to the latent marks. Diethyl ether was found to be a suitable solvent. The rinsing protocol is quick and easy to perform. Immersion was found to produce better results than spraying. Although the rinse does not inhibit further treatment with cyanoacrylate, subsequent vacuum metal deposition processing was impaired by the treatment.

Scent as Forensic Evidence and Its Relationship to the Law Enforcement Canine

Author(s): Mesloh, C.; Wolf, R.; Henych, M.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 169-182
Abstract: This paper examines the utilization of the police canine as a tool to discriminate certain types of scents (particularly narcotics, explosive devices, and accelerants), search for evidence, track suspects or endangered persons, and locate cadavers. Specifically, this paper examines the police canine's abilities and shortcomings while working "in the field" and in non-laboratory conditions. The role of the canine handler and the possibility of contamination are also examined.

Three-dimensional Models for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Author(s): Moore, C. C.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 183-203
Abstract: Traditional teaching and court presentations of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis included the use of two-dimensional drawings on flip charts or posters to illustrate the angles, shapes, and interpretative analysis of their relationships. The purpose and stages of development of a three-dimensional model are explained. The three-dimensional model was presented to different survey participants and evaluated for its usefulness. On December 4, 2000, the first presentation of the three-dimensional model was presented in court.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 2, Page 246
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains two separate loop formations and two deltas. It is therefore classified as a Double Loop Whorl and referenced to a 24 count plain loop.

Evaluation of a Solid State"Shoe Box" Laser: The Spectra-Physics Millennia 532nm Laser

Author(s): Warner, G. C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 1-28
Abstract: This study was initiated to investigate the use of the solid state laser in case work. The overall size of laser components has noticeably decreased. A significant change to the size of the laser head has been another result. Because of their small size, these lasers have been dubbed "shoe box" lasers.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 1, Page 130
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains two separate loop formations ("A" & "B"), and one delta, approaching the arbitary tented arch type. Since recurve "B" is somewhat obscured by a ridge abutting from the left, the pattern is classified as a one-count Loop with reference to a tented arch.

Fluorescence Photography of Latent Fingerprints: Using Electronic Flash in the Field

Author(s): O'Brien, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 29-33

The Critical Stage of Friction Ridge and Pattern Formation

Author(s): Wertheim, K.; Maceo, A. V.
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 35-85
Abstract: This study provides an enhanced understanding of the biological structure and development of friction ridge skin for the latent print examiner who is called upon to explain the scientific principles of latent print identification as based on permanence and uniqueness. Cellular attachments ensure permanence, while variable stresses and cellular distributions account for individuality on all "three levels" of detail. Volar patterning is dependent upon the tension across the surface of the developing skin during a critical stage of approximately 10.5 to 16 weeks estimated gestational age. Fingerprint ridge counts are predominantly affected by two combined timing events: the onset of epidermal cellular proliferation and the timing of the regression of the volar pads. Fingerprint pattern types are predominantly affected by the symmetry of the volar pad. [See letter to the editor by Kasey Wertheim in JFI 60 (6).]

Anthrax Insights

Author(s): Rahni, D. N
Type: Article
Published: 2002, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 86-94

What Makes an Expert Latent Print Examiner?

Author(s): Boston, R.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 565-568

IAFIS- Two Murdered Schoolteachers and a Single Patent Print in Dust

Author(s): Krohn, G. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 569-571

Isomark Spray: A Novel Method for the Replication of Marks

Author(s): Brennan, J. S.; Davies, L.; Bramble, S. K.; Rollins, V.; Rollins, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 572-580

Success of Hexane-based Ninhydrin Amino Acid Reagent Processing in Various Inks and Ages of Porous Evidence

Author(s): Scarborough, S.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 581-586
Abstract: Porous items processed by ninhydrin in a hexane base demonstrate minimal running of inks used for signatures, background and handwriting. While the age of the paper and the type of inks used on the evidence is a factor, ninhydrin-hexane as an amino acid reagent can be very effective for all types of porous based evidence processing.

Survey of Tire Tread Design and Tre Size as Mounted on Vehicles in Central Iowa

Author(s): Bessman, C. W.; Schmeiser, A.
Type: Article
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 587-596

Forensic Interpretation of Glass Evidence

Author(s): Maxwell, V. W.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 597-598

Letter to the Editor

Author(s): Cordle, M. T.; Morlan, A. J.
Type: Letters
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 684-685

Reflections in a Mirror- II

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 686-697

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 6, Page 698
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains two separate loop formations and two deltas. It is therefore classified as a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL with an "outer" tracing. The right and left deltas are marked "A" and "B" respectively.

Comments on JFI 51 (3)

Author(s): Crispino, F.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 449-456

In Support of Fingerprint Evidence

Author(s): Bush, L.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 457-460

Levels of Quality and Quantity in Detail

Author(s): Vanderkolk, J.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 461-468

Patent/Latent Print

Author(s): May, J. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 469-471

Comparing Pattern Injuries Using Computer-based Overlays

Author(s): O'Shaughnessy, P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 472-478
Abstract: A pattern injury is one in which the instrument of injury can be determined by the pattern left on the tissue. A teacher of a six-year-old boy noticed a slap mark on his face. She reported this to Child Protective Services, who in turn, contacted the local police department. Detectives interviewed the parents of the boy and they stated that the eight-year-old step-sister had slapped her brother. The Child Protective Services representative felt that the hand imprint was too large to be made by an eight-year-old.

The author was asked to attempt to compare the slap mark with handprints of each person who had access to the child during the time period that the slap mark was made. Using computer produced overlays, he ruled out all the suspects except for the eight-year old sister.

Search for a Digital Enhancement Protocol for Photoshop Software

Author(s): Crispino, F.; Touron, P.; Elkander, A. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 479-495

Latent Print Detection on Raw Ivory of African Elephants

Author(s): Azoury, M.; Clark, B.; Geller, B.; Levin-Elad, M.; Rozen, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 496-503
Abstract: Demand for ivory is responsible for the decline of most African elephant populations. Organized gangs use a variety of weapons, including illegal automatic firearms, to poach elephants. Tons of ivory tusks are entered into illegal trade and smuggled across international borders, sometimes with the complicity of corrupt government officials. Attempts have been made to detect latent fingerprints on raw ivory to assist wildlife law enforcement officers in collecting physical evidence against the criminals. The question of age (stability) of the latent print on the tusk is also discussed.

A Systematic Approach to Latent Fingerprint Sample Preperation for Comparative Chemical Studies

Author(s): Jones, N.; Davies, L.; Russell, C.; Brennan, J. S.; Bramble, S. K.
Type: Article
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 504-515
Abstract: A recognized deficiency in the field of fingerprint chemistry is the lack of a control fingerprint. This is compounded by the fact that there are also no accepted standards for the production of fingerprints for experimental purposes. The guidance notes provided in this article detail some of the parameters which researchers should consider when conducting fingerprint studies, both in analytical studies of fingerprint residue and fingerprint reagent trials. It is hoped that this will form the basis of an accepted standard methodology for the future, which will allow more objective comparison of results from different research groups.

The Practical Methodology of Forensic Photography, 2nd Edition

Author(s): Richards, G.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Pages 516-517

Reflections in a Mirror

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Page 561

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 5, Page 562
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is classified as an upthrust type TENTED ARCH. It is interesting due to the unusual formation of ridges near the center.

Courtroom Testimony for the Fingerprint Expert

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Correction
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 341-342
Abstract: Correction for Book Review in JFI 51 (2)

Breastworks and Arrows

Author(s): Wertheim, P.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 343-345

Who Held the Gun?: Decipherment of Suicide-Homicide Cases Using the PDT Reagent

Author(s): Leifer, A.; Wax, H.; Almog, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 346-360

Forensic Light Source Enhancement of Authentiprint Identification System Fingerprints

Author(s): Ohlson, J. W.; McQuay, W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 361-366

Method for Examination of Fecal Material from a Crime Scene Using Plant Fragments

Author(s): Norris, D. O.; Bock, J. H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 367-377
Abstract: Microscopic examination of plant fragments in fecal samples can be used to link a suspect to a crime scene. This procedure is relatively simple and inexpensive. The basic methods for performing these analyses are described as an aid to crime scene investigators and those who process the material.

Using Adobe Photoshop's Channel Mixer as an Evidence Enhancement Tool

Author(s): Grady, D. P.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 378-384
Abstract: It has long been known that using color filters in black and white photography is a simple method to enhance contrast. This method can be simulated with color photographs using the channel mixer adjustment in Adobe Photoshop.

Evaluation of a Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System for Fingerprint Detection

Author(s): Saferstein, R.; Graf, S. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 385-393

Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd Edition

Author(s): Boyd, D. C.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 394-396

Letters to the Editor

Author(s): Stoney, D. A.
Type: Letters
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 433-434

Going My Heart's Direction

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Pages 435-445

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 4, Page 446
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is from a left index finger. It is classified as a 13-count ulnar LOOP. An additional loop formation appearing below the pattern is in the second joint and has no effect on the loop above. Reference to a double loop whorl is necessary.

I Think Therefore I Probably Am

Author(s): McKasson, S.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 217-221
Abstract: (See Commentary by Frank Crispino in JFI 51 [5].)

Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST): Introduction

Author(s): McRoberts, A. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 224-227

Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST): Approved Guidelines

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 229-244

Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST): Drafts for Comment

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 245-290

Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST): Bylaws

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 291-296

Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST): Appendices

Author(s): SWGFAST
Type: Special Feature
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Pages 297-299

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 3, Page 338
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains two separate loop formations and two deltas. It is therefore classified as a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL with a "meet" tracing.

A Probabilistic Approach to Fingerprint Evidence

Author(s): Champod, C.; Evett, I. W.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 101-122

Safe, Inexpensive Shooting Tunnel

Author(s): Touron, P.; Crispino, F.; Bouvenet, J.; Elkander, A. A.; Curran, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 123-131

Application of Situational Sequencing Tests in the Case of Police Officers Suspected of Murder and POT Tests as "Knowledge of the Perpetrator Test"

Author(s): Jaworski, R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 132-149

Applying the Scientific Method to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Author(s): Bevel, T.
Type: Article
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 150-162

Locks, Safes, and Security: An International Police Reference

Author(s): Zeldes, I.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 163-165

Forensic Art and Illustration

Author(s): Paschal, R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 166-167

Footwear, the Missed Evidence

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 168-169

Courtroom Testimony for the Fingerprint Expert

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 170-171
Abstract: (See Book Review Correction by David L. Grieve in JFI 51 [4].)

Crime Scene Investigation

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 172-173

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 2, Page 214
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown approaches the plain loop type in that it contains a sufficient recurve and a delta. Since rules state that "a white space" must intervene between the delta and the first ridge count (in this case the only possible ridge count), the pattern is classified as a TENTED ARCH and referenced to a one-count loop.

Lighting for Bitemark Photography

Author(s): Clouser, J. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Fluorescein Technique Performance Study on Blood Foot Trails

Author(s): Cheeseman, R.; Tomboc, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 16-27

Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood — Part 2: Protein Dyes

Author(s): Sears, V. G.; Butcher, C. P.; Prizeman, T. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 28-38
Abstract: A systematic evaluation of a number of protein dyes for the enhancement of blood contaminated fingerprints on a range of typical surfaces found at scenes of crime was carried out. Two of these, acid violet 17 and benzoxanthene yellow, proved to be potentially valuable enhancers of blood-contaminated fingerprints. Acid violet 17 gives daylight visible enhancement and is a possible alternative to amido black (the dye currently recommended by PSDB for the enhancement of blood-contaminated fingerprints). Benzoxanthene yellow makes bloody fingerprints fluoresce and may be used on nonporous surfaces. It is especially effective on dark, non-fluorescing, nonporous surfaces where it may be difficult to visualize blood stained with amido black or acid violet 17. Further trials would be necessary before these dyes could be recommended for operational use.

Simon Says

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 85-97

Enhancement of Latent Prints on Metal Surfaces

Author(s): Smith, K.; Kauffman, C.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2001, Volume 51, Issue 1, Page 98
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown, containing two separate loop formations and two deltas, is classified as a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL with an "outer" tracing. The left and right deltas are designated " A and "B" respectively. Since the looping ridges enter and exit the same side of the deltas, the pattern would be classified as a LATERAL POCKET LOOP whorl under the original Henry system.

Special Case in Three-dimensional Bone Reconstruction of the Human Skull

Author(s): Coy, A.; Ohlson, J. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 549-562

Identification of Hourse Hoof Impressions

Author(s): Chmielewski, Z.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 563-571

Development and Enhancement of Latent Prints on Firearms by Vacuum and Atmospheric Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Author(s): Klasey, D. R.; Barnum, C. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 572-580

Use of Ninhydrin in the Recovery of Latent Prints on Evidence Involving Adhesive Surfaces Attached to Porous Surfaces

Author(s): Maceo, A. V.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 581-594
Abstract: Recovery of latent prints from evidence involving adhesive surfaces attached to porous surfaces is enhanced through an understanding of the affects of different processing techniques on the evidence. A number of factors were tested: adhesive surface, porous surface, ninhydrin solvent, separation method and sequencing technique. Different types of adhesive surfaces require different processing techniques to maximize latent print recovery. The results of this research are presented and techniques are suggested for maximizing the recovery of latent prints on adhesive surfaces attached to porous surfaces.

Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, Sixth Edition

Author(s): Daher, R.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 595-596

Current Methods in Forensic Gunshot Residue Analysis

Author(s): Hodge, E. E.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 597-599

Aspergillus

Author(s): Masters, N. E.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Pages 603-610

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 6, Page 684
Abstract: The photographs below depict unusual friction ridge formations. The upper shows the core area of a plain whorl which resembles a target or bull’s-eye, as the ridges form four concentric circles with a dot in the center. An interesting formation of symmetrical minutiae is found in the lower photograph, which is from the type line area of a whorl-like pattern.

Fingerprints on a Banana Leaf

Author(s): Shinozuka, D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 441-442

Developing and Identifying a Latent Print Recovered from a Piece of Latex Glove Using Ninhydrin-heptane Carrier (Case 1)

Author(s): Rinehart, D. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 443-446

Developing Latent Prints on Household Rubber Gloves Using Ninhydrin-heptane Carrier after Superglue Fuming (Case 2)

Author(s): Rinehart, D. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 443-446

An Unusual Case Involving the Individualization of Fabric Impressions Made by a Sock-clad Foot

Author(s): Doller, D. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 447-454

The Search for Safe, Non-running Solvents: A Brief History

Author(s): Stimac, J. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 455-461

A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Solvents for Use in Ninhydrin Processing of Latent Print Evidence

Author(s): Pertuncio, A. V.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 462-469
Abstract: A comparative study was conducted to test the overall clarity and contrast of two experimental ninhydrin formulae (HFE-'7100 and HFC 4310mee) to a standard ninhydrin formula utilizing petroleum ether for the development of latent impressions on porous surfaces. In addition, an ink test was run to compare the effects of the two new formulae on various types of inks to the standard formula.

The results obtained showed that both experimental formulae were superior, and also proved to be a safer replacement to the standard formula in the ninhydrin process. In addition, the ink run test results revealed that the two new formulae had less ink run that the petroleum ether formula.

Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood — Part 1: The Optimization of Amido Black

Author(s): Sears, V. G.; Prizeman, T. M.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 470-480
Abstract: Amido black (acid black 1) is the dye currently recommended by the UK police service for the enhancement of blood-contaminated fingerprints. Acid black 1 is a general protein stain and can be used for enhancing fingerprints in blood in either a methanol or water-based formulation to produce blue-black fingerprints. As both the water and methanol-based formulations have problems associated with their use, a program of research has been carried out to examine alternative formulations of the dye to find the most effective method for the enhancement of fingerprints in blood. After carrying out systematic evaluation on a range of typical surfaces, an alternative solvent system for amido black has been developed.

Forest and Trees

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 538-544

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 545-546
Abstract: Fingerprint patterns depicting Halloween figures shown on the following page speak for themselves.

Three Holes — Four Bullets: Must Be That New Math!

Author(s): Greenspan, A. B.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 339-343
Abstract: A recent submission to the firearms section of the Broward County Sheriff’s Office Crime Laboratory consisted of four projectiles fired from a .38/.357 caliber revolver. While the evidence itself was unremarkable, the circumstances surrounding the projectiles were odd. A visual examination of a homicide victim prior to autopsy revealed three gunshot wounds to the head. An X-ray of the deceased later disclosed an unexpected fourth projectile within the head.

Which was First — Fingerprint or Blood?

Author(s): Huss, K.; Clark, J. D.; Chisum, W. J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 344-350

Hit and Run Accident Solved by a Compilation of Evidence

Author(s): Zamir, A.; Oz, C.; Novoselski, Y.; Klein, A.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 351-356
Abstract: A hit and run accident involving a police officer was resolved by a combination of scientific evidence compiled from two forensic laboratories. The forensic toolmark laboratory provided evidence linking a suspected vehicle to the crime scene, and the forensic biology laboratory linked a minute quantity of biological material found on this vehicle to the victim.

Development of Latent Fingerprints on Dark Colored Sticky Surfaces Using Liqui-Drox

Author(s): Hollars, M. L.; Trozzi, T. A.; Barron, B. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 357-362
Abstract: Liqui-Drox, a solution composed of Ardrox, Liqui-Nox and water, is a fluorescent dye that can be used to detect fingerprints on the adhesive side of tape. The Ardrox in the solution readily penetrates the indentations created by the ridges of the finger coming in contact with the adhesive surface. The dye solution is easily rinsed away from the surrounding surface yet adheres to the indentations. Ardrox is highly fluorescent with long-wave ultra-violet excitation, causing this fluorescent technique to be ideal for dark colored adhesive surfaces. This study explains the need for a fluorescent technique and details the procedure as well as limitations.

A Comparison of Different Physical Developer Systems and Acid Pre-treatments and Their Effects on Developing Latent Prints

Author(s): Ramotowski, R.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 363-384
Abstract: Four commercially available physical developer reagent kits were compared to a solution of physical developer prepared from its component chemicals. The stability of each reagent and its ability to visualize latent prints was evaluated. In addition, an alternate acid prewash solution, commercially obtained distilled white vinegar, was evaluated as a potential substitute for maleic acid.

No Free Lunch

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 426-434

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 4, Page 438
Abstract: For check cashing, a bank in Atlanta requires an individual who does not have an account with the bank to place a right index finger impression on the front of the check. An enterprising forger placed a piece of adhesive tape, possibly a small Band-aid type bandage, on the finger which caused this interesting pattern. However, the forger was not totally successful as the fingerprint ridge detail recorded is sufficient for identification.

re: "Deep Red to Near Infrared (NIR) Fluorescence of Gentian Violet-treated Latent Prints", JFI 50 (1)

Author(s): Menzel, E. R.
Type: Letters
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 245-250

The Composite Interview

Author(s): Bright-Birnbaum, K. L.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 251-258

New Speed Behind Forensics

Author(s): Fisher, B.
Type: Commentary
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 259-263

Physico-chemical Tretment for Fingerprint Identification

Author(s): Schuliar, Y.; Michaut, J. F.; Crispino, F.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 264-270

Recording Fingerprints on Cartridge Cases by 3D Laser Topography

Author(s): De Kinder, J.; Nys, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 271-275

Cloned Sheep of Roslin: Muzzle Prints

Author(s): Gill, K. W.; Lock, D.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 276-288

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 3, Page 336
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown consists of a tented arch formation “A”, and a loop formation “B”. It is therefore classified as an ACCIDENTAL WHORL with an “inner” tracing. Due to the possibility of an appendage appearing on recurve “B”, the pattern is referenced to a tented arch.

Documentation of Latent Print Comparisons

Author(s): Daher, B.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 119-128

Accuracy of Measuring Devices Particularly Plastic Rules

Author(s): Czarnecki, E. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 129-131

Elbow Print Identification

Author(s): Oatess, R. T.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 132-137

Laterally Reversed

Author(s): Kershaw, M. H.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 138-140

Handwriting Identification: Facts and Fundamentals

Author(s): Williams, R. M.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 141-142

The Identification Process: SWGFAST and the Search for Science

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 145-161

Getting things Right

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 229-241

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 2, Page 242
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown meets the requisites for a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL, as it contains two separate loop formations with two sets of shoulders and two deltas. The deltas are designated "A" and "B". The ridge tracing is O/M.

Schallamach Pattern on Shoe Outsole Acknowledged by Court in Footwear Identification

Author(s): Deskiewicz, K. J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

Golden Years

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 110-115

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Page 116
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown, containing two separate loop formations and two deltas, is classified as a DOUBLE LOOP WHORL with a “meet” tracing.

Obtaining Identifiable Fingerprints from Mummified Hands: Two Quick and Accurate Methods

Author(s): Saviano, J. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 13-19

Identification of Blood Prints on Fabric Using Amido Black and Digital Enhancement

Author(s): Warrick, P.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 20-32
Abstract: Blood prints were developed on cotton fabric using amido black and digital enhancement and were ultimately identified to a suspect in a homicide case. The court trial centered on the digitally enhanced latent fingerprint and palm print used for comparison with the defendant. After the defendant was convicted for murder in the first degree, his appeal was based on the contention the trial court erred in admitting the digitally enhanced latent images after conducting a Frye hearing. The Washington State Court of Appeals reviewed the case and affirmed the conviction.

Deep Red to Near Infrared (NIR) Flourescence of Gentian Violet-Treated Latent Prints

Author(s): Bramble, S. K.; Cantu, A. A.; Ramotowski, R. S.; Brennan, J. S.
Type: Article
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 33-49
Abstract: Until recently, the application of gentian violet to visualize latent prints on adhesive and non-adhesive non-porous surfaces has been limited to observations in the visible region. This paper reports the first study of gentian violet fluorescence with respect to fingerprint enhancement since its deep red to near-infrared fluorescence characteristics were first reported in the mid-1980s. Fluorescence data has been used to optimize a relatively inexpensive viewing system that can display and capture the deep red to near-infrared fluorescence of gentian violet-treated latent prints. Due to the inherently superior detection limits provided by fluorogenic reagents, this system allows the visualization of not only prints on dark surfaces, but weakly developed prints on light surfaces as well. [See letter to the editor in JFI 50 (3).]

Really Making an Impression

Author(s): Hammer, R. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 5-7

Crime Science Methods of Forensic Detection

Author(s): Bibby, D. L.
Type: Book Review
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 50-51

Improving Contrast in Photographs of Latent Fingerprints on Bottles

Author(s): Levi, J. A.; Leifer, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 2000, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 8-12

Simple Solution To Preserving Identification Marks on Evidence Processed for Latent Prints

Author(s): Snyder, M. L.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Pages 583-588

Contrast from the Past

Author(s): Barker, D. A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Pages 589-593

Detection and Enhancement of Latent Fingerprints on Polymer Banknotes: A Preliminary Study

Author(s): Flynn, J.; Stoilovic, M.; Lennard, C.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Pages 594-613
Abstract: Polymer banknotes were first introduced in Australia in 1988 with the release of the $10 Bicentenary note. Since then, the Reserve Bank of Australia has continued to replace other paper-based denominations. The $100 polymer banknote was the last to be introduced into circulation in 1996. Unfortunately, the polymer banknotes have proven to be a difficult surface on which to develop latent fingerprints. Given that the majority of banknotes present in day-to-day circulation are now polymer-based, an urgent investigation of the problem was required in order to develop more efficient fingerprint detection protocols for this substrate.

Letter to the Editor re: Fingerprint Identification Systems to Process, Search and Identify Palm Prints and Latent Print Marks in JFI 49 (1), 1999

Author(s): Romanek, J.
Type: Letters
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Pages 717-718
Abstract: See Fingerprint Identification Systems to Process, Search and Identify Palm Prints and Latent Print Marks in JFI 49 (1), 1999.

Rocking the Cradle

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Pages 719-727

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 6, Page 723
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains a series of recurving ridges, each of which is spoiled by an appendage. Recurve “A” is free of an appendage; however, it flows out on the opposite side of the pattern from which it entered. The pattern is therefore classified as a TENTED ARCH and referenced to a plain loop with a 7/8 ridge count. The unusual “spider web” formation (B) does not affect the classification.

Things Are Looking Up for the Fingerprint Field

Author(s): Menzel, E. R.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 465-467

Inked Major Case Prints

Author(s): Wertheim, P.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 468-478
Abstract: “If it is worth asking me to spend hours processing all this evidence, it is worth the extra few minutes it takes to get more than just arrest prints. If you do not bring me inked major case prints of your suspect, you cut our chances of making an identification for you roughly in half!”

Magnetic Fingerprint Powder on Firearms and Metal Cartridges

Author(s): Freeman, H. N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 479-484
Abstract: There appears to be universal agreement that firearms and metal cartridges present, at best, difficult surfaces on which to develop latent fingerprints. Experience has shown that the vast majority of firearms and cartridges from criminal elements are poorly maintained, thus are generally “dry” and free of oil. To date, the most effective method of latent print development has been with the use of direct reflected light and photography. This method should be used no matter what other method may be applied to insure a record of the latent is available in the event further processing destroys the latent.

Considering the Target Surface in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: An Unusual Case of Blood Pooling

Author(s): Adair, T. W.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 485-493
Abstract: The authors report on an unusual case of blood pooling into carpet. In February of 1998, an adult female was found dead in her home. The victim had died of a heart arrhythmia but had sustained a small laceration on the back of her head as the result of a fall.

Subsequent blood flow into the carpet immediately following death, as well as movement of the victim by paramedics, resulted in larger than expected staining on the underside of the carpet.

Getting the Most from Fingerprint Powders

Author(s): Parisi, K. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 494-498

New Sprays for the Development of Latent Fingerprints

Author(s): Ishizawa, F.; Takamura, Y.; Fukuchi, T.; Shimizu, M.; Ito, M.; Kanzaki, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Miyagi, A.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 499-504

Forensic Dentistry

Author(s): Sperber, N. D., DDS
Type: Book Review
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 505-506

Speaking as an Expert

Author(s): Sinke, M. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 507-508

Practical Fire and Arson Investigation (Second Edition)

Author(s): Thorton, J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 509-510

Built by Many Hands

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Pages 565-579

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 5, Page 580
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is quite complex. Since the recurve “A” is spoiled by an appendage, the pattern is classified as a TENTED ARCH with reference to a six-count loop. Due to the possibility of the ridges at “B” forming a second recurve, references to whorls of the accidental and double loop type are also necessary.

Black Powder Method to Process Duct Tape

Author(s): Sneddon, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 347-356
Abstract: The Liqui-Nox/black powder process was examined as a means of developing fingerprints on the sticky side of duct tape.

A Further Study to Investigate the Effect of Fingerprint Enhancement Techniques on the DNA Analysis of Bloodstains

Author(s): Roux, C.; Gill, K.; Sutton, J.; Lennard, C.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 357-376
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of common and well established fingerprint enhancement techniques on the subsequent DNA analysis of items potentially bearing both fingerprints and biological evidence. Bloodstains of varying ages were prepared on different surfaces and various fingerprint enhancement techniques were applied to the samples. DNA typing was performed using PCR amplification (D1S80 and CTT system). The results showed that magnetic powder, multimetal deposition (MMD) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not recommended for use in a sequence of analyses involving DNA typing. Strong white light, white and aluminum fingerprint powders, physical developer (PD) after l,8-diaza-9-fluorenone (DFO), PD after ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd) salt treatment, and cyanoacrylate with gentian violet or Ardrox stains may be used successfully in a sequence of analyses involving DNA typing. Ninhydrin with secondary metal salt treatment, DFO, amido black, diaminobenzidine (DAB), black powder, Stickyside Powder, cyanoacrylate with rhodamine stain, and luminol may be used before DNA analysis but care must be taken to ensure that sufficient DNA is extracted and analyzed.

Cyanoacrylate Fuming: Accelerating by Heat within a Vacuum

Author(s): Grady, D. P.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 377-387
Abstract: Cyanoacrylate fuming has been utilized as a means for developing fingerprints for several years. Most examiners either use heat and humidity to accelerate the development or develop within a vacuum. Both methods have their advantages. By using a heater inside a vacuum the examiner can have the advantages of each method.

An Operational Trial of Two Non-ozone Depleting Ninhydrin Formulations for Latent Fingerprint Detection

Author(s): Hewlett, D. F.; Sears, V. G.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 388-396
Abstract: A comparative trial was carried out to determine the operational effectiveness of two ninhydrin formulations for the development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces. The formulations are based on two new liquid hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), HFC4310mee and HFE7100.

The trial was carried out by comparing the new formulations to the CFC113-based formulation currently used by UK police services. The results presented establish that the HFE71000 is an effective, safe replacement for CFC113 in the ninhydrin process.

People v. Jennings: A Significant Case for Fingerprint Science In America

Author(s): Acree, M. A.
Type: Historical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 455-457
Abstract: This is an account of the events which prompted the first higher court ruling on fingerprints in the US. This historical note was first published in the July/August issue of The Print, the official publication of the Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers, and is reprinted here with permission.)

From the Files of the Editor

Author(s): Bridges, B. C.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 458-459
Abstract: Numerous authors have attempted to describe the phenomenon of individuality manifested in fingerprints, but few have done so with the passion of B. C. Bridges. The following is an excerpt from “Nature’s Hand in Finger Prints”, published in the Finger Print and Identification Magazine, 25 (12), June, 1944.)

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 460-462
Abstract: The pattern shown is from the interdigital area of a left palmar impression. The “face” contained therein has been dubbed “the wisecracking girl with a black eye”. Other “faces”, along with the names of their contributors, follow.

Of Cabbages and Kings...

Author(s): Hughes, G.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 237-245

Forensic Individualization of Images Using Quality and Quantity of Information

Author(s): Vanderkolk, J. R.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 246-256
Abstract: As a criminalist for the Indiana State Police Laboratory, I am often asked how many points I need to make an identification. My response is it depends on the quality and quantity of information in both the unknown and known images. In order to determine the source of the unknown image, or individualize the image, an understanding of the source of that image is required. An understanding of the source of the image is required to differentiate between repeatable class characteristics and unique, or random, characteristics.

As a criminalist, I visually examine images that originated from, or represent, a source. The images can be produced from a variety of sources, such as friction ridge skin, shoes, tires, guns or tools. The examination of images consists of visually observing all of the information in the unknown image, analyzing it, and comparing it to all of the information in the known image. Then the examination is a mental evaluation of all the information in both images.

Ninhydrin on Latex Gloves: An Alternative Use for an Old Technique

Author(s): Pressly, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 257-260
Abstract: With criminals becoming ever more aware of the techniques used in their apprehension, they are also becoming more conscious about “covering their tracks” (i.e., wearing rubber gloves, cleaning up crime scenes, wiping off evidence, etc). Because some of the older methods for developing latent prints aren’t always successful, new applications of these techniques should be explored. Ninhydrin (Triketo-hydrindene hydrate) has long been used for the development of latent prints on porous surfaces such as paper and cardboard. But in 1966, Howard Speaks was able to develop identifiable latent prints on rubber gloves using ninhydrin.

Direct Sensitivity Comparison of the Fluorescein and Luminol Bloodstain Enhancement Techniques

Author(s): Cheeseman, R.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 261-268
Abstract: The scope of this study is to conduct a direct sensitivity comparison between the refined Fluorescein and Luminol bloodstain enhancement techniques. This comparison will be subjective in nature and will examine bloodstain sensitivity of each bloodstain enhancement technique relative to each other on various substrates (porous and nonporous). The Fluorescein technique was obviously more sensitive, and the results were tabulated as a sensitivity multiple. The results collected were indicative of the Fluorescein technique being at least twice (2x) as sensitive, and perhaps as great as five times (5x) as sensitive as Luminol.

Appraisal of the Porphyrin Compound, (TPP)Sn(OH)2, as a Latent Fingerprint Reagent

Author(s): Murphy, K. A.; Cartner, A. M.; Henderson, W.; Kim, N. D.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 269-282
Abstract: In this paper we report the investigation of a metallo-porphyrin as a representative of a new class of fingerprint reagent. Dihydroxytetraphenyl- 1 porphyrinatotin(IV), (TPP)Sn(OH)2. has been shown to react with latent fingerprints on paper. Comparisons have been undertaken against Physical Developer on prints that have been exposed to water, and against ninhydrin and DFO for prints on thermal facsimile paper. Results show that (TPP)Sn(OH)2 is not only compatible with Physical Developer but is also simpler to use, and it could also be the reagent of choice for developing fingerprints on thermal papers.

Forerunners of Bayesianism in Early Forensic Science

Author(s): Taroni, F.; Champod, C.; Margot, P. A.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 285-305
Abstract: Recent publications reveal that the trend among researchers is to adopt a Bayesian approach to the evaluation of “trace” evidence - glass, fiber and (increasingly) biological evidence. In many areas of forensic science, however, such as those involving fingerprints, tool marks, shoe prints, paint, and document examination, the Bayesian approach remains ignored or untrusted. This article argues that it is time for Bayesian methods of evaluating evidence to be generalized to all transfer traces including shoeprints and fingerprints. Such a broad use of the Bayesian perspective not only follows from the recent achievements of statistical argument in forensic science, but also from the history of its earlier and effective use, at the turn of the century, in a great variety of trace evidence cases and contexts.

New York State’s Civil Identification Bureau

Author(s): Peck, J. B.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 339-343

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 3, Page 344
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is very unusual. It contains a loop formation; however, a second delta is found in the lower right area. It is classified as an ACCIDENTAL WHORL, meet tracing, and referenced to a seven-count loop.

re: “Latent Print Processing by the Ruthenium Tetroxide Method”, JFI 48(3)

Author(s): Mashiko, K.
Type: Letters
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 111-112

re: “Use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems to Process, Search and Identify Palm Prints and Latent Palm Marks”, JFI 49(1), 1999

Author(s): Leadbetter, M. J.
Type: Letters
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Page 113
Abstract: See Use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems to Process, Search and Identify Palm Prints and Latent Palm Marks”, JFI 49(1).

Document Dating via the Internet

Author(s): Hill, R. M.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 114-116

Elmer’s® Glue-All: A Low Cost Tool Mark Casting Medium

Author(s): Grodsky, M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 117-121
Abstract: In recent years I have worked with a colleague, retired FBI document expert Gary Herbertson, during which time we have conducted classes in developing countries. The courses have dealt with concepts related to physical evidence, and in time we became sensitized to the need for materials and techniques which might be more readily available and less expensive than those available from existing sources, primarily the law enforcement supply companies in the United States. While we do not take issue with the quality and convenience of the products distributed by such companies, our difficulty has been twofold and of a different nature. First, there are frequently no immediate sources for these products in the developing countries, and, second, the costs are high, particularly from the perspective of our participants. Therefore, it has become almost a hobby for us to search for cheap substitutes which would have local availability.

Technique for Processing Carbonless Documents for Latent Prints

Author(s): Marquez, H.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 122-123

Controlling Depth of Field

Author(s): Oliver III, V. E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 124-126

Developing Latent Prints on the Adhesive Surface of Black Electrical Tape

Author(s): Martin, B. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 127-129
Abstract: The Sticky-side Powder method is used to process the adhesive surface or sticky-side of adhesive tape with great success. However, it yields poor results on black electrical tape due to the poor contrast. After using Sticky-side Powder from Lightning Powder Company in our laboratory, testing was conducted by our staff to see if similar results could be achieved by using white or ash gray powder instead of the Sticky-side Powder for use on black electrical tape. This simple alternative method has produced excellent results and has proven to be very useful.

To-scale Crime Scene Models: A Great Visual Aid for the Jury

Author(s): McCracken, K.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 130-133

Substitute Ardrox Formula

Author(s): Gamboe, M.; O'Daniel, L.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 134-141
Abstract: Ardrox is a stain that is strongly fluorescent when illuminated with an ultra violet light. The Ardrox staining procedure for latent print development is quick, easy and effective. Ardrox is a highly viscous, yellow liquid and dilution is often recommended. Common formulas for latent print application utilize methanol or other alcohols, as well as Freon 113. Methanol, while effective, can damage certain substrates, as can alternative alcohols.

Within the author’s laboratory system, Freon 113 is routinely used as a solvent, but because of the environmental hazards and the restrictions on CFC’s, Freon has become increasingly more expensive and difficult to obtain. This prompted a search for a different solvent to be used in Ardrox preparation that will produce the same, if not better, results as the Freon 113 and with relatively low health risks.

Moving Towards Consensus: The First Draft of an Evaluative Instrumental Grid to Interpret Shoe Wear Patterns

Author(s): Vernon, W.; Parry, A.; Potter, M.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 142-173
Abstract: In a first round pilot Delphi study of podiatrists’ experiences of shoe wear marks, considerable lack of agreement had been noted among participating podiatrists. A second Delphi round has now been carried out. This second Delphi round showed a moderate move towards consensus among participating podiatrists in the context of overall wear interpretation. When chosen wear patterns were examined more closely, however, hidden agreements were found with regard to specific areas of wear - the focal points from which the wear was spreading. These focal points can be diagrammatically represented on a drawing of a shoe outsole with identifying numbers ascribed to each such point. When this analytical grid was used on depictions of wear patterns chosen by second round respondents, the location codes were found to be specific for the conditions to which the wear related. This preliminary grid may form the basis of the first “measuring” device capable of translating and giving meaning to shoe wear marks.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 2, Page 234
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains a loop over a tented arch formation. It is therefore classified as an ACCIDENTAL WHORL, with reference to a double loop whorl. Although the right delta is not shown, the ridge tracing is "inner".

Origin and Formation of Prill Sulphur

Author(s): Redmond, D. R.; Swiderski, W. D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
Abstract: The accepted method of casting impressions in snow with molten sulphur has become well known to many investigators. Sulphur’s ability to quickly solidify on contact with snow, capturing fine detail, is a unique property. However, the actual medium origin and industry uses may not be known. Should an investigator be required to provide a case to the courts based upon the use of a sulphur cast, the investigator would be wise to have some knowledge of the material and its formation.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Page 108
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is a CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORL with a “meet” tracing, It is interesting in that the ridges near the center form the numeral “9”.

Fluorescence Detection of Latent Fingerprints: Direct Entry to AFIS

Author(s): Pascua, C. S.; Memel, E. R.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
Abstract: Latent fingerprints developed by photoluminescence techniques can be entered into AFIS directly, using the AFIS fingerprint reader. The reader’s illumination sources are turned off and replaced by fingerprint illumination with a portable laser or “alternative light source”, with the usual filter for fluorescence observation placed in front of the reader’s computer-interfaced camera.

Colored fingerprints can be read with substantially improved contrast in the standard absorption/reflection mode as well when the reader’s white light illumination is replaced by suitably chosen color illumination. No camera filter is then needed. Alternatively, white light and band-pass filters can be employed.

Use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems to Process, Search and Identify Palm Prints and Latent Palm Marks

Author(s): Leadbetter, M. J.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 18-36
Abstract: A totally new method for searching latent palm marks and processing inked palm prints utilizing Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) is described. The system, which is believed to be the only operational system in the world, has been devised by two fingerprint experts of the Cambridgeshire Constabulary. Application and usage of the system is outlined as well as a description of the method whereby the AFIS matches the palm prints of convicted criminals with those of latent palm marks recovered from crime scenes.

Four Basic Components of a Successful Footwear Examination

Author(s): Hildebrand, D. S.
Type: Article
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 37-59
Abstract: There have been major discussions and concerns among footwear examiners from around the world as to whether there should be an established number of characteristics in order to provide a positive identification. This study addresses the possible direction of a footwear examination by the year 2000 by presenting an understanding of the four basic components of a successful examination: the anatomy of the human foot; the outsole-making process; the comparison/decision process; and the presentation of the final conclusion within a courtroom.

Mushroom Prints

Author(s): Sahs, P. T.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1999, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 7-10
Abstract: To a botanist, or simply to a fungi connoisseur, a mushroom print may easily be connoted as a spore printing examination commonly performed to aid in the identification of a mushroom species, a procedure which is of utmost importance in the determination of whether a particular mushroom found in the wild is edible or not. An error in the analysis of a mushroom print can be lethal. But what about an actual mushroom fingerprint?

Friction Ridge Impression in Blood on Blue Denim

Author(s): Zanner, D. R.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 689-691
Abstract: Finding identifiable friction ridge skin impressions on fabric is not common, and when such impressions are found, they are usually on materials with a smooth finish and fine weave. However, it is not impossible to find identifiable impressions on other types of cloth, as illustrated by the following case.

Use of X-rays in Stolen Motor Vehicle Identification

Author(s): Khoudair, S.; McKay, E.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 692-703
Abstract: Vehicle theft is often facilitated when the offender(s) alter the identification number of the vehicle. In most cases the chassis or identification number is ground off and a new number is restamped over the same area. Other less common means of “re-birth” of motor vehicles are “cut and shut” and the fixing of false identification plates over the original VIN plate. Both methods will be discussed in this paper along with an assessment of the use of X-rays to detect them.

Development of Latent Fingerprints from Skin

Author(s): Fortunato, S. L.; Walton, G.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 704-717
Abstract: The following research was conducted in 1986 by a college intern and a latent fingerprint examiner at the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Upon completion of this research, the results were submitted as a paper to the BCA laboratory and to Gustavus Adolphus College, Biology Department. Thanks to the tenacity and recent enthusiasm of William C. Sampson, Miami, FL, this research is surfacing for publication.

Using Ammonium Thiocyanate and Potassium Thiocyanate

Author(s): Froude, J. H. Jr.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 718-724
Abstract: Many techniques used for fingerprint development can be effectively applied for the detection of footwear impressions, especially on non-porous surfaces. Occasionally, however, improved visualization of a footwear impression requires specialized examination methods. One such instance is when a white dusty footwear impression may be noted on a sheet of plywood, cardboard or brown paper but lacks sufficient contrast to reveal all the details. Chemical techniques that react with the constituents of dust are needed to darken, or provide more contrast to, the footwear impressions.

Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine

Author(s): Gatliff, B. P.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 725-726

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 814
Abstract: The ridge configuration in the photograph shown is very unusual, as is its origin, since it is from the proximal phalanx of a right middle finger.

Re: “Latent Print Processing by the Ruthenium Tetroxide Method”, JFI 48(3)

Author(s): Blackledge, R. D.
Type: Letters
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 557-559
Abstract: (Refers to Latent Print Processing by the Ruthenium Tetroxide Method.)

Air Crash in the Comoros: Victim Identification and Fingerprints

Author(s): Dayan, E.; Levinson, J.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 560-562
Abstract: On Saturday, 23 November 1996, an Ethiopian Airlines plane with 166 passengers and 12 crew members bound from Addis Ababa to Nairobi was hijacked and ordered to fly to Australia. Several hours later fuel supplies were exhausted, and an emergency landing was made in waters 100 meters off the shore of Grand Comoro Island (between Madagascar and Mozambique). In all, there were 51 survivors; the remaining persons perished. A team of 26 Israelis was dispatched to the area to deal with the eight Israelis aboard the flight. Included in the team were a forensic anthropologist and an expert in fingerprint comparison in case it would be necessary to identify the dead.

Short-wave UV Imaging Casework Applications

Author(s): Keith, L. V.; Runion, W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 563-569
Abstract: Latent prints developed on multi-colored backgrounds such as magazine covers and photographs are difficult in themselves to visualize and photograph. The problem is worsened when the background also fluoresces under laser or alternate light. The use of a Reflective Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS) allows for the real-time viewing of this type of evidence in the short-wave UV spectrum.

Latents from Pre-pubescent Children Versus Latents from Adults

Author(s): Bohanan, A. M.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 570-573
Abstract: A study conducted by the Knoxville Police Department and Oak Ridge National Laboratory has revealed a significant difference between the fingerprint sweat chemical compounds of pre-pubescent children and adults.

Plastic Fingerprint Impressions: An Inked Approach

Author(s): Stimac, J. T.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 574-578
Abstract: The latent print examiner is usually required to perform comparisons between a suspect’s inked fingerprint card and latent prints developed either through the means of chemical and/or physical processing techniques. It is not often that plastic fingerprint impressions found on a variety of items or surfaces meet the challenge of a latent print examiner.

Examining the Need for Postmortem Footprint Exemplars of Homicide Victims: Two Case Studies

Author(s): Donnelly, D. L.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 580-584
Abstract: As a latent print examiner for the past sixteen years, I tend to forget that there is a down side to this profession, literally speaking, in the form of footprints. By this, I do not mean shoe impressions, but the actual ridge detail present on the soles of the feet. Whenever I testify in court, I will explain to attorneys, judges, and jurors alike where friction ridge skin is located on the human body. Yet, when latent impressions recovered from a homicide scene cannot be identified, the possibility that the impressions may be from a foot is seldom considered.

Use of Cyanoacrylate Fuming and Related Enhancement Techniques to Develop Shoe Impressions on Various Surfaces

Author(s): Paine, N.
Type: Article
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 585-608
Abstract: It is reasonably common for forensic investigators to locate two dimensional shoe impressions within or near crime scenes. Often they are of a moist origin, such as when an offender tracks through dew soaked grass and then transfers impressions onto various substrates from the wet outsoles of his shoes. These impressions are often of a near latent nature and therefore require further enhancement.

Losing Sight of the Shore

Author(s): Hughes, G.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Pages 611-615
Abstract: There is unmistakable and indisputable science in fingerprints, but it has become corrupted and diffused with remarkably unscientific considerations in its application as an identification process by the unfortunate addition of years of misplaced dogma. Separating dogma from science is the problem.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 5, Page 686
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown contains no ridge (free of an appendage) making a complete circuit. It is therefore classified as a PLAIN LOOP with a ridge count of 24. Reference to whorls of the plain and central pocket loop types are necessary. The pattern also exemplifies a rule in ridge counting when the core is located on a single rod that touches the innermost recurve. If the delta falls below an imaginary line at right angles to the ridge, the recurve is counted. If it falls below the line, as in this case, the innermost recurve is not counted.

Integrity Assurance: Policies and Procedures to Prevent Fabrication of Latent Print Evidence

Author(s): Wertheim, P. A.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 431-441
Abstract: For the last few years, a scandal has been unfolding in the United States involving the fabrication of latent print evidence by several members of the New York State Police. In-depth news stories on major television networks have brought this situation to the attention of the public in general, and the defense community in particular. More detailed articles on latent print fabrication have appeared within the last year in the professional publications, including Fingerprint Whorld and the Journal of Forensic Identification. While attacks on the veracity of latent print evidence in the courts do not appear to be widespread, it is time for serious professional fingerprint examiners and police administrators to examine the causes of fingerprint fabrication, both in the area of personnel and in the ease with which such evidence can be fabricated.

Field Devices for Cyanoacrylate Fuming: A Comparative Analysis

Author(s): Geller, B.; Springer, E.; Almog, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 442-450
Abstract: This report contains the examination of another instrument that can be used for open-air fuming. An evaluation was conducted of the Handy FumerTM, and its effectiveness was compared with the other portable instruments that are available.

Use of an Alternate Light Source to Locate Bone and Tooth Fragments

Author(s): Craig, E. A.; Vezaro, N.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 451-458
Abstract: Alternate light sources have been used successfully for the location and photographic documentation of fingerprints, body fluids, and other trace evidence in a variety of situations. Bones and teeth should be included in the list of biological substances that will fluoresce strongly in the presence of specific light frequencies. Even tiny fragments of bone as well as chips of tooth enamel emit significant fluorescence.

Survival of Physical Evidence from a Scavenged Grave: A Look at a Case Study and Research from Colorado

Author(s): Adair, T. W.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 459-466
Abstract: Each year, across the United States, law enforcement agencies are charged with the difficult task of locating clandestine grave sites. Investigations of this sort are infrequent to most agencies but are nonetheless challenging because they may draw enormous resources from an agency over many years. In some cases, the agency benefits from truthful cooperation from informants and witnesses, however, this scenario is hardly commonplace. In most instances, agencies must exhaust countless leads in order to obtain resolution for the case. The site characteristics (forest, desert, swamp, etc.), size of the search area and age of the grave are only a few of the factors which may influence the scope of the recovery efforts.

An Extreme Case of Fingerprint Mutilation

Author(s): Wertheim, K.
Type: Article
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 466-477
Abstract: The mutilated fingerprints of a convicted felon are compared to his original fingerprints. Using enlarged photocopies, the mutilated prints are reconstructed as closely to their original configuration as possible. From this experiment, it is shown that triangular pieces of friction ridge skin were originally switched within each finger. The steps used in the actual mutilation procedure are then diagramed, and some facts of this case are presented.

Recovery of Latent Fingerprint Evidence from Human Skin: Causation, Isolation and Processing Techniques by William C. Sampson, Karen L. Sampson, Frank Shonberger

Author(s): Hazen, R. J.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 478-479

From the Files of the Editor

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Historical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 542-543
Abstract: The following items were printed as part of a feature “Finger Prints in the News” that appeared in Finger Print and Identification Magazine, 20 (6), December, 1938. The first contains information of some interesting historical trivia, and was taken from the New York Herald Tribune. The second, attributed to the Bronx, New York Home News, is intriguing for what it does not report.

Celebrating Revolutions

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 544-553

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 554
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern in the photograph shown consists of a loop formation "A", and a tented arch "B". It is therefore classified as an ACCIDENTAL WHORL with a "meet" tracing. The left and right deltas are numbered "D-1" and "D-2", respectively.

Detection of Firearms Imprints on Hands by the Ferrotrace Spray: Profiles of Some Common Weapons

Author(s): Glattstein, B.; Nedivi, L.; Almog, J.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 257-272
Abstract: We wish to report here the results of a consecutive study whose aim was to build up a library of Ferrotrace-developed imprints that are formed by common firearms. Such a library may provide the firearms expert with an idea of the weapon that had been held, by comparing the shape of the imprint on the suspect’s hand against the marks in the data base.

Forensic Art Case Study: Daisy Jane Doe

Author(s): Taylor, K. T.; Gatliff, B. P.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 273-278
Abstract: A primary goal of the forensic art discipline from its inception was standardization of techniques with high quality and reasonable consistent results the desired intent. The case of Daisy Jane Doe, an unidentified homicide victim found in 1988 in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, provided an opportunity to test consistency of techniques for facial reconstruction from the skull. At the request of television program “America’s Most Wanted”, forensic artists Karen T. Taylor and Betty Pat. Gatliff agreed to perform separate and independent skull reconstruction procedures and later compare the results.

Latent Fingerprint Processing by the Ruthenium Tetroxide Method

Author(s): Mashiko, K.; Miyamoto, T.
Type: Article
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 279-290
Abstract: The method proposed in this paper for developing latent fingerprints is based on the fact that ruthenium tetroxide (Ru04) fumes react promptly with various organic compounds, particularly fatty oils or fats contained in sebaceous contaminants in latent print residue, producing brownish black or black ruthenium dioxide (Ru02) [ 1, 21. Ruthenium tetroxide is a yellow, volatile crystal (melting point: 25.5”C, boiling point: 100.8”C) at room temperature. Conventional methods using RTX have been impractical due to its strong oxidizability [3] and because, in the two-liquid method [4], it is troublesome to produce the fumes when needed and in the necessary amounts. In this method, this difficulty was overcome by utilizing a saturated hydrocarbon halogenid solution of RTX [5].

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction by Tom Bevel and Ross M. Gardner

Author(s): Lee, H., Dr.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 291-293

Baiting Laws with Stars

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 420-427
Abstract: Nearing the end of any century has always produced some form of stirring among those who are a few mollusks short of a clambake, and nearing the end of a millennium has already prompted a growing array of dire if sometimes amusing predictions from those who are air-in-thecranium advantaged. The moment in which that great mythical time counter, like some cosmic odometer, will flip around to a brand new starting digit may not be the actual beginning of the next millennium, but just to contemplate being surrounded by a date composed of a two followed by three zeroes is a moment for many to ponder and others to dread. Overlooked, of course, is the fact that the concept of assigning artificial numbers to measure a poorly understood dimension is a disputed invention of man. Ignored, of course, is that the concept of a millennium is based upon a thousand revolutions of a rather obscure planet in a rather ordinary solar system in which the interpreters of time are merely a recent pest. To those who place undue significance in these matters of time, the earth still is the center of the universe, and Copernicus remains a heretic.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 3, Page 428
Abstract: The fingerprint pattern shown is classified as a CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORL with an inner tracing. Due to the pointed nature of the ridges in the line OlfJlow, reference to a plain loop pattern is necessary.

Distortion Versus Dissimilarity in Friction Skin Identification

Author(s): Leo, W. F.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 125-129
Abstract: For many years, a premise has been accepted in the field of friction skin identification that in order to have a valid identification, the print in question must be void of any dissimilarities. This information has been documented in a number of the classic texts on friction skin identification [1,2]. However, this information only partially addresses the issue of dissimilarities. The other side of the coin is that dissimilarities will not be found in prints that are the same. This important fact is rarely addressed in literature on fingerprint identification.

Additional Use for MikrosilTM Casting Material

Author(s): Bay, A. L. Jr.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 130-132
Abstract: In the past I have used MikrosilTM for casting toolmark impressions and was generally pleased with the results. Recently I was faced with an investigation involving what is often referred to as plastic or molded fingerprints. Plastic or molded fingerprints are formed when the fingers come into contact with a soft, pliable surface into which a three-dimensional impression of the skin structure is made. Plastic or molded prints may be created on items such as candles, soap, grease, or similar substances that will create an actual mold of the individual ridges and valleys.

Determining the Distance of Gunshot Wounds to the Head by Appearance and Physical Evidence

Author(s): Brunt, M. D.
Type: Case Report
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 133-146
Abstract: Determining the distance between the shot fired and the gunshot wound is critical in a shooting investigation. In many cases, this fact is the only evidence available that can distinguish between a suicide, self defense killing, manslaughter or homicide. If a forensic pathologist is unable to make a determination between a contact wound, close, or distant shot at the time of autopsy, the criminality may be undetermined. The time and effort used in determining the distance of the shot may be grossly inaccurate if known standards are not used. If great care is not exercised and specific standards followed precisely, any attempt to rationalize or surmise the distance of the shot would be inappropriate.

Technical Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study, and Technology (TWGFAST) Guidelines

Author(s): Simons, A. A.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 147-162
Abstract: Proposed TWGFAST guidelines for minimum qualifications for latent print examiner trainees, training to competency, and quality assurance were published for comment in the Journal of Forensic Identification (47 (4), 1997, pp 423-437) and presented at the 82nd International Association for Identification Educational Seminar in Danvers, Massachusetts. A number of comments were submitted to TWGFAST.

Metal Deposition for Latent Print Development

Author(s): Batey, G. W.; Copeland, J.; Donnelly, D. L.; Hill, C. L.; Laturnus, P. L.; McDiarmid, C. H.; Miller, K. J.; Misner, A. H.; Tario, A.; Yamashita, A. B.
Type: AfterWords
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 165-175
Abstract: The deposition of thin layers of metal onto a surface has numerous applications in industry and research. One of the problems that workers in these fields must contend with, and attempt to avoid, is the unwanted appearance of their fingerprint ridge detail on an otherwise pristine metal-coated surface. However, this sensitivity of the technique to casual inadvertent contact is now being exploited to recover latent fingerprints from various crime scene exhibits.

Legends of the Fall

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 242-253
Abstract: The IAI’s history now spans nearly 83 years, well beyond the lifetime of any its founding members and certainly one of the longest that any organization of similar intent can claim. For a professional group to possess such an extensive past is an achievement of considerable merit and this longevity offers a convincing indication that the Association has succeeded in providing at least acceptable benefits to its thousands of participants during these nine decades of existence. As a professional society created to draw strength from a collective assembly regarding matters of mutual concern, the IA1 has certainly fared better than other groups which once flourished and have since faded, and certainly no worse than those others which remain.

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 2, Page 254
Abstract: The plain whorl shown below is interesting in that it contains the letters “ID” in the core area.

Re: “Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence from Crime Scenes”, George Shiro, JFI, 47(5)

Author(s): Lough, P. S.; Hofsass, P. M.
Type: Letters
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

From the Files of the Editor

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: Special Feature
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
Abstract: The following brief report was published in the November, 1943, issue of Finger Print and Identification Magazine, 25(5). This accounting serves as both a subject of obscure fingerprint trivia and an example of judicial consistency.

Keep Smiling, Kid

Author(s): Grieve, D. L.
Type: AfterThoughts
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 112-121
Abstract: Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the world’s most celebrated, albeit fictional, scientific investigator, Sherlock Holmes, devoted the final years of his life to espousing the existence of “faeries” and in trying to find a way to communicate with departed souls. During the course of his fixation with the supernatural in lieu of the logical, Doyle cavorted with a strange collection of psychics, clairvoyants, and other self-proclaimed mystics looking for that fabled avenue which would span from one world to the supposed other. Although mainly interested in liaisons with the presumably transformed identities of relatives and friends, Doyle’s pursuits led him into a strange sphere of fakes and charlatans who had staked their claims along the real estate of unearthly phenomena, including those who claimed to predict what lies ahead. Doyle, with the help of that master illusionist, Harry Houdini, repeatedly exposed everyone encountered as nothing more than tricksters and scalawags, yet both men never lost their belief that some mystical bridge to the unknown could be found.

Determination of the Shape of Fingerprints with a Profilometer

Author(s): Migron, Y.; Mandler, D.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-16
Abstract: The identification of a fingerprint is based on its unique pattern which can be transferred, visualized, and preserved due to the different height between the ridges and valleys. Nevertheless, a close inspection of an untreated fingerprint by an optical microscope (figure 1) reveals that the ridges are non-homogenous and consist of a multitude of independent drops of organic materials lying on top of a continuous stretching thin layer [1,2].

Back to Basics

Author(s): Douthit, J. D.
Type: Back to Basics
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Page 122
Abstract: Shown in the photograph is the sole of an athletic shoe containing a plain loop pattern, which may appear on the finger, palm or sole. Very well illustrated are the basic characteristics used to establish identification, i.e., the dot, ridge ending and bifurcation.

Recovery of Super Glue Over-fumed Fingerprints

Author(s): Geng, Q.
Type: Technical Note
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 17-21
Abstract: Super glue fuming is a widely utilized processing method for fingerprint recovery that is not only convenient but inexpensive to use. However, optimum exposure time to super glue fumes is sometimes difficult to control. When a surface becomes over-fumed, excessive polymerization will occur between the ridges, and this build-up can obscure the overall ridge detail to such an extent that a subsequent identification is not possible.

Preliminary Findings in a Delphi Study of Shoe Wear Marks

Author(s): Vernon, W.; Parry, A.; Potter, M.
Type: Article
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 22-38
Abstract: The value of shoe wear marks as footwear evidence has long been treated with skepticism, although podiatrists are known to interpret the meaning of such marks in clinical diagnosis. Prior to the carrying out of a major study using Delphi methodology, a first round questionnaire was devised to collate experienced podiatrists’ knowledge of characteristic wear marks. The results did not appear to demonstrate the level of consensus expected. Closer examination, however, indicated that there may be agreement about the meaning of specific areas of wear in the overall wear pattern shown. Reasons for the lack of overall consensus are suggested and the need for caution in the use of wear marks is reinforced pending further investigation.

Examination of Transparent Objects Using Coherent Light for the Determination of Prior Integrity

Author(s): Bobev, K.
Type: Article
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
Abstract: Identification of an object that has been broken by examination of the different features found at the points of division as well as on the surface of each particle is a classic method in the forensic sciences. Determination of integrated morphological characteristics on the surfaces of separate particles of transparant objects using coherent light may also serve as the basis for the identification.

The Use of Forensic Anthropology by Robert B. Pickering and David C. Bachman

Author(s): Ubelaker, D. H.
Type: Book Review
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 45-47

Training in Transition: Obstacle or Opportunity?

Author(s): Wertheim, P. A.
Type: Guest Editorial
Published: 1998, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 8-11